These topics should be a guide as you read through the textbook chapters. Keep your focus on these topics as you create your outlines and disregard information from the textbook chapters unrelated to these topics.
I. Later Middle Ages* (covered in Ch. 12)
Note: The AP Exam does not test on information before 1450 but an understanding of these pre-1450 topics is critical to understanding the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation.
A. Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453)*
B. Black Death (1347)*
C. Peasant revolts*
D. Vernacular literature*
E. Crisis in the Catholic Church*
F. Life in the later Middle Ages*
II. The Renaissance (cover in Ch. 13)
Note: The number of significant Renaissance artists and writers is great. Artists like Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli, Holbein, and Dürer are only a small sample of possible examples. You are encouraged to select several major artists and their works and demonstrate how these works reflect Renaissance ideals and society.
A. Contrast with the later Middle Ages
B. Italian Renaissance
1. Rise of the Italian city-states: Florence and selected other city-states
Note: It is not necessary for students to master an exhaustive list of explorers and technologies. For a thematic essay question on exploration, for example, students would be expected to analyze the significance of a few major explorers (e.g., Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Magellan) and technological developments. The multiple-choice section of the AP Exam does not emphasize minute details regarding exploration.