The of Civilization 2100 bc to ad 1500 The Growth of Civilizations

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The of Civilization

2100 BC to AD 1500

The Growth of Civilizations

  • 1. Greece - 2100 BC – 150 BC

  • 2. Rome and Early Christianity – 750 BC – AD 500

  • 3. The Americas – 1000 BC – AD 1500

  • 4. Empires of China and India – 350 BC – AD 600

Ancient Greece: 2100 BC 150 BC

  • 1. Early Greece

  • 2. The Classical Age

  • 3. Greek Achievements

  • 4. Alexander the Great

  • Main Idea

    • The in southern Europe – Greece – home of early advanced civilizations

    • From the Minoans and the Mycenaeans to Sparta and Athens to the empire of Alexander the Great, the left a legacy that helped shape Western Civilization

The Geography of Greece?

  • Ancient Greece is located in .

  • It is located on the and Aegean seas.

  • The land is mountainous and the civilization does not grow around a river.

Archaic Greece: 1650 – 700 BC

  • Centered around

Bronze Age Greece
Crete: Minoan Civilization

  • The Minoans were in the Region.

  • They were but their civilization disappeared around 1400 BC.

Minoan Civilization

  • Excavations done at reveal clues about their life:

  • Private rooms

  • Basic Plumbing

  • -tied to the sea

Minoan Civilization

  • Language- - cant decipher

  • Most Minoan images of priests are

Mycenaean Civilization

  • The Mycenaeans arose next and were most famous for the

  • They declined around 1200 BC.

The Trojan Wars

  • Fought between (Turkey) and (Greece)

  • The Trojan Horse-not sure if the battle took place

Homer: The “Heroic Age”

  • The – the account of Greek hero – Odysseus in the Trojan War

  • The is the second account

The Mask of Agamemnon

    • who was murdered by his wife’s mistress

Hellenic (Classical) Greece: 700 to 324 BC
The Rise of the Greek City States

    • The region for hundreds of years after the Mycenaeans.

    • Around 750 BC, the Greek City state, or , starts to develop.

    • Cities were built on two levels, with an on the top level.

Governing the City State

    • At first, city states were ruled by one person, usually a king. This is called a They were often called

    • Next, it was ruled by a small group of nobles. This is called an oligarchy.

    • New forms of government would soon develop, especially in Athens.

The Rest of the City State

    • Below the Acropolis was the walled part of the city where everyday life took place.

    • There were marketplaces, theaters, public buildings, and homes.

    • The market was called the . It was usually in the center of the city.


    • Sparta is a city state that develops into a .

    • Men spend their lives dedicated to warfare and training.

    • Some women took up household and economic responsibilities because the men were occupied with war.

Spartan Military Might

  • à Messenians enslaved by the Spartans.

The Acropolis-The Gods of Olympus

  • The Acropolis

  • The acropolis of each city had temples to the .

  • The Greeks shared one set of Gods. There were 12 major gods and goddesses.

Mount Olympus, Home of the Gods
The Gods of Olympus
Athens: Yesterday and Today

  • Athens is a city state that develops into a

  • A democracy is a place where people vote.

  • Only citizens could .

  • Athens also focused on arts and learning.

Early Athenian Lawgivers

  • Draco

    • “draconian”

    • End Unrest through harsh punishment

  • -took first steps toward democracy

  • Cleisthenes

    • created the first democracy!

Piraeus: Athens’ Port City
Persian Wars:

  • Fought between Greece and Persia –

  • Cause of Conflict region called

Peloponnesian Wars

  • (490 BCE)

    • 26 miles from Athens

    • Inspired the Marathon-Greek victory

  • (480 BCE)

    • 300 Spartans were able to hold back a much larger Persian army

  • (480 BCE)

    • Athenian navy Victory

Golden “Age of Pericles”: 460 BCE – 429 BCE

      • The in Athens for many years following the Persian Wars

Peloponnesian Wars

      • Athens – League

      • Sparta- League

      • Tension between the two leagues; Sparta becomes the Later fell to Macedonia


  • Socrates was a famous .

