The renaissance



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THE RENAISSANCE

I wrote In Praise of Folly in order to criticize the dishonest practices of some members of the Catholic clergy. DESIDERIOUS ERASMUS


This Italian city is known as "the cradle of the Renaissance" and its main language was Tuscan. FLORENCE
Most Renaissance writers journeyed to this empire to study the classics because the Arabs had recovered Greek and Roman literature and restored them. BYZANTINE
I wrote The Book of the Courtier as an etiquette guide for young men of the period. For example, a boy had to be fluent in certain languages and be able to have a sensible dinner conversation. BALDASSAR CASTIGLIONE
This medieval school of thought began losing its popularity during the Renaissance. For example, the clergy used to have intellectual discussions on subjects like how many saints could occupy the head of a pin. SCHOLASTICISM
I am a Tuscan poet who is known as the "father of humanism" because I inspired other humanists with my love of classical text and criticism of the intellect of the times we lived in. PETRACH
This famous Italian family funded and helped the growth of Renaissance art through their generous patronage. MEDICI
My most famous painting is the "Mona Lisa" but I was also a pioneer in science and architecture. My drawings of the human body were the first modern scientific illustrations ever made. LEONARDO DA VINCI
Though I thought myself to be more of a sculptor, I was commissioned by the Pope Julius to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. MICHELANGELO
I am considered the first great painter of the Renaissance period. GIOTTI DE BANDONNE
He wrote Gargantuan and Pent gruel, which were named after legendary medieval giants, known for their strength and appetites. FRANCOIS REBELIEUS

These Renaissance writers and/or humanists were concerned with wisdom, virtue and morality. CIVIC HUMANISTS


He was commissioned by the Pope to sell indulgences in order to raise money for the papacy, Albert of Hohenzollern and the Fuggers. FATHER TETZEL
The most influential classical Roman scholar of the Renaissance. His works were praised by Renaissance fathers such as Petrarch. CICERO
I wrote The Prince based on Caesarea Borgia, son of Pope Alexander II. In it I explained what the ideal leader had to be like in order to stay in power. MACHIAVELLI
In this book, Thomas More described a perfect society in which people lived in harmony. He wrote it because of the unjust punishments for crimes and the religious persecutions of the time. He therefore realized his dream of a better society in this book. UTOPIA
Cervantes wrote this amusing but serious book about a knight who does not realize that times have changed and goes about saving "damsels in distress" and the like. It was actually about the inability of the nobility to let go of the medieval past. DON QUIXOTE
These people believed in reviving classical teaching and text. They also abandoned scholasticism in favor of Latin, grammar, logic, rhetoric and metaphysics. Their main goal was to revive the glory of the classic age. HUMANISM
This is the belief that there is an ideal form of every object but it exists in another plane. It was introduced by Plato (hence the name) and people who believed in it reflected this philosophy by trying to reproduce the beauty of the soul through art. NEO-PLATISM
He is known as the "father of modern skepticism." He stated that God was unknowable, and that people needed to realize that perfection was unattainable. He was also disturbed by some of the scientific discoveries of the time. MICAHEL DE MONTAIGNE

THE REFORMATION

I believe in predestination and started a religious community with very strict laws in Geneva. JOHN CALVIN


