The persian wars

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Robert Awkward History Notes (pgs 102-109

Instructions: 1. Read these notes. Write questions in left margin. 2. Read text. Write clarifying explanation between lines and on right. 3. Prepare to explain to class your assigned section. 4. Summative comments from Mr. Albritton


Greek period of fortune isolation and freedom ended sixth century BCE

King Croesus took over Asia Minor

Then in 546 BCE the king took power of the Persian Empire

Ionian Rebellion

Cities of Ionia prospered under Persian rule

No resistance from cities

Then tyrant of Miletus Aristagoras stirring up trouble

Aristagoras urged Persian expedition against Naxos

It didn’t work and he feared consequences

A rebellion of the Ionia

He got scared and created the democratic constitution

Then went to Greece for help

Sparta first – rejected

Athens second – rejected

Athenians went to help the Ionians (they were related) sent 20 ships

498 BCE Athenians and allies set out in assail on Sardis – burned it

Athenians kept going all over Asia Minor

Finally Persians reimposed their will

Ionian rebellion ends

The War in Greece

490 BCE King Darius sent expedition to punish Athens – gain control of Aegean Sea – and restore Hippias

Athenians won at marathon ergo, instilling in them pride in victory and in heir polis. (polis: Athenian form of gov.)

The Great Invasion

Marathon defeat for the Persians was small

481 BCE next King, Xerxes, got an army together

150,000 men + 600 ships to take Greece

Then guy named Themistocles wants to turn Athens militant

During his archonship 493 BCE Athens helped with his idea

Athens fortified themselves by building a wall at port Piraeus

Out of 100+ Greek states only 31 (led by Sparta, Athens, Corinth, and Aegina) agreed to fighting against the Persians.

Themistocles knew he wasn’t gonna succeed as planned so he planned to hold up the Persians and then bring on a naval battle that he had a better chance of winning.

Greeks choose Sparta to lead them and 1st meet Persians at sea

Storms come and wreck Persian ships

Greeks hide & wait

Then King Xerxes attacks but Greeks defend too well

Traitor showed Xerxes the path to the Greeks

Spartan King Leonidas and 300 spartans (300 movie) fight back but die in battle

Greeks had some chance in prevailing but not enough for Themistocles to allow them to peruse on

The Greeks withdrew

Persians then went to Athens – and burned it

Persian general stayed in Athens for a while + tried to get the Athenians to leave the Greek League

A Spartan regent organized a humongous Greek army and went into Boeotia

He died in battle and the troops fled

King Leotychidas (Spartan commander) and Ionian Greeks destroyed a Persian camp and its ships

The Persian threat, for then, was gone


Beginning of classical period in Greece (repulse of Persians)

Classical period was a time of conflict among poleis that basically killed them all

150 years long

The Delian League

Even during the struggle with Persia, Greece itself still had problems within itself

Two major separations were created

Sparta and Athens were the two main bubbles or humanity

Sparta couldn’t handle leading the Greeks into war with Sparta by itself so Athens took the job

478 BCE Athenians and other Greek cities meet and make a pact to an everlasting alliance

They agreed to free Greeks under Persian rule and to prevent Persian return

Forced people into the league and didn’t let some people leave claiming it was necessary

Statesman soldier Cimon led Athens and the Delian League

Themistolcles was ostracized then kicked outta power

While in power, Cimon led plethora of attacks on Persia and made friendly relations with Sparta for two decades

Cimon accepted democratic constitution of Clistheness

The First Peloponnesian War

The first Peloponnesian war was the fall of Cimon

Thasos rebelled and Cimon didn’t know what to do

When Thasians started rebellion the asked Sparta to invade Athens

Spartans said yes but deadly earthquake prevented the invasion

461 BCE Cimon was exiled and Athens allies with Argos (Sparta’s 1st enemy)

OVERNIGHT Cimons way of ruling, was gone

Outbreak of War

Policies of new regime at Athens brought on conflict with Sparta thus causing the first Peloponnesian War

Athens prevailing more during the early years of war – conquered Aegina and Boeotia

454 BCE everything changed Athenian fleet got swamped by Persia

this created chain reaction effect and rebellions started to break out within the Delian League itself

Athens made truce with Greece to subdue its allies and restore sanity again

449 BCE Athens ended the war with Persia

446 BCE war on mainland Greece broke out

Everyone starts getting crazy with each other and Pericles, commander of Athenian army, didn’t want fighting

Agreed to 30 years of peace in return for Spartan recognition of Athenian over Aegean

Greece now had two new blocks

Sparta and its alliance on the mainland

The Athenian Empire in the Aegean

The Athenian Empire P 105

Athenians moved the Delian money to Athens and kept one sixtieth of the yearly dough

Dictatorship being created between Athens and the allies as subjects

Only 3 leaders were allowed ships others paid tribute

Little cities would fight each other because of lack of dough

Athens had peace for 30 years and we’re doing anything to keep it that way

Athenian Democracy P 105

Athenians tightening up gov. fro the empire but under Pericles rule, loosening for the Athenians

Pericles introduced new court rules

New circuit judges

Paid jury duty

Participation in Greek gov. was denied to slaves, resident aliens, and women

Even so there was big democracy for citizens

Pericles was eleced a general 15 years in a row and 30 times in all

He eventually lost the peoples confidence and they quickly got rid of him

The Great Peloponnesian War P. 108

30 years of peace was actually a little less than 10

435 BCE argument between a very unimportant part of Greece

Messed up the peace between Athens and Sparta

Fighting with them again

Athenian strategy: prove that Sparta couldn’t hurt them

Plan of Athens needed the leadership of Pericles

Pericles dies in 429 BCE

421 BCE Athens and Sparta agree to the Peace of Nicias

Supposed to last 50 years

Just added more tension

Neither side (Athens or Sparta) held up the agreement

Many Spartan allies said “no”

415 BCE Alcibiades (young leader) got the Athenians to attack Sicily and take it over

413 BCE total expedition was destroyed

Athenians lost lots and disaster shook Athenian, reduced Athens power, provoked more rebellions, and most importantly, brought Persia to join with Sparta

But Athenians kept fighting

Athenians finally surrendered without a fight in 404 BCE

They lost their empire, lost their ability to rebuild fleets, and the Great Peloponnesian War was over

Struggle for Greek Leadership - p. 109

Collapse of Athenian Empire had its effects

Lots of different leaders

Lots of exiles

Not one specific leader for long enough to make peace

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