  • He taught Plato, who then taught Aristotle.

  • He was accused of corrupting the minds of the youth and forced to commit suicide.

    • Know thyself!

    • question everything

    • only the brings happiness.


  • Philosophers were best suited to govern

  • The Academy

  • The World of Forms

  • The – philosophers should be king


  • Concerned with nature and the world around him

  • The Lyceum and the

    • Everything in moderation

    • Logic empowers reason


  • Hippocrates was a famous Greek doctor.

  • Doctors today still take the when they begin their careers in medicine.

  • Its most important part is to do no harm.


  • Herodotus is famous for of the Ancient Greek world.

  • He tried to determine what existed beyond what the Greeks themselves knew about.


  • Sophocles was a famous Greek dramatist.

  • There were two main types of plays: and

  • These plays were very popular in Greece.

Phidias’ Acropolis
The Acropolis Today

  • Temples for the

The Parthenon

  • Temple of the Greek Goddess

The Olympic Games
The Agora
The Classical Greek “Ideal”
Greek Columns
The Ancient Olympics: Athletes & Trainers
The Olympic Games

  • The started the Olympic games.

  • They were held to .

  • There were races, discuss throwing, boxing, and a no-holds barred type of fighting called .

  • Only eye gouging and biting were prohibited.

Olympia: Temple to Hera
The 2004 Olympics
Macedonia under Phillip II

  • Took over Greece along with his son,

Hellenstic Greece: 324 100 BC
Alexander the Great

  • Took over, at age 20, after his father was assassinated

Alexander the Greats Empire
Alexander the Great in Persia

  • Within a year, Alexander Persia

Phalanx tactic
The Hellenization of Asia

  • mixed with others throughout Asia

Pergamum: A Hellenistic City
The Economy of the Hellenistic World
Hellenistic Philosophers

  • Cynics à

    • ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries.

    • citizens of the world.

    • live a humble, simple life.

  • à Epicurus

    • avoid pain & seek pleasure.

    • all excess leads to pain!

    • politics should be avoided.

  • Stoics à

    • nature is the expansion of divine will.

    • concept of natural law.

    • get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good of all.

    • true happiness is found in great achievements.

Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences

  • Scientists / Mathematicians:

    • Aristarchus à

    • Euclid à geometry

    • à pulley

    • Eratosthenes- calculated the size of the world

  • Hellenistic Art:

    • More ; less ideal than Hellenic art.

    • Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!

The Breakup of Alexander’s Empire

  • Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC

  • At age

The Growth of Civilization

2100 BC to AD 1500

The Growth of Civilizations

  • 1. Classical Greece - 2100 BC – 150 BC

  • 2. and Early Christianity – 750 BC – AD 500

  • 3. The Americas – 1000 BC – AD 1500

  • 4. Empires of China and India – 350 BC – AD 600


  • 1. The of Rome

  • 2. From Republic to Empire

  • 3. Roman Society and Culture

  • 4. The Rise of

  • 5. The Fall of Rome

  • Main Idea

  • The city of Rome was the seat of one of the powers of the ancient world

  • 1,200 year history

  • Rome went through great changes in and culture

  • Many changes were caused by the beginning of the spread of one of the world’s largest religions - Christianity

Rome and Early Christianity 750 BC to AD 500
Where is Ancient Rome?

  • Rome is located in _______________________.

  • It is in the present day country of ___________________.

  • Italy is a _________________, which means it has water on three sides.

  • This allowed the Romans to ________________ with others in the region.

How was Rome founded?

  • Rome has a ________________ beginning.

  • Twin brothers, _________________ and Remus, were sons of the war god __________________ and left abandoned as babies.

  • A ________________________ fed them and kept them alive.

  • They grew up, fought over who would _________________ the city.

  • Romulus ____________________ Remus; therefore, he called the city ____________________.

Influence of the Etruscans

  • Introduced the and number system, helped shape government, built Rome’s first .

How was Rome ______________________?

  • Around __________________________, Rome became a ___________________.