This document ended any wars of religion in early modern Europe and tried to restore international stability and diplomatic process in Europe by eliminating religion division as cause of conflict. TREATY OF WESTPHALIA
I believed in salvation by faith alone, that scripture was the source of the creed. MARTIN LUTHER
They believed that any reason or problem that occurred with the state should be put ahead any religious principles. POLITIQUES
This agreement stated that the religion of the ruler is the religion of the state. PEACE OF AUGSBURG
This meeting was called to help reform the Catholic Church, define Church doctrine, and help the Church regain its power. COUNCIL OF TRENT
I issued the Edict of Nantes and tried to restore stability back in France. HENRY NUMBER FOUR
He was one of Ferdinand If’s generals who drove the Protestant forces to Hungry in 1625. WALLENSTEIN
I believed in iconoclasm and later died in the Battle of Kael carrying a sword and a Bible. ZWINGLI
They are known as the "Soldiers of Christ" and established the Society of Jesus. JESUITS
This document was also known as the "Disputations on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences" where the sale of indulgences and other church abuses were criticized. NINETY-FIVE THESES
This war started because of the dissatisfaction between the Catholics and Protestants with the Peace of Augsburg. It was the last war fought over religion. THE THIRY YEARS WAR
This document required the entire king's subject to take an oath of loyalty to the king as head of the Church of England. ACT OF SUPREMACY
This is a view that the Church is a corporation of cardinals that can override papal authority. CONCILIARISM
To England he was known as the "Defender of the Faith", soon after he found the Anglican Church. HENRY NUMBER SEVEN
I was an absolute ruler and I made France bankrupt with building Versailles and military funding. LOUIS FOURTEEN
This event killed many of the Huguenots in France. ST. BERTHOLOMEW’S DAY MASSACRE
I wanted to make France the strongest country in Europe and realized that to do this I needed to decrease power of the Huguenots and nobles. CARDINAL RICHELIEU
This council was summoned by Charles V, condemned Luther's beliefs, and forbade Luther from preaching and declared him a heretic. EDICT OF WORMS (1521)
This document gave the Huguenots the right to practice their religion in their own certain towns. EDICT OF NANTES

THE COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION

The Commercial Revolution set the stage for this future era of innovation and prosperity. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


The economy at this time was one that the monetary wealth of a nation was controlled by the strict government regulation of the entire national economy. This was done through policies designed to secure an accumulation of bullion, a favorable balance of trade, the development of agriculture and manufactures, and the establishment of foreign trading monopolies. MERCANTILISM
The accumulation of precious metals by the government. BULLIONISM

This European country became the leader in trade and commerce during the Commercial Revolution. DUTCH REPUBLIC


An economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market CAPITALISM
A company or association consisting of individuals organized to conduct a business for gain and having a share stock of capital represented by shares owned individually by the members and transferable without the consent of the group JOINT STOCK COMPANY
One who organizes and assumes the risk of a business or enterprise. ENTREPRENEUR
This city established the first Modern European bank in 1609. AMSTERDAM
A financial scheme in 18th-century France that a 1716 law established the Banquet General, a bank with the authority to issue notes. A year later it established the Companies d'Occident ("Company of the West") and obtained for it exclusive privileges to develop the vast French territories in North America. It triggered a speculative frenzy and ended in financial collapse. MISSISSIPPI BUBBLE
An inflationary period at the end of the 16c caused by the influx of gold bullion and silver during the Commercial Revolution. It resulted in a transfer of bullion from Spain to the Far East. PRICE REVOLUTION
The placement of tariffs on imported and exported goods to protect British industry and commerce against foreign competition in 1651. NAVIGATION ACTS
Negotiated by the Pope and agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly claimed land in the New World. It re-established the line 370 leagues (1,770 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands. TREATY OF TORDISILLAS
This company was formed in 1711 by Robert Harley, who needed allies to carry through the peace negotiations to end the War of the Spanish Succession. In the new "company", which was given a monopoly of British trade with the islands of the South Seas and South America. SOUTH SEA BUBBLE

He was the first European explorer to cross the Atlantic and land in Hispaniola. This initiated a great ecological exchange between the Americas and Europe. CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS


In colonial Spanish America, the legal system by which the Spanish crown attempted to define the status of the Indian population in its American colonies. It was based upon the practice of exacting tribute from Muslims and Jews during the Reconquista ("Reconquest") of Muslim Spain. ECOMEINDA SYSTEM
We were German merchants who created a banking dynasty which dominated European business during the 15th and 16th centuries. THE FUGGER FAMILY
A maritime insurance association in London that formed the first modern European insurance company in 1688. LLYOD’S OF LONDON
As a result of this new economy, a place where security trading was conducted in an organized system at the end of the 17c. AMSTERDAM BOURSE
Any of a number of commercial enterprises formed in Western Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries to further trade with the East Indies. EAST INDIA COMPANY

EARLY MONARCHIES

By breaking ties with Rome in the 1530s and establishing my own church, I greatly extended my power and possessions. HENRY NO. 8


