Q1. The Phillips curve and the short-run aggregate supply curve are closely related, yet one slopes downward and the other slopes upward. Discuss.
The Phillips curve shows the relation between inflation and unemployment. The short-run aggregate-supply curve shows the relation between the price level and output. When aggregate demand increases, the price level and output rise. The rising price level means that inflation has increased. The rising level of output means that firms will hire more workers so that the unemployment rate falls. Thus, the model implies that inflation and unemployment are inversely related as the Phillips curve indicates.