The persian wars



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THE PERSIAN WARS



1. BACKGROUND:

A. Growth of Ionia

B. Persian Expansion

*C. Miletos 499 B.C. --revolt against Persia,

led by tyrant Aristagoras
1. Miletos asks Greeks for aid : Sparta demures

2. Athens sends 20 ships; Eretria sends 5 ships

3. Greeks burn Sardis
D. Darius vows revenge/punishment of Greece (esp. Athens & Eretria)

II. PERSIA INVADES GREECE 490 B.C. –


(FAILED ATTEMPT 492 B.C.)
A. Marathon 490 B.C. --Athens faces Persian fleet

1. Pheidippides runs to Sparta (for aid) in vain.

2. Greek winning strategy--Miltiades' plan; Themistokles &

Miltiades convince Kallimachos (Kallimachos' vow, death)
B. Results: 1. Persia backs off 2. Athens a "leader"
Ill. Themistokles' crucial role at Athens, 489-480 B.C.-

A. Themistokles foresaw Persia's return


B. Themistokles builds Athens' navy w/Laurion silver (new mine,

483 B.C. *he persuaded Athenians)
IV. Persia's 2nd Invasion of Greece, 480 B.C. (Xerxes)


  1. Xerxes' massive military force: size, composition, strategy

--land & sea--

  1. Themistokles' successful anti-Persian strategy:

  1. Delay Persian army (land)--Spartans at Thermopylai

(King Leonidas)

2. Delay Persian navy (sea at Artemesium) to evacuate Athens

3. Force naval battle in Salamis Straits--(Greek advantage)
C. Final Persian Defeats-479 B.C.:

1. Plataia (Boiotia) --land battle: Spartans (K. Pausanias) defeat

Persians (Mardonious killed).

2. Mykalē (Ionia) sea battle: Greeks win!
V. Results of Persian Wars

A. Athens = biggest winner -new confidence & origin of Empire


B. Sparta --imp. power, but loses prestige to Athens.

1. Pausanias'disgrace

  1. Sparta still isolationist –

  2. Athens becomes de facto leader of Greeks


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