The Reformation & Spread of Protestantism

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The Reformation & Spread of Protestantism

Political instability in the Holy Roman Empire allowed Lutheranism the first Protestant faith, to spread. The Peace of Augsburg formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany.
Name: ____________________________________ Date: _________________________ Block: _____

Christian Humanism

  1. Renaissance movement North focused on reforming the _________________ Church.

  2. ___________ believed in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves.

  3. Humanists believed that to change society, they 1st had to change as __________ beings.

  4. Desiderius Erasmus believed ____________________ should show people how to live good lives on a daily basis, not just beliefs on how to be saved.

  5. Focus on inward religious feelings, external forms during _______________ Ages (pilgrimages, fasts, relics) not important.


  1. Church not meeting “_______________ needs”, priests spend lots on money, personal pleasures, politics, and wars.

  2. Too busy with “worldly affairs” to pay attention to ______________ duties. Others marry, gamble or drink.

  3. Priests/monks poorly __________________ – unwilling or unable to tell people how to save their souls. Can’t read never mind teach people.

  4. People wanted ___________________ (acceptance to heaven). Collection of relics grew popular. Church began selling ______________________ for salvation.

Martin Luther vs. Johann Tetzel

  1. ________________ monk and professor in Germany– studied and lectured on the Bible.

  2. Concluded Catholic Church _______________ saying faith and good works led to salvation. Thought people could never do enough to earn salvation. People fall short to the all-powerful God.

  3. _______________ alone became teaching point of Protestant reformation.

  4. Johann ______________ was monk raising money to rebuilt St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome by selling indulgences.

  5. Indulgences weren’t supposed to affect God’s right to judge but…Tetzel telling people that they can ___________ their way into heaven.

95 Theses

  1. Oct 31, 1517 in Wittenberg Luther posts _______ formal statements attaching the “pardon-merchants”.

  2. Begins ___________________ – leads to founding of Christian churches that don’t accept pope’s authority.

  3. Pope __________ doesn’t take seriously – thinks Luther is “some drunk German who will amend his ways when he sobers up”.

A Break with the Church

  1. _________________ wants full reformation of the Church.

  2. Urges German ____________ to overthrow papacy and establish reformed German church.

  3. Keeps two ____________________: baptism and Eucharist (communion).

  4. Calls for ______________ to marry.

  5. Church ______________________________ him 1521.

  6. Summoned to appear before the __________________________ (legislative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire by Charles V.

Holy Roman Emperor’s Response

  1. 1521 in _____________ Emperor Charles V puts Luther on trial.

  2. __________________________

    1. Luther is outlaw & heretic

    2. No one can give him shelter or food in the Empire

    3. His books are to be burned

    4. Luther is to captured and delivered to the Emperor

      1. (Luther’s ruler, Frederick of Saxony is unwilling to see famous professor killed and instead sends Luther into hiding and then protects him when he returns to Wittenberg in 1522)

Rise of Lutheranism

  1. Luther discovers his ______________ put into practice.

  2. Gained support from_______________ rulers and took control of Catholic churches in their territories, (motivated by politics and economics, not religion) forming state churches where political leaders had the last word (not the pope).

  3. Lutheran got married, 1st _____________________ faith.

  4. Luther set up religious services to replace ___________________ mass.

    1. Bible readings, preaching of the word of God, and song

Politics in German Reformation

  1. Charles V sees Lutheran as disruption to the ______________________________, possible disunifying force. Wants to keep control under his Hapsburgs dynasty.

  2. HRE fighting France (ties with Pope), Ottoman Turks, now German states. German peasants revolted against their lords and ___________________ could not defeat them.

  3. Applied Luther’s reform ideas to ___________ and looked to Luther to support their efforts.

  4. Call for end to __________________ – raid monasteries, pillaging & burning. Luther horrified & urges princes to show peasants no mercy.

