v13 Pigs from the woods attack it
and wild animals destroy it.
v14 Come back to us, God (of) *Sabaoth!
Look down from *heaven and see (us)!
Be careful with this *vine...
v15 ...that your right hand planted.
(The *vine is) the son that you made strong for yourself.
v16 You let (the enemy) cut down your *vine and burn it with fire.
Destroy them (the enemy) because you are angry!
v17 Let your hand be on the man at your right hand.
(He is) the son of man that you made strong for yourself.
v18 Then we will never turn away from you.
Give us life and we will (always) *praise your name.
v19 *LORD God (of) *Sabaoth, make us return (to you).
Make your face shine (on us) and make us safe.
The Story of Psalm 80
Some Bible students think that someone wrote this psalm 700 years before Jesus came to the earth.
There were 4 kings of all Israel, Saul, David, Solomon and Rehoboam. While Rehoboam was king, the country became two *kingdoms. The north was Israel, the south was Judah. There were 10 groups (or *tribes) of people in the north, and 2 in the south. Ephraim and Manasseh and Simeon were *tribes in the *kingdom in the north. The *tribes in the south were Judah and Benjamin. Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin always went together when the *Jews walked from Egypt to the *Promised Land. (The *Promised Land was where they came to live. We call it Israel.) But in 720 BC, Assyria beat the *kingdom in the north, and took the 10 *tribes away.
In this psalm, the *psalmist prays that the *tribes may become united again. Ephraim and Manasseh were sons of Joseph. Both Joseph and Benjamin were sons of Rachel. Rachel was the wife of Jacob. His other name was Israel. The Bible uses all three names for God’s people ... Israel, *Jacob and *Joseph!
Other Bible students think that this psalm came after the *exile. The *exile was when the king of the country of Babylon took the people in the south *kingdom away. This happened in 587 B.C. (B.C. means ‘years Before Christ came to the earth.) These students think that the *psalmist is praying for all the *tribes to become united again in the *Promised Land.
What Psalm 80 means
Study this psalm in three parts: each part ends "Make us return (to you). Make your face shine (on us) and make us safe". Bible students are not sure if "return" means "return from *exile" in Assyria or Babylon; or "return to God from the wrong things we have done". Our translation chooses the second meaning, but both could be true. "Make your face shine" is how the *Jews said, "Do something good for us". This is what we call "The *covenant". If God’s people obey him, he will make them safe. In verse 1 *Joseph means the same as Israel, God’s people. Maybe the *psalmist used the name Joseph because he was the father of Ephraim and Manasseh. The words "shine on" at the start of verse 2are in verse 1 in the *Hebrew Bible. As in verses 3, 7 and 19, "shine" here means "do something good". The good thing the *psalmist wants is for all the people to be united in their own country. "Get up" in the *Hebrew Bible is "wake up".
In the second part, verses 4 - 7, the *psalmist asks God how long it will be before:
· God stops their enemies fighting them and laughing at them
In verses 4 (and 19) we have the name *LORD God of *Sabaoth. Isaiah and Jeremiah often used this name. Each part of the name means something. *LORD means that he will always be alive. God means that he is powerful. *Sabaoth means that he has great armies, both on earth and in *heaven.
In the last part of the psalm, the *vine is a picture of God’s people. He brought them from Egypt to the *Promised Land of Israel, verse 8. They lived in it from the Sea in the west to the River in the east, from the mountains in the south to Lebanon in the north, verses 9 - 11.They used to build walls round *vines to keep them safe. But God knocked down these walls and let wild animals attack and destroy it, verses 12 -13. The wild animals are a picture of Israel’s enemies. Then the *psalmist prays that God will do something and send help to Israel, verses 14 - 19. "Hand" and "right hand" are Bible-pictures of God doing something in our world. "The son", verse 15, and "the man" and "the son of man", verse 17, are all names for God’s people Israel. Some Bible students think that it may be the king of Israel.