  • A republic is a government where ________________ are chosen by the ___________________.

  • The people of Rome were represented in the ____________________.

How were the people of Rome divided?

  • Romans were split into two main ______________________.

  • The _____________________ were the landholding _________________ class.

  • The ___________________ were the commoners of Rome.

  • The ______________________ of the people were Plebeians but the Patricians had most of the _______________________.

The Roman Forum

  • The Roman ______________________ was a place where people could express their ideas.

  • It was also a place that __________________ of the Senate and later the Emperor were announced to the people.

The Carthaginian Empire

  • The Wars

  • Fought between Early Rome and (N. Africa)

  • - perhaps one of the greatest military leaders of all time

Hannibal’s Route

  • The Roman, after suffering serious losses, managed to defeat Hannibal and the

Rome becomes an ______________________

  • the poor should be given grain and small plots of free land. Soldier Farmers

  • recruited an army from the poor and homeless; professional standing army.

Civil War and Dictators

  • Civil War brought an end to the republic. and were successful military leaders who formed the First Triumvirate

Crossing the Rubicon

  • Caesar took his army over the River and marched into Rome

Beware the Ides of March! 44 BCE

  • After rising to prominence in a variety of ________________ campaigns, Julius Caesar brings his troops to __________________ in 49 BC and makes himself a __________________.

  • He keeps the Senate around but keeps all real ________________ for himself.

  • In 44 BC, he is __________________ in the Senate by people who want to bring back the old _______________________.

The Roman Empire

  • After Julius Caesar is assassinated, there is a _______________________ fighting for control.

  • Caesar’s nephew Octavian becomes emperor, and changes his name to _________________________

Pax Romana

  • After Augustus, there is a 200 year peaceful period called the Pax Romana, or

Roman’s Early Road System

  • Rome was able to because of its well trained and organized armies.

In addition, Rome built that connected the Empire that allowed troops easy movement.
How did Rome get Water?

  • The Romans built enormous ____________________ designed to bring water into the city.

  • They used a new architectural technique called the _____________________.

  • They had a very small ___________________ that carried water downhill for miles and miles.

What did Romans do for fun?

  • Romans enjoyed __________________ entertainment.

  • They watched _________________ fight to the death in many arenas, most famously the ____________________.

  • They watched chariot races, which often involved bloody ____________________.

Roman Religion

  • Romans had similar gods to the _________________, except they had different names. For example: Zeus becomes Jupiter, Ares becomes Mars.

  • They built enormous temples, like the ___________________.

The Rise of Christianity

  • Religion based on Jesus of Nazareth, and his earliest followers, the teaching of

Jesus of Nazareth

  • Knowledge comes from the first four books of the New Testament

  • The along with the Hebrew Bible, the , make up the Christian Bible.

Jesus Christ

  • In time, Jesus began to preach a message of redemption and warning of the coming of God’s Judgment Day. His message alarmed authorities, and Jesus was arrested, tried, and sentenced to death.

  • After he was , Jesus rose from the dead, spent 40 days teaching, and ascended into heaven.

  • Followers named him the , Jesus Christ

The Spread of Christianity

  • Apostles 12 that Jesus chose to spread Christianity throughout the world

Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two:

  • Economic Problems- , rising prices, and higher taxes to pay for the vast empire

  • Diocletian –absolute ruler – himself above his subjects


  • Diocletian his thrown and threw Rome into civil war once again

  • Constantine, in 312, proclaimed new emperor

  • A new Capital- –Christian capital; later renamed

Byzantine Empire

  • The later period of the Eastern Roman Empire became Empire-after fall of Western Roman Empire to tribes

Attila the Hun

  • The inability of the Roman Army to stop the was one reason for the demise of the empire

The Legacy of Rome

  • Around 180 AD, problems arose in the empire and the begins to decline.

  • In 476 AD is sacked and the Empire is officially dead.

Why did Rome decline?

  • Government was ________________.

  • The government had huge building projects that cost lots of _______________________.

  • __________________ invaded from the North.