An extremely unpopular tax on ports, which the crown with dubious logic extended to inland towns as well, and generated resistance during the hard times of the 1590s. SHIP MONEY
This bill, passed before Queen Elizabeth's reign, required all officials, clergy, and candidates for university degrees to take an oath acknowledging the queen as "governor" of the English Church. ACT OF SUPREMACY
This Russian ruler was know for his stature and was persistent in westernization and traveled Europe to gain ideas and knowledge. PETER THE GREAT
After the long War of the Roses, I became the first Tudor monarch in 1485. HENRY NO. 7
This agreement ended the war between the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, and the Protestant German states. It also established cuius regio, eius religio, the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the land. PEACE OF AUGSBURG
I surprisingly joined the Protestant forces, England and the Dutch Republic, instead of the Catholic forces during the Thirty Years' War. I also defied my mother, Marie de Medici, and laid the foundations for absolute monarchical rule in France. LOUIS 13
I became queen of England in 1558. I managed to successfully maintain peace among the different religious sects in my country, while increasing my country's prestige and power. QUEEN ELIZABETH
In 1598, King Henry IV of France passed this which established Catholicism as the official religion but also granted the nation's 2 million Huguenots some spiritual freedom and allowed them to establish their own towns. EDICT OF NANTES
I was only 5 at the time I became king, making my reign the longest in Europe. I led France through what some call her modern Golden Age and proudly proclaimed that "I am the state." LOUIS 14
I led the Catholic League and was briefly married to "Bloody Mary." I built El Escorial and annexed Portugal. KING PHILLIP 2
I was the first czar of the longest ruling family in Russia, I claimed the throne in 1613. MICHAEL ROMANOV
As Queen of the Scots, I was ousted by Protestant nobles and later held captive and finally killed by Queen Elizabeth I. MARY STUART
Nicknamed "the Great Elector," I waged war and acquired much territory. I also established a central administrational bureaucracy and a modern civil service in Prussia. FREDERICK WILLIAM
I said, "Paris is well worth a Mass" in reference to my conversion to Catholicism in order to receive the French throne. HENRY OF NAVARRE

Nicknamed "Bloody Mary," I tried to reinstate Catholicism in England after my brother Edward's death. MARY TUDOR


This Dutch prince became King of England in 1688. WILLIAM OF ORANGE
I prompted Pope Paul III to convene the Council of Trent in 1545 to assess the condition of the Catholic Church and to define its doctrines. CHARLES NO. 5
As the first minister of the French crown, I helped establish France as a world power. CARDINAL RICHELIEU
I was an idealistic and iron-willed man who took the title of Lord Protector and ruled England as a military dictatorship. OLIVER CROMWELL
I was nicknamed "the Terrible" for torturing many of my people and institutionalizing feudalism in Russia. IVAN NO. 4

ABSOLUTISM

This was created in 1648 when Oliver Cromwell defeated the Scots at the Battle of Preston and helped purge the Presbyterians from Parliament. They were also responsible for voting to behead Kind Charles I for treason. RUMP PARLIAMENT


The middle class, the merchants, the townsmen in the major cities, and a small segment of the nobility who supported Parliament in the English Civil War. ROUNDHEADS
I was a German who succeeded to the throne after the assassination of my husband, Czar Peter III, was a patron of many of the French philosophes and considered myself an enlightened despot. CATHERINE THE GREAT
The slaughter of Huguenot leaders in Paris led by a Catholic mob. ST. BARTHOLOMEW’S DAY MASSACRE
This four-year revolt in France against the king was led by nobles who sought to limit the powers of the monarch. FRONDE
The old nobility in France during the 17c, they were also referred to as the noblesse d'épeé ANCIEN RICHE
This important document followed the Magna Carta and the Petition of Rights in reinforcing basic civil liberties guaranteed by the British government. BILL OF RIGHTS OF 1688 – 1689
Referred to as "the dagger pointing at the heart of England." SPANISH NETHERLANDS
Created in 1563, they were regulations on how the church and state worked together in England. They were vague enough to accommodate most of the religious in England except Puritanism. THIRTY NINE ARTICLES
I made Prussia a great power in Europe and called myself the "first servant of the state." FRED THE GREAT
A ruler who tried to advance society by fostering education, aiding the economy, and promoting social justice, but in reality was initiating these reforms to create a more efficient and manageable state. ENLIGHTENED DESPOT
I gained vast territory for Russia to the Baltic Sea in the north, to the Black Sea in he south, and to the Far East. Probably my greatest contribution was the Westernization of Russia. PETER THE GREAT
During the English civil war the Anglican clergy and the majority of the nobles who supported the king were referred to by this name. CAVALEIRS
My wife Mary and I peacefully overtook the English throne from James II during the Glorious Revolution. WILLIAM OF ORANGE
One of the most significant acts of Henry IV's reign, it ended a bitter civil war by guaranteeing religious freedom for the Huguenots. EDICT OF NANTES
The English royal family in the 16c and 17c who was said to have "brought England into the modern world." TUDORS
As Puritan leader of Parliament, I led the New Model Army of Puritans against the Cavaliers. OLIVER CROMWELL

