The physically handicapped in the mishnah

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1988 Abrams Judith Z. Judaism and Disability: Portrayals in Ancient Texts from the Tanach through the Bavli. Gallaudet University Press, Washington D.C.

1970 Douglas Mary. Purity and Danger. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London and Henle.

1973 Douglas Mary. Natural Symbols. Barrie and Rockliff, The Cresset Press, London.

1966 Edwards Martha. The Cultural Context of Deformity in the Ancient Greek World // The Ancient History Bulletin, 10.3-3 79-92. Printed from the internet web site 10/ahb-10.3-4a.html.

1998 Edwards Martha. Woman and physical Disability in Ancient Greece // The Ancient World. Ares Publishers, Chicago.

1986 Eilberg-Schwartz Howard. The Humam Will in Judaism-The Mishnah’s Philosophy of Intention. Scholars Press, Atlanta.

1998 Fullan Michael R. Views on Disability and deformity in Ancient Greece and Rome as compared to Modern America. Downloaded from the internet web site

1995 Garland Robert. The Eye of the Beholder: Deformity and Disability in the Graeco-Roman World. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

2002 Marx Tzvi C. Disability in Jewish Law. Routlege, London, USA, Canada.

1988a Neusner Jacob. The Mishnah a New Translation. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

1988b Neusner Jacob. The Philosophical Mishnah – The Initial Probe. Scholars Press, Atlanta, Georgia.

1991 Neusner Jacob. Judaism As Philosophy, The Method and Message of The Mishnah. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina.

1987 Plato. Republic / Translated by Desmond Lee. Penguin Books, London.

2001 Schmidt Francis. How the Temple Thinks: Identity and Social Cohesion in Ancient Judaism. Sheffield Academic Press, England.

1990 Turner Bryon. Recent Developments in the Theory of the Body // Hepworth M., Featherstone M., editors. The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. Sage Publications, London, Newbury Park, New Delhi.

1 For a understanding and analysis of the Mishnah, its structure and form see Neusner 1988b and 1991.

2 Although the Mishnah is based upon the Five Books of Moses it scarcely quotes the Torah sources and passages.

3 For an extensive discussion of this topic see Abrams 1998 p. 38

4 Translations of the Mishnah in this essay have been adapted from Neusner1988.

5 See Abrams 1998 p. 49 and pp 56-59 and Eilberg-Schwartz 1986, 196..

6 See Garland 1995 pg.31.

7 For a discussion of this topic and additional sources see Edards Martha , 1996.

8 See Garland 1995 pg. 31.

9 See for example Fullan 1998 pg. 1, Garland 1995 and Edwards 1966.

10 See Garland 1995 pp 63-67.

11 See Turner 1990 p2-3.

12 See Turner 1990 p 5.

13 A katan is considered by rabbinic sources as one who has two pubic hairs and in later documents boys who have reached the age of 13 and girls 12.

14 Although the Torah does deem the marriage of a person with psychological deficiencies with a person of good sense valid the Rabbis permitted it.

15 Give her a divorce.

16 Although one can argue the payment of indignity would suggest the status of the handicapped the Mishnah does not say this but rather reflects the individuals embarrassment rather than the communities.

17 Translated a story of …

18 The Toseftah cites the same law using other examples.

19 There are different translations and interpretations for the word used in Mishnah. The majority of commentators based upon the Babylonian Talmud explain it to be a mask or another form of entertaining object. It would seem that Neusner, preceded by Albek preceded by Rabbi Hananel felt the flow of the Mishanh would suggest an artificial arm. The problem with translating it an artificial arm is that it should not be pure as the artificial leg unless it was flat without a receptacle which is unlikely.

20 The passage reads “If a man meets a virgin who is not betrothed and seizes her and lies with her and they are found, then the man who lay with her shall give to the father of the young woman fifty shekels of silver and she shall be his wife because he has violated her; he may not put her away all his days”.

21 This is referring to a case when one seduces a woman and he then is obligated to marry her irrelevant of her physical being.

22 This Mishnah is also found in Kiddushin 2:5.

23 If the wife demands a divorce.

24 He writes in his Republic (1987, 173), “This then is the kind of medical and judicial provisions for which you will legislate in your state. It will provide treatment for those of your citizens whose physical and psychological constitution is good; as for the others, it will leave the unhealthy to die, and those whose psychological constitution is incurably corrupt it will put to death. That seems to be the best thing for both the individual sufferer and for society”.

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