The Renaissance in Italy (Ch. 13-1)

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Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, and Scientific Revolution

A Study Guide

The Renaissance in Italy (Ch. 13-1)
Terms, People, and Places







Leonardo da Vinci



Niccolo Machiavelli


  • General definition of the Renaissance

    • What and when

  • Why did it start when and where it did?

    • Why was Italy so much wealthier than other areas of Europe?

    • How did the Black Plague determine that Italy would be the first area to recover?

    • What was the impact of the Roman ruins of the start of the main question above?

    • How did the fall of Constantinople influence the beginning of the Renaissance?

  • The major ides of the Italian Renaissance

The Renaissance in the North (13-2)
Terms, People, and Places

Johann Gutenberg


Albrecht Durer



Sir Thomas More


William Shakespeare


  • What were the impacts of the printing press?

  • How was the Northern Renaissance different than the Italian one?

    • Conditions in Northern Europe compared to Italy

    • The impact of Christianity

    • The different focus of Northern Humanists

      • Social reform

      • How did this lay the foundations for the Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation (13-3 and 13-4)
Terms, People, and Places


Martin Luther

John Calvin




95 Theses

Peace of Augsburg


Henry VIII


Ignatius of Loyala


  • General Definition

  • Why did it start when and where it did?

    • Events that led to a decline in people’s absolute respect for the Church

    • How did the recovery of Europe’s economy contribute to the start of the Reformation?

    • How role did taxes and church offerings play in the beginning of the Reformation?

    • In what ways did the ideas of Northern Humanism contribute to the start of the Protestant Reformation?

    • What was the role of the Gutenberg printing press in the Reformation?

  • What were the basic differences between Martin Luther’s understanding of Christianity and the Catholic Church’s?

    • What were the implications of these differences for politics in Europe?

    • How could these differences be seen as the beginning of the ideas of the American Constitution?

  • What were the ideas of John Calvin?

  • What were the ideas of the Anabaptists?

  • Under what circumstances was the Anglican Church (the Church of England) founded?

  • What was the Church’s reaction to the Protestant Reformation?

    • What was the purpose of the Council of Trent?

    • What were the ideas of the Jesuits?

Scientific Revolution(13-5)
Terms, People and Places

Nicolaus Copernicus

Heliocentric Theory

Johannes Kepler

Galileo Galilei

Francis Bacon

Rene Descartes

Scientific method

Isaac Newton


  • How did the new discoveries of this age change the way people looked at the universe?

  • What was the Church’s reaction to the discoveries of Galileo? Why?

  • How did the ideas of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes contribute to the advance of scientific investigation?


  • Think about how Europeans organized their world (politically and religiously) before this time period.

  • Think about how Europeans viewed themselves and their relationship to the universe and in life before this time period.

  • Now think about the same things only for after these three great movements...

    • How is it different?

    • How did it happen?

    • How are we inheritors of this change?

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