The Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary THE MONROE DOCTRINE of 1823. This was statement of United States policy in regard to the Western Hemisphere. Beginning at the time of the Napoleonic Wars (1805-1814), most of the Spanish colonies in the Americas began a fight against Spain's rule that finally brought them independence. However these new nations feared that Spain would try to restore its rule over them. The United States was also afraid of such action by Spain. If Spain, helped by other European nations could retake its colonies all Europe might soon be occupying lands in the Western Hemisphere. For this reason, President Monroe sent a message to Congress 1823, in which he declared the following:
1. Existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere might be retained by European powers.
2. No new colonization by Europeans was to be allowed.
3. The United States pledged not to interfere in Europe's affairs. Europe pledged no to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
The Monroe Doctrine was a warning to the world