  • Poverty and ______________________ were very high.

  • Moral values declined.

The Discovery of ______________________

  • In 1748, one of the greatest archeological discoveries of all times occurred.

  • The Roman city of Pompeii had been destroyed by the eruption of Mount ___________________ in 79 AD, preserving the town forever.

The Growth of Civilization

2100 BC to AD 1500

The Growth of Civilizations

  • 1. Classical Greece - 2100 BC – 150 BC

  • 2. Rome and Early Christianity – 750 BC – AD 500

  • 3. The – 1000 BC – AD 1500

  • 4. Empires of China and India – 350 BC – AD 600

The Americas - 1000 BC to AD 1500

  • 1. North America

  • 2. Meso America

  • 3. South America

    • Main Idea

    • As advanced civilizations developed in Rome, other civilizations developed in the

    • Early American civilizations all found ways to adapt to the varied of the Americas

    • Some developed sophisticated governments and that rivaled those of the ancient Romans

Early Human Migrations

  • Possible for the First Americans

North America

  • – 9,000 year old human skull found along the Columbia River

  • Gives us clues to some questions about early

Cultures of North America

  • Arctic and the Subarctic

  • Desert West

  • Eastern

Cultures of the Desert West

  • - 300 BC to AD 1500 –adobe-mixtures of clay and straw for homes

  • Anasazi – 100 BC to Ad 1300 –adopted the -aboveground structure used for homes

  • Cliff Palace at Anasazi cliff dwelling

The Mound Builders

  • – 200 BC to Ad 500 – some form of organized labor

  • Mississippian – built some of the earliest cities in

Other Cultures in North America

  • Inuit – Arctic Region -no vegetation for food- fishing instead

  • – treeless grasslands

  • The Iroquois – Forest Environment formed a

Sculpture from the Americas

  • Origins of the of the Americas?

The “Mother Culture” of Meso – America

  • -predated just about every other civilization in Meso- America.

  • First to use writing system and first to use

  • The one to give rise to later cultures in that region.

Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations

  • , , and the


  • The Civilization was small to the Mayan civilization, which had its height in 1000 BC consisted of million in over 40 cities.

Lands of the Mayans

  • The Peninsula

Mayan Cultivation of Maize

  • -farming method that involves burning vegetation to clear it for planting

  • Chac, of Rain

Chichen-Itza – Pyramid

  • Mayan cities such as and Tikal were some of the more spectacular cities, containing pyramids, temples, and great .

Chichen-Itza – Observatory

  • Mayans made advances in . They observed the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. system – 365 days farming schedule

Chichen-Itza - Court
Overview of Tikal (Guatemala)

  • Temple of the

Tikal Jungle View at
Tikal - Main Court

  • Mayan cities functioned as city states each had its own and government.

  • Trade the cities.

  • also linked other cities.

  • Mayan cities never united.

Tikal: of the Masks
Tikal - Wall Mask of the

  • The God of & Learning

Mayan Glyphs

  • sky

  • king

  • child

  • city

  • The Mayans developed a complex writing system, , or symbols

Mayan Mathematics

  • They also created a system, using the concept of zero for the first time.

Mayan Underground : Chultunes
Mayan Drinking Cup for
Pakal: The Maya Astronaut

  • The Aztecs, just a small group of farmers from , created the most powerful empire in Meso -America.

Lands of the Aztecs

  • What land did they conquer?

Aztec View of Tenochtitlan

  • The Capital City of the .

  • Covered five miles and had a population of 200,000.

  • One of the in the world at the time.

Tenochtitlan: The of the Americas
Aztec Chinampa or Floating Garden:

  • 15ft. to wide

Tenochtitlan – Chinampas

  • Tenochtitlan was built on island in the middle of a lake. To create more farm land they build floating gardens

Aztec Writing

  • They kept written records similar to Mayans but not as

Aztec Math

  • They also used Math. Conquered People were required to pay a , a tax.