This act radically changed Britain's laws regarding their "judicial system" and treatment of prisoners, including providing for a speedy trial. HABEUS CORPUS ACT


I argued that while religion was important, the state is above everything, and that religion is a mere instrument to promote the policies of the state. CARDINAL RICHELIEU
I was called "the wisest fool in Christendom" for my inability to learn from the mistakes of my ancestors in relation to divine right monarchy. KING JAMES THE FIRST

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

This philosophy presented by Ptolemy claimed that the earth is the center of the solar system and that the sun and other planets orbit around it. GEOCENTRISM


In Galileo's Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World this philosophy was introduced which states that corresponding causes produce corresponding affects throughout the universe. DOCTRINE OF UNIFORMITY
An Italian monk who concluded that the universe was infinite size and that the Earth, sun, and planets were all moving constantly within it. GIORDANO BRUNO
He perfected the "spy glass" which enabled him to study the stars and cosmos beyond what the "naked eye" could see. He was also able to conclude that the sun rotated by observing the movement of sunspots on its surface. GALILIEO
I solved the question of how blood circulates by theorizing that the heart operates like a mechanical pump. WILLIAM HARVEY
This English philosopher introduced an inductive method of discovering the truths of the universe through observation and experimentation to conclusions and generalizations. SIR FRANCIS BACON
This astronomer theorized that the moon and sun orbited the Earth and the remaining planets orbited the sun. TYCHO BRAHE

Descartes' way of understanding the universe was summed up in this belief, which states that a conclusion can be deduced by a set of premises, and not from scientific observation. DEDUCTIVE RESONING


The belief that God is a kind of cosmic clockmaker who created a perfect universe in which he does not intervene. DEISM
A philosophy developed by John Locke which states that all knowledge of matters of fact is based on, or derived from, experience. EMPIRICISM
One of Newton's greatest accomplishments was proving this theory, in which forces of attraction and repulsion exist between objects. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
This famous mathematician developed the science of probability. BLAISE PASCAL
Descartes' belief that all existence was divided into the spiritual and material. CARTESIAN DUALISM
He rejected Galen's view on human blood in his work On the Fabric of the Human Body. ANDREIS VASIELUIS
I think therefore I am. DESCARTES
Kepler came up with the laws of planetary motion, in which he states that the planets that orbit the sun follow this path. ELLIPTICAL
I developed the theory of two types of blood, one type that is bright red and the other that is dark red. GALEN
I defended Aristotle's theory of the earth being surrounded by numerous clear spheres. PTOLEMY
Many Catholic and Protestant theologians viewed my heliocentric world system as degrading towards mankind. COPERNICUS
This belief emphasizes that human reason can uncover the mysteries and laws of the universe. It was the dominant philosophy during the Scientific Revolution. RATIONALISM

AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT

In this writing, Rousseau imagined a social reform in which the individual surrenders his or her natural rights to the general will in order to find order and security in society. THE SOCIAL CONTRACT


