The Role of Visual Aids in Corporate Annual Reports in Drawing Wider Audience Internally Mochammad Surjo Koentjoro 1



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4. Literature Reviews
An Annual Report must contain at least the following a) An overview of important financial data b) Stock information (if any) c) Reports from the Board of Directors d) Reports from the Board of Commissioners e) The profile of the issuer or public company f) Analysis and discussion of managements g) The governance of the issuer or public company h) Social and Environmental Responsibility of the issuer or the public company i) Audited Annual Financial Statements, Statements of members of the Board of Directors and Board members Each part of the Annual Report has its own unique characteristics, and would provide certain information about the company. The Financial Review, The Stocks Review, The Management Analysis, and The Financial Report deal with the finances of the company. The Corporate Governance section mainly discusses legal aspects how the company was run by the management. Another part of the Annual Report is the Corporate Social Responsibility section – which is closely related to the Corporate Governance section – explains the company’s commitment in creating the balance between financial profit of the company and a harmony with the environment, be it social or natural environment.
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4.1. Organizational Communication
Communication in the context of an organization or organizational communication is defined as the display and interpretation of messages among communication units that are part of a particular organization. An organization is comprised of communication units in hierarchical relations to each other and functioning in an environment.
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4.2. Types of Communicated Messages
Messages maybe displayed in verbal (involving language) or nonverbal (non-language) forms and by oral, written, or pictorial means. Both verbal and nonverbal displays are central to the functioning of an organizational communication system.
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Table 1. Examples of Types of Message Verbal Nonverbal
1 Oral Interview Speaking softly
2 Written Report Diagram or layout
3 Pictorial Description of a scene Sketch of a scene According to Pace and Faules in the table above, there types of communication. Some of those types are used in an Annual Report. The type of communication most used in an Annual Report is the Verbal-Written by which most of the description and explanation are done. Annual Reports also uses the Verbal-Pictorial. By using photographs to report many activities of the company or activities of elements within the company, the company communicates with its public. The other type of communication that is used is the Non-
Verbal-Written type. Information in the form of data and numbers, can often be better communicated via tables, diagrams, and infographics. Judd and Tim (1991) reported in their research that it has been acknowledged that Annual Reports are the means by which companies communicate with their various publics. An Annual Report provides management with a unique opportunity to achieve several purposes. It can be a vehicle to communicate with customers, shareholders, employees, suppliers, media, and government. In other words, An Annual Report is a media for management to communicate with its stakeholders.
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