The Motives Economic National Grandeur

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Lecture 03

Western Imperialism—19th Century

The Spread of Colonial Rule

Expansion into Africa and Asia

    • Christians and Spices” said Vasco da Gama

    • raw materials and markets

The Motives

    • Economic

    • National Grandeur

    • Moral purposes

The Tactics

    • From: Limited to controlling regional trade network and established a few footholds for trade and missionary work

    • To: solidifying hold over their territories for security control, national prestige, before economic interests

Global Land Grab

By 1900, almost all Africa and Asia under colonial rule

    • Exceptions:

      • Japan

      • Thailand

      • Afghanistan and Ethiopia

      • Iran

The Colonial System

Direct and Indirect rule

Philosophy of Colonialism

    • Social Darwinism

    • Comfortable Theory

    • Adaptation of Primitive Peoples

    • Brutality Ignored

Assimilation or Association?

India Under the British Raj

Colonial Reforms

    • Order and stability

    • Education

    • Outlawed Sati

    • Ended Brigandage

    • Technology and Progress

Costs of Colonialism

    • British textiles supplanted Indian textile industry

    • Zamindar system

Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia

Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia

    • British – Malayan peninsula: Singapore, Burma

    • French – Indochina: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos

    • American – Philippines

The Nature of Colonial Rule

    • Indirect rule and some direct rule

Administration and Education

Economic Development

Empire Building in Africa

Growing European Presence in West Africa

Imperialist Shadow over the Nile

    • Napoleon

    • Muhammad Ali

    • Suez Canal, 1854-1869

    • Sudan

    • Algiers

Arab Merchants and European Missionaries

    • Increase slave trade for plantation agriculture in East Africa and islands off the coast

    • Rise of Western interest against slave trade and Christian missionary activity

Bantus, Boers, and British in South Africa

Boers – Afrikaans-speaking farmers

    • Great Trek – mid-1830s

    • Believed that white superiority was ordained by god

    • Set up the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal)


    • Abolished slavery in British Empire in 1834

    • More sympathetic to rights of local African population

The Scramble for Africa

Colonialism in Africa

Indirect Rule in West Africa

British Rule in East Africa

British Rule in South Africa

    • Higher percentage of European settlers

    • Growing division between English-speaking and Afrikaner elements

    • Discovery of gold and diamonds source of problems

    • Boer War – British defeated Afrikaans

    • Concession: gave power to vote only to whites in self-governing colonies

    • British created independent Union of South Africa for Afrikaans in 1910

    • British: Basutoland (Lesotho), Bechuanaland (Botswana), Swaiziland, Rhodesia

Direct Rule, French style

    • Direct rule – centralized administrative system

    • Governor-general, commissioners, local administrators

    • Assimilate Africans

    • Africans eligible to run for office and serve in French National Assembly

    • Relative absence of racist attitudes, superiority of Gallic culture, belief in universality of human nature

Women in Colonial Africa

The Emergence of Anticolonialism

Religious Resentment

Sudan – Mahdi – strong Islamic overtones

India - The Sepoy Rebellion – 1857
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