Influenced by Montesquieu's "Spirit of Laws" this 18c ruler established the Charter of Nobility of 1785 which gave nobility security of their property, the right to hold serfs and the immunity from arrest. CATHERINE THE GREAT
I based my writing on the belief that human nature, which was originally good was corrupted by society. ROUSSEAU
This new artistic style of the 18c used elements drawn from nature such as birds and flowers to replace religious objects in art. ROCOCO
According to this philosophe, religious toleration was a primary social condition for the virtuous life. VOLTAIRE
I believed that economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system. I felt that the economy should be based on the forces of supply and demand. ADAM SMITH
They believed that the primary role of government was to protect the property and to permit its owners to use it freely. They particularly felt economic production depended on sound agriculture. PHYSIOCRAT
I wrote "Common Sense" in 1776, which was an appeal for American Independence based on Enlightenment principles THOMAS PAINE
Most prevalent in Paris, people came in these private homes for sociability and discussion run by upper-class women. SALONS
A brilliant composer of the 18c who composed "Fur Elise" and Moonlight Sonata" BEETHOVEN
His graphic works portrayed the everyday life in London. His most famous sketch "Gin Lane" portrayed the effects of alcohol on the poor in 18c England. HOGARTH

In "On Crime and Punishment", I stated that we are innocent until convicted, that the punishment should fit the crime. CAESARE BECCARIA


The belief that a community should unite to look for the good of the whole, which was adopted by the French National Assembly in 1789 in the creation of the "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen." GENERAL WILL
I served as the principal editor of the 38 volume encyclopedia. DIDEROT
I based my beliefs on Locke's philosophy of natural law, to justify the colonies break with Britain.THOMAS JEFFERSON
This 18c philosopher said, "Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own intelligence." This became the motto of the Enlightenment. IMMANUEL KANT
A popular belief among philosophers of the Enlightenment in which they believed that God set the world in motion according to his laws of nature and left knowledge and progress to the action of man. DEISM
I wrote the "Spirit of Laws" in 1748 which applied the principles of observation, experimentation, and analysis. MONTY
After referred to as the "informal international community of philosophes." These publications included the work of such philosophes as Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Diderot. THE REPUBLIC OF LETTERS
A British philosopher, whose ideas on natural law was adopted to create the Declaration of Independence. JOHN LOCKE

REVOLUTIONARY FRANCE

What was the Estates General? SEPERATION OF CLASSES IN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY FRANCE


July 14, 1789. BASTILLE DAY
The rumors that circulated in the summer of 1789 that alarmed the general public (especially the peasantry) in France THE GREAT FEAR
This Finance Minister who was repeatedly dismissed by King Louis XVI NECKER
This structure represented the Old Regime to the citizens of Paris. BASTILLE
This governing body wanted a constitutional monarchy in France. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
This legislative body ruled France during the First French Republic. LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
This social class supported Robespierre and the Jacobins. SANS- CULOTTES
The conservative response to the French Revolution? THERMIDOREON REACTION
The ideals established during the French Revolution? LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY
They comprised the First Estate? CLERGY
On June 20, 1789 the Third Estate took this pledge that they would remain assembled until a constitution had been written. TENNIS COURT OATH
This legal document attempted to give the citizens of France more liberty, imitating the American Declaration of Independence? DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN
The purpose of the August 4th Laws. ABOLISH SLAVERY
I responded to a warning to curb my spending in light of the poverty of the peasants of France with the phrase: "Let them eat cake!" MARIE ANTOINETTE
This piece of legislation made those who pledged swear allegiance to the state above all other political, religious, or social obligations. CIVIL CONSTITUTION OF THE CLERGY
The period of time in which the guillotine was used to execute many anti-revolutionaries in France REIGN OF TERROR


THE NAPOLEONIC ERA

The government established after the overthrow of the Directory to bring political satiability and strengthen Napoleon’s executive power. CONSULATE


