The reformation

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The spirit of inquiry of the ____________________ and knowledge of widespread corruption in the _____________________ led to new challenges of the Pope’s authority. People were entering the clergy for _______________ rather than faith. Some clergy (church officials) were unable to do a good job. Many had secret ________________ and ____________________. The papacy lost ________________ influence as the Church hierarchy acted more like ________________________ than ______________________.

  1. Erasmus (Dutch) – promoted Christian humanism (vocabulary). What did he call for?

  2. Thomas More (English) – Was another Christian humanist who wanted Church reform. What did he oppose?

  1. Martin Luther (1483-1546) was a German monk and Bible scholar. What did he oppose?

  1. What is an indulgence?

  1. Why did the Church sell them?

  1. Martin Luther posted Ninety-Five Theses on the door of his church. What was the purpose of these statements?

  1. Because Martin Luther thought everyone should study and read the Bible for themselves, he translated it into this language.

  1. List Martin Luther’s main beliefs:

  1. Describe Martin Luther’s fight with the Church.

  1. Do you think that Martin Luther’s original intent was to start a whole new church? Why?

  1. Complete the following comparison chart:

Beliefs of The Lutheran Church

Beliefs of The Catholic Church









  1. Why did Martin Luther’s ideas spread so quickly?

  1. Another important reformer that followed Martin Luther was John Calvin (1509-1564). He started a new Protestant Church in Geneva, Switzerland. He taught a belief in “predestination”. What were some of the other things his church believed in? (list at least 3)

  1. The Catholic Church did not agree with what Martin Luther was doing. They held a meeting called the Council of Trent in order to discuss what the Catholic Church was about and to redefine its beliefs. What was the outcome of the Council of Trent?

  1. The Catholic Church also established the Inquisition. What was the Inquisition?

  1. Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits in 1534. Who were the Jesuits and what was their purpose?

  1. List three ways the Reformation impacted political developments.

  1. Describe three ways the Reformation impacted art.

  1. What were two economic changes brought on by the Reformation?

  1. Do you think the Protestant Reformation would have happened without Martin Luther? Explain your answer.

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