Lincoln Steffens- The Shame of the Cities (Political corruption)
Upton Sinclair- The Jungle (meatpacking industry and capitalist greed)
Describe what happened at NY City’s Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911. Why?
A fire started as workers were leaving work
There were only 2 stairways in the 10 story building and the exit doors were locked
Many people jumped to their death to escape the flames
146 people died
The public was enraged and demanded legislators to do something about it; Strict fire safety codes were passed
What was the closed shop? What were open shops?
Closed- a workplace where the employer hires only union members
Open- a workplace where the employer hires non-union workers
What is socialism? Why did many workers not like capitalism?
System where the government owns factories, utilities (electricity and water), transportation systems (railroads and today airlines), and communications systems (today radio, TV)
Monopolies could exist and workers/consumers were paid little but paid high prices for goods
Provide the following information about the Industrial Workers of the World:
Beliefs or Goals: opposed capitalism
Differences from A.F. of L.: They criticized the AFL for cooperating with business owners and for its exclusive membership
Members: skilled/unskilled, men/women, white, AF-Am, Hispanic-Am, Asian-Am
Reasons for Failure: Several IWW led strikes failed , some thought they were radical, the government cracked down on them, and their leaders disagreed on issues
The AFL still existed but the majority of industrial workers were not in labor unions.
What was the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union? It led to the passage of which amendment?
A group that led the fight against alcohol; they wanted prohibition (to outlaw alcohol)
They believed alcohol was responsible for unemployment, crime, and the break-up of families
Carry Nation was a radical temperance crusader. Her husband died from heavy drinking and so she went in saloons with a hatchet and smashed kegs and liquor bottles
The 18th amendment was ratified in 1919 which banned the manufacture, sale, and importation of alcoholic beverages
What was the NAACP? Who were two of its founders?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Worked for social reforms that would ensure equal rights for Af-Am
WEB DuBois and Jane Addams
Briefly explain the following reforms made in the election process:
Seventeenth Amendment: US Senators will now be elected by the people and NOT by state legislators; much more democratic
Secret Ballot: voters could not be pressured to vote for certain candidates; all candidates were now on one ballot and not on easily identifiable separate colored ballots
Initiative: Allows voters to introduce NEW legislation by gathering signatures on a petition; if the required signatures are collected then the legislature has to consider the proposed law
Referendum: Allows voters to CHANGE a law already in place; also done by gathering signatures on a petition
Recall: Allows voters to REMOVE an elected official from office by holding a new election (ex. California Gov. Gray Davis was recalled and challenged by Arnold Swartzeneger)
Who was Robert La Follette?
Progressive Wisconsin Governor who instituted several progressive reforms (direct primary, taxed railroad and utilities companies, created commissions to regulate corporations, backed labor legislation, and supported conservation)
How or why did Teddy Roosevelt become president?
McKinley was assassinated and his VP was Roosevelt
TR had been a progressive Gov. of NY before becoming VP; legislators in his state wanted him out of NY so they supported efforts in naming him the VP candidate in 1900
What was the “bully pulpit”?
He took a “hands-on” approach to governing and used his position as president to get things done and speak out on important issues
Briefly describe the mine workers strike. What was arbitration?
150,000 coal miners went on strike in PA (99% of coal in the US and 3/4ths of the world’s coal came from these mines)
Miners wanted higher wages, and 8 hr workday, and recognition of their union
In early October, TR forced the miners and mine owners into arbitration (winter was near and coal was needed for heating)
Arbitration- when a third neutral party listens to both sides and settles the dispute; the decision is legally binding
Both sides got a little and gave a little
TR announced that the compromise was a “Square Deal”
What was the “Square Deal”?
TR’s 1904 campaign slogan
His promise that every one got a “square deal… no less, no more” (promise to be fair in dealing with labor unions, businesses, and consumers)
He promised to limit the power of trusts, promote public health/safety, and improve working conditions
What was trustbusting? How did TR decide which businesses to sue?
Breaking up monopolies
TR filed 44 anti-trust lawsuits against “bad” corporations
TR concentrated on breaking up those monopolies that were bad for the public as a whole; size didn’t matter
TR kept an eye on the “good” monopolies to make sure that they didn’t take advantage of consumers
Briefly identify these reforms that were passed at the federal level:
Hepburn Act: authorized the ICC to set railroad rates and to regulate other companies engaged in interstate commerce (pipelines and ferries)
Meat Inspection Act: required government inspection of meat shipped from one state to another
Pure Food and Drug Act: outlawed sale of food and medicine that contained harmful ingredients; required containers to have ingredient labels
What steps did TR take in protecting the environment?
Took millions of acres of public land off the market
Set aside 150 million acres as forest reserves
Created national parks and wildlife sanctuaries
Passed the Newlands Reclamation Act that allowed money from the sale of public land to be used for irrigation and reclamation ( process of making damaged land productive again)
List several of Taft’s accomplishments while president.
Filed 90 anti-trust suits
Passed the Mann-Elkins Act that extended the powers of the ICC to telephone/telegraph companies
Added vast areas to our forest reserves
Created the Dept. of Labor to enforce labor laws
Passed mine safety laws
Est. an 8-hour workday for companies doing business w/ the federal govt.
16th amendment-graduated income tax
17th amendment- allowed people to vote for US Senators instead of state legislators
How did Taft anger the Progressives?
Taft (and Progressives) favored lower tariffs that would reduce prices for consumers
However, Congress passed a bill that raised tariffs
Taft could have vetoed the bill but didn’t have the political skill to oppose conservatives who supported the tariff
Taft’s Sec. Of the Interior, Richard Ballinger, thought TR had exceeded his authority by stopping the sale of public lands so he approved a vast area of timberland in Alaska to be sold
The head of the US Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot, criticized Ballinger for favoring private interest over conservation
Taft fired Pinchot for his criticism of Ballinger
Progressives thought Taft was weak on conservation
These events angered TR too
What happened to the Republican Party in the 1912 election?
TR decided to run against Taft
TR’s delegates weren’t seated/given a vote at the nominating convention so Taft easily won the Republican Party’s nomination
TR’s supporters were angry and held their own convention and nominated TR to be their “Progressive Party” candidate (also known as the “Bull Moose” party)
The Republican Party was now split
List the candidates, their platforms, and the winner of the 1912 election.
Explain the following reforms passed during Wilson’s presidency.
Underwood Tariff- reduced tariffs to their lowest levels in 50 years; consumers benefited
Federal Reserve Act- three level banking system (top- Fed. Reserve Bd, middle- 12 district banks, bottom- local banks); purpose was to control the flow of money in the US by controlling interest rates
Clayton Anti-trust Act- it clarified and strengthened the Sherman Anti-trust act; it specifically stated what corporations could not do
Federal Trade Commission- could investigate corporations and order them to stop if they were being unfair; the courts were used to enforce their rulings
Workmen’s Compensation- provided benefits to federal workers injured on the job
Nineteenth Amendment- granted women full voting rights
List the names of important suffragettes that helped secure the 19th amendment.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Carrie Chapman Catt (National American Woman Suffrage Association)
Alice Paul (Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage)
They campaigned against Wilson when he didn’t support them in 1916, they picketed the White House, led hunger strikes in prison, etc.
Women’s patriotism during WWI helped weaken opposition to women’s suffrage