Former slave whom aided in the independence of Haiti from the French. TOUSSAINT L’OUVERTURE
Napoleon mobilized his army against the English and Prussians after his return from Elba. The Prussian army comes to the aid of the English and defeat Napoleon’s army. WATERLOO
Napoleon’s escape from Elba back to France where he is reunited with his old army is marches through southern France. 100 DAYS
State secondary schools, intended to give its students technical training and to produce loyal military officers and government officials from the graduates. LYCEES
The foreign minister of Austria who helped to manage and control the agreement made by European nations in the Congress of Vienna. He was a conservative and believed in absolutism. METTERNICH
Leader of the English fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar, he died in the battle but the success of his fleet was one of history’s most decisive victories. NELSON HORATIO
Napoleon’s attempt to march across Spain in order to conquer Portugal. Napoleon attempts to secure French control over Spain and is meeting with opposition by Spanish guerrillas. PENNINSULAR WAR
Composed of 16 German states that accepted French presence in southern Germany, and promised to support Napoleon if war broke out. It also ended the Holy Roman Empire. CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE
This was the result of Napoleon’s growing frustrations with the inefficiency of the Continental system and his growing interests in the Mediterranean region. 1812 INVASION OF RUSSIA
The island where Napoleon was exiled to after his first defeat as emperor in France. ELBA
This finalized the exile of Napoleon to a Mediterranean island off the coast of Italy where Napoleon would be emperor of Elba alone. TREATY OF FOUNTAINBLEU
I depicted the cruelty of the French in their attacks on Spanish citizens in my paintings. GOYA
The establishment of a French blockade of English ships from docking in European ports, therefore, crippling English trade. CONTINENTAL SYSTEM
An agreement between Napoleon and the Papacy which declared Catholicism “the religion of the majority of the French citizens.” CONCORDAT OF 1801
A series of laws to help supervise the rights of other religions in France besides Catholicism. ORGANIC ARTICLES
Absolute rulers who imposed reforms that would benefit their subjects as well as themselves. ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS

British victory in 1805 which destroyed Napoleon’s plan to invade England and secured Britain’s dominance over naval power during the 19th century. BATTLE OF TRALFAGAR


