The Renaissance and the Age of Exploration, 1450-1520

Chapter 12 Chapter 13

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Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Cont.

Chapter 15 pp. (502-19)




Roman Law Code

Magna Carta

The Great Famine

Black Death


Hundred Years’ War

Joan of Arc

House of Commons

Babylonian Captivity

Great Schism

Conciliar Movement

Jan Hus

John Wyclif


Fur-collar crime


English Peasants Revolt of 1381


Christine de Pisan


Jacob Burckhardt’s Theory

Italian city-states

  • Florence

  • Papal States

  • Venice

  • Naples


Characteristics of Italian Renaissance

Lorenzo Valla



Da Vinci



Castiglione’s The Courtier

Machiavelli’s The Prince

Johan Gutenberg

Francisco Petrarch


Women and the Renaissance

  • Isabella d’Este

  • Laura Cereta

Northern Renaissance

Christian Humanism

Thomas More’s Utopia

Desiderius Erasmus

Francois Rabelais

Jan Van Eyck

New Monarchs

  • Charles VII (France)

  • Louis XI (France)

  • Henry VII (England)

  • Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain


War of the Roses

Star Chamber



Prince Henry the Navigator

Technological stimuli for exploration

  • Caravel

  • Portoloni

  • Weaponry

Motives for exploration

  • Spice trade

Christopher Columbus

Ferdinand Magellan

Bartholomew Diaz

Hernan Cortez

Francisco Pizarro

Joint stock company


Columbian Exchange

Great European Witch Hunt

Bartolome de las Casas

Asiento system



These topics should be a guide as you read through the textbook chapters. Keep your focus on these topics as you create your outlines and disregard information from the textbook chapters unrelated to these topics.

I. Later Middle Ages* (covered in Ch. 12)

Note: The AP Exam does not test on information before 1450 but an understanding of these pre-1450 topics is critical to understanding the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation.

A. Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453)*

B. Black Death (1347)*

C. Peasant revolts*

D. Vernacular literature*

E. Crisis in the Catholic Church*

F. Life in the later Middle Ages*
II. The Renaissance (cover in Ch. 13)

Note: The number of significant Renaissance artists and writers is great. Artists like Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli, Holbein, and Dürer are only a small sample of possible examples. You are encouraged to select several major artists and their works and demonstrate how these works reflect Renaissance ideals and society.

A. Contrast with the later Middle Ages

B. Italian Renaissance

1. Rise of the Italian city-states: Florence and selected other city-states

2. Decline of the Italian city-states

3. Machiavelli, The Prince (1513)

C. Italian humanism: revival of Classical learning and civic humanism (e.g., Boccaccio,

Castiglione, Mirandola)

D. Northern Renaissance: Christian humanism (e.g., Erasmus and Sir Thomas More)

E. Women in the Renaissance

F. Italian Renaissance art

1. Architecture

2. Sculpture

3. Painting

4. Quattrocento in Florence

5. High Renaissance in Rome: sixteenth century (cinquecento)

6. Patronage and the arts

G. Northern Renaissance

1. Art in the Low Countries

2. Writers (e.g., Rabelais, Cervantes, Shakespeare)

3. Patronage and the arts

III. New Monarchs (covered in Ch. 13)

A. Characteristics and methods

B. France

C. England

D. Spain

1. Ferdinand of Aragon (1479–1516) and

Isabella of Castile (1474–1504)

2. Hapsburg Empire

IV. Age of Exploration (covered in Ch. 15)

Note: It is not necessary for students to master an exhaustive list of explorers and technologies. For a thematic essay question on exploration, for example, students would be expected to analyze the significance of a few major explorers (e.g., Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Magellan) and technological developments. The multiple-choice section of the AP Exam does not emphasize minute details regarding exploration.

A. Advances in learning

B. Advances in technology

C. Portuguese exploration

D. Spanish exploration

E. “Old Imperialism”

1. Portuguese outposts in Africa, India, and Asia

2. Spain and Portugal in the New World

3. Dutch East Indies

4. French colonies in North America

5. English colonies in North America
V. Commercial Revolution (covered in Ch. 15 & 16)

A. Causes

B. Impact

1. “Price Revolution”

2. Rise in capitalism

3. New industries: cloth production, mining, printing, shipbuilding, cannons and muskets

4. New consumer goods: sugar, tea, rice, tobacco, cocoa

5. Mercantilism

6. Enclosure movement in England

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