Aztec Sun Stone – Calendar

  • They created a 260-religious calendar and a 365-day solar calendar. They also calculated movements of

The Aztecs Were Fierce Warriors

  • Achievements in the Arts and Sciences. Artisans made bright feathers into headdresses, shields, and wartime costumes. fashioned gold and silver.

Aztec Sun
Aztecs Sacrifice Neighboring Tribes to the Sun God-needed human
Heart on an Aztec Temple Pyramid
Wall of , Tenochtitlan
Sacrificial Statue, Tenochtitlan
of the City Center, Tenochtitlan

  • Lasted a short period of time, 200 years. Contact with the Europeans brought an end to the empire.

The Codex :

  • The Founding of Tenochtitlan-twenty years after the Spanish Conquest it contains the history of the city


  • Many years after earlier civilizations such as the Chavin, Moche, and Nazca, the Inca Civilization brought the entire region into one empire.

Lands of the Incas

  • They began as a small tribe in the Andes, but by the early 1500’s their empire extended almost the entire throughout the Andes.

Cuzco: Ancient of the Inca (11,000 ft. above sea level)
Machu Picchu

  • Pachacuti –leader of the Inca used political and force to gain control. The emperor had most of the power.

Incan Suspension Bridges

  • The first known bridges spanned cannons, and rivers. Woven out of and vines.

Incan Terrace Farming

  • Terraces increased the amount of land available for

Incan Digging
The Quipu: An Incan Database

  • Keep track of moving goods they used set of and knotted cords.

Over 100 Different Types of Cultivated by the Incans
Produce from a Typical Incan
Incan Jars
in Incan Pottery
Inca Gold & Silver

  • Artisans made intricate out of gold and silver.

Incan Mummies

  • The Incas lasted only about 100 years. The arrival of the in Peru in 1532 marked the

The Growth of Civilization

2100 BC to AD 1500

The Growth of Civilizations

  • 1. Classical Greece - 2100 BC – 150 BC

  • 2. Rome and Early Christianity – 750 BC – AD 500

  • 3. The Americas – 1000 BC – AD 1500

  • 4. Empires of – 350 BC – AD 600

Empires of China and India - 350 BC to AD 600

  • 1. The Growth of China

  • 2. Chinese Society and Culture

  • 3. Indian Dynasties

  • 4. Indian Society and Culture

  • Main Idea

    • 300 – 200 BC, strong empires unified much of China and India

    • Under these empires, China and India became prosperous

    • Led to classical periods in their histories, during which China and India developed many of the characteristics that would define their modern times

Imperial China: the and the Dynasties
The Qin Dynasty

  • 300’s BC, the States Period - era in which the Qin state began to dominate the other states of China

Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty, 221-206 B.C.E.

  • Established China’s empire E

  • Shi (First Emperor)

  • rule E

    • A powerful and efficient government was key to maintaining order

    • Bureaucratic

    • Centralized control

    • Military

    • Book à targeted

  • Buried alive!

  • Built large section of the Wall

Shi Huangdi’s Cotta Army

  • Discovered in 1974 - the immense army of the dead

  • A Emperor in hope of gaining immortality had artisans create a life-size army with chariots, horses, and more than soldiers to guard him in the afterlife

Shi Huangdi’s Terra Cotta Army

  • Army placed in around the emperor’s tomb

Shi Huangdi’s Terra Cotta Soldiers & Cavalrymen

  • Although harsh, Qin policies under Huangdi unified and strengthened China.

  • He undertook building projects, including an improved irrigation system, an expanded network of roads and canals, and a wall.


  • Despite improvements in trade and , peasants had to pay heavy and some were forced to work on them

The Eastern terminus of the , Shanhai Pass

  • To strengthen and protect his empire from outside threats, Shanhai had workers join the separate defensive walls creating the Wall of China

The Great Wall with Towers

  • Hundreds of thousands of were forced to work on the and many people died from the labor.

The Dynasty

  • When Shi Huangdi died in 210 BC, the Dynasty crumbled in rebellion. Liu Bang, a leader, founded the Han dynasty, one of the greatest dynasties in Chinese history

Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.