The French legal system enacted in 1804 containing the details for French civil, commercial, and criminal war. NAPOLEONIC CODE
An executive group consisting of talented and meritorious people from the French population, for their service to the nation. LEGION OF HONOR
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Also known as domestic industry, this was the system in which merchant-manufacturers sought labor in the counrty side to produce goods. This was partially done to compete with the guilds. THE PUTTING OUT SYSTEM
In the trade guilds that were popular at the beginning of the industrial Revolution, this was the beginning level, before craftsman and master.JOURNEYMAN
In France, this encouraged business interests, kept taxes low, and sometimes maintained high tariffs that protected special interests, therefore not following the trend of laissez faire government. THE JULY MONARCHY
English philosopher Herbert Spencer popularized this belief that theory of "survival of the fittest" should be applied to the marketplace and that concentration of wealth in the hands of the "fit" would benefit the human race. SOCIAL DARWINISM
The first truly significant change in the speed of communication came with the first workable telegraph which was succesfully demonstrated in 1844. It was invented by this man. SAMUEL F.B MORSE
These forbid the formation of trade unions and worker's strikes in Britain. They were repealed by Parliament in 1824. THE COMBINATION ACTS
This political theory was a backlash to laissez faire capitalism. In it the government owns and operates the major means of production and distribution, determines the needs of the people, and plans the economy. SOCIALISM
This man was a factory owner that believed a person's character was formed by the effects of their environment. As a result, he refused to mistreat his employees like many of his colleagues. He published "The Formation of Character" and "A New View of Society" and his cooperative philosophy influenced several worker's movements and played an important role in establishing the Grand National Conslidated Trade Union in 1834. ROBERT OWEN
This, also known as the German Customs Union, removed many of the tariff barriers in the German states and made trade cheaper and easier. ZOVLLEREIN
This was the largest industrial city in all of Britain and the center of cotton manufacturing. One onserver once called it "The enterance to hell realized" and Elizabeth Gaskell wrote a book exposing the harsh reality of industrial life here. MANCHESTER
The passage of this marked a turning point in British history by increasing the number of voters, redrawing election zones and eliminating rotten boroughs. REFORM BILL OF 1832
This man published "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation" in 1817. In it, he justified low pay and proposed the "iron law of wages," which said that if wages were left to the laws of supply and demand, they would fall to near subsistence level. DAVID RICARDO
In 1815, the English Parliament established this to study factory conditions. They thoroughly interviewed workers to discover the trueevents of their work day. STADLER COMISSION
A new theory of government concerning economics and trade. It encouraged private ownership of property, free enterprise, competition, and minimal government interferance in business. LAISSEZ FAIRE CAPITALISM
In his novel, Hard Times, this man wrote of the dangerous and polluted environment of factories and of the discouraged, exhausted workers that were characteristic of this time in a fictional town called Cokeville. CHARLES DICKENS
A movement of British workers that attempted to stop the Industrial Revolution through a campaign of destroying factory machines, which they blamed for unemployment. THE LUDDITES
Starting in the sixteenth century, Parliament passed acts that transformed open fields or communally owned land into privately owned, fenced-in fields that could be more intensely and profitably farmed by individual owners. This was known as ?? ENCLOSURE
This limited labor by young children in Britain to an eight hour work day. 1833 FACTORY ACT
This man built a rifle with interchangeable parts, but he is most famous for building the cotton gin. ELI WHITNEY
This machine was invented around 1764 by James Hargreaves. It wound several spools of thread around a spindle and allowed workers to work with p to 80 spindles at a time. SPINNING JENNY
The term used to describe the rapid growth of cities as a large percentage of the population moved from the country to the city URBANIZATION
This Scott, who originally made musical instruments, also was responsible for perhaps the most significant invention of the Industrial Revolution - the steam engine. THOMAS NEWCOMEN
The Three r’s
I was known as the "heart" of the struggle to unify the Italian states into one nation and I was also the founder of a society of young men called "Young Italy." MAZZINI
I made the close connection between the development of German nationalism and the reverence for a strong state that characterized some German liberal thought. HEGEL
Five decrees passed in 19c France that dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies, muzzled the press and increased the amount of political power in the hands of the wealthiest property holders. JULY ORDINANCES
Uprising in Russia in 1825 that was squashed by Tsar Nicholas I and caused him to increase his control over the police and the education system. DECEMBRIST REVOLT
I was one of the key players at the Congress of Vienna, who through some behind the scenes negotiations, made sure that France became a major participant at this meeting. LORD TALLEYRAND
A series of repressive measures unanimously accepted by the Diet of the German Confederation in 1819, which severely limited the press and dissolved all student fraternities. CARLSBAD DECREES
The process initiated during the rule of Tsar Nicholas I that reinforced the motto, "orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationalism," by forcing Russian culture and religion on his non-Russian subjects. RUSSIFICATION
This redistributed the voting in England by getting rid of "pocket" and "rotten" boroughs and in turn, giving more votes to industrial towns and to the middle class. REFORM BILL OF 1832
Passed by Louis XVIII, it recognized equality before the law, accepted the Napoleanic Code, granted freedom of the press and established The Chamber of Deputies and The Chamber of Peers. CHARTER OF 1814
I was the Russian Tsar who obtained the West of Poland in the settlement of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and used it as a "buffer zone" to the West. ALEXANDER 1
A secret society of Italian Revolutionaries literally called "charcoal-burners" who fought against the monarch placed on the throne by the Austrians. CARBONARI
Repressive legislature passed in response to the revolutionary stirrings in 19c Europe that banned demonstrations, suspended the writ of habeas corpus and restricted the press. SIX ACTS
A successful 19c rebellion against the French monarchy over the discontent of the people towards Charles X, who failed to uphold the principles promulgated in the Charter of 1814. THE REVOLUTION OF 1830
This 19c movement of mostly industrial workers, fought for universal manhood suffrage, annual elections, secret ballots and salaries for members of Parliament. CHARTISM
I was the British writer who argued that monarchical stability and noble privilege were inseparable and were necessary components of a strong society. EDMOND BURKE
The most fanatical enemies of the Revolution, who launched the "White Terror" against the supporters of Napoleon. ULTRA-ROYALISTS
Passed in 1815 and 1828 and repealed in 1846, they placed a sliding tariff on imported wheat, which in turn, hurt the interests of businessmen and caused much unrest in 19c England. CORN LAWS
An agreement between five major countries, who would meet annually, in order to preserve the balance of power in 19c Europe and to join together to put down revolutionary movements that upset this balance. CONCERT OF EUROPE
I was the British Foreign Minister at the Congress of Vienna. I despised people like Robespierre and Napoleon who disrupted the balance of power in Europe. LORD CASTLEREIGH
I was the chief diplomat at the Congress of Vienna who repressed the liberal and nationalist feelings in my own country of Austria. METTERNIECH

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