  5. Peace of ______________ allow German states to choose Catholicism or Protestant church.

Calvinism (Protestant)

  1. Converted to Protestantism and fled _________________ for safety in Switzerland.

  2. Believed people __________________ by nature.

  3. God chooses very few people to save – has known from beginning who will be saved (__________________________).

  4. Gave confirmation to Calvinists they were doing God’s work by spreading _________to other people.

  5. Had ________________court to punish people for sins such as dancing, singing, drunkenness, swearing, and playing cards.

Reformation in England

  1. Reformation rooted in politics, not religion. Henry VIII wants to __________________ his wife Catherine to marry Anne Boleyn to produce a male heir.

  2. 1527: Pope says no to ______________ (declare invalid) – doesn’t want to offend Emperor Charles V (wife’s nephew).

  3. 1529 changes England’s ___________________ to Protestant.

  4. 1533 Archbishop of England declares marriage annulled, marries Anne Boleyn and has ______________________ Queen Elizabeth I three months later.

  5. 1534: Act of Supremacy says that the _______ is only supreme head on earth of the Church.

  6. _____________ uses new power to dissolve monasteries, sell land and possessions to supportive landowners and merchants.

  7. English nobility now controlled______________ and its wealth.

  8. Henry died in 1547 and succeeded by 9 year old son ________________ VI (son by 3rd wife). Dies at 16 by tuberculosis.

Bloody Mary”

  1. Under Edward VI __________________ (Protestant) church moved more towards Protestant teachings. Aroused suspicion by people.

  2. Mary becomes ________________ in 1553, moves England back to Catholic.

  3. Burns 300+ Protestants “heretics”, nicknamed “_____________ Mary”.

  4. Makes people even more ______________________.

  5. Back to Protestant under ___________________.

  6. Only legal ______________ in England.

  7. Attend or ___________ a fine.

  8. Elizabeth is made ______________ of Church of England (aka Anglican Church).


  1. Church & _______________should be separate.

  2. Only ______________ can decide to be baptized.

  3. All believers are _____________, share possessions.

  4. Any member of the community was eligible to be a ________________.

  5. Refuse to fight in wars (Thou shall not ________), hold political office.

  6. Catholics & Protestants persecute them – viewed as _____________ who threaten society.

  7. Become Mennonites & _____________ and influence Quakers & Baptists.

Reform & Society

  1. During religious reformation life for _____________ and _________ did not improve. Women subservient and anti-Semitism continued.

  2. “Wife compelled to obey husband by __________’s command”.

Catholic Reformation

  1. Catholic Church reforms to regain power lost during ___________________.

  2. 1522 Spanish nobleman Ignatius of Loyola creates _______________. Believes daily meditation, prayer & study cleanses the soul.

  3. Three main activities of Jesuits:

    1. Superb ______________; teachers focus on classical studies & theology

    2. Convert non-Christians to Catholicism – send out missionaries

    3. Stop Protestantism from spreading

  4. Pope Paul III takes 4 important steps towards reform:

    1. Council of cardinals to investigate ____________________ selling

    2. Approves ______________ order

    3. Uses ____________________ to seek out & punish heresy in papal territory

    4. Calls for _________________________ – confirm traditional Catholic teachings of good work and faith necessary for salvation. 7 sacraments upheld. Belief in purgatory and indulgences strengthened.

Textbook Questions:

Pg. 413

  1. How did the 95 Theses represent a turning point in history?

Pg. 416

  1. How did geography contribute to the difficulties of Charles V in trying to keep his empire under control?

  2. How did the location of Wittenberg benefit Luther’s cause?

Pg. 419

  1. Which Protestant faith covered more of Europe than any other in 1600?

  2. Which Protestant faith occurred in only one nation? Which nation?

Pg. 422

  1. Why do you think Protestant churches eliminated most of the seven sacraments?

HOT Questions!

  1. How do Luther’s views on religion fit with Renaissance individualism?

  1. Give an example of someone whose actions led people to move away from the intended result (like Bloody Mary trying to rid England of Protestantism).

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