  • “People of the Han” à Chinese

  • Paper invented [105 B.C.E.] E

  • Silk trade develops; improves life for many

  • introduced into China

  • Expanded into Central Asia

Liu Bang Tomb (d. 113 BCE)

  • His jade suit has 2498 pieces! He ruled with the of heaven (approval of the gods)

  • He re-instituted and at the same time kept some Legalist policies to maintain firm control over his empire

Emperor Wudi, 141-87 B.C.E.- the greatest Han emperor

  • Started schools.

  • Colonized Manchuria, Korea, & .

  • Civil system-pass an exam in the Confucian classics E

  • bureaucrats

  • Confucian -gentry

  • Revival of landscape painting.

Emperor Wudi and Expansion

  • Martial Emperor - expand his empire through warfare

  • Xiongnu- who lived in the grasslands of n. China

The Han Decline

  • In 184, a sect called the Yellow rebelled and through the empire into chaos

  • Period of - 350 years of warfare

Trade Routes of the Ancient World

  • The Road network of trade routes that stretched from 4,000 miles across the heart of Asia to the Mediterranean Sea

Ruins of Jiao he, Turphan depression. Han outpost in Central Asia
Han Artifacts

  • The Han period was a age in China history. During this age, art flourished and science and technology improved life.

Ceramics, Later Han Period

  • The Spread of to China, led to an increase in Buddhist art and statues


  • Inserting fine into the at specific points to cure disease and relieve pain

Imperial India: Maurya and the Gupta Empire (350 BC to AD 600)
Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE

  • Unified northern India.

  • Defeated the Persian general .

  • Divided his empire into , then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement.

  • He feared [like Saddam Hussein] à food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc.

  • 301 BCE à gave up his throne & became a Jain.

The Maurya Empire

  • 321 BCE – 185 BCE

  • The first Empire

  • The seizing of the throne of the kingdom of Magadha


  • advisor.

  • Brahmin caste.

  • Wrote The Treatise on or the Arthashastra.-statescraft

  • A guide for the king and his ministers:

    • Supports royal power.

    • The great in society is anarchy.

    • Therefore, a single is needed to employ force when

Ashoka (304 – 232 BCE)

  • Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of in 262 BCE.

  • Dedicated his life to .

  • Built roads.

  • Conflict à how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person?

  • Considered to be one of India’s greatest rulers

Asoka’s law code

  • Edicts scattered in more than places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan.

  • Written mostly in , but one was in Greek and Aramaic.

  • 10 rock edicts.

  • Each pillar [stupa] is 40’-50’ high.

  • t principles dominate his laws.

Turmoil & a power Vacuum: 220 BCE – 320 CE

The Maurya Empire is divided into kingdoms.

– invaders from Central Asia

-far south; carried active sea trade with Southeast Asia
Gupta Empire: 320 CE – 647 CE

India remained divided into kingdoms for about 400 years.

Then around Ad 320, the took over northern India.
Gupta Rulers

  • Gupta I

    • r. 320 – 335 CE

    • “Great King of Kings”

    • founder

  • Chandra II

    • r. 375 - 415 CE

    • Profitable trade with the Mediterranean world!

  • Hindu .

  • White invade – 450 CE

Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India

  • Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Road and visited India in the 5c.

  • He was following the path of the .

  • He reported the people to be , relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including " ," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor.

Chandra Gupta 11

Where was he located?

International Trade Routes during the Guptas

What continents did they trade with?

Extensive Trade:

Name three products they traded


  • The greatest of poets.

  • His most famous play was

  • During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.

Gupta Art

Greatly influenced

Southeast Asian &
Gupta Achievements
The Decline of the Guptas

  • Invasion of the in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them.

  • After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the in the 7c.

Bhartrhari 5c India court and .

Knowledge is man's crowning mark, A treasure secretly buried,
The source of luxury, fame, and bliss, A guru most venerable,
A friend on foreign journeys, The pinnacle of divinity.
Knowledge is valued by kings beyond wealth---
When he lacks it, a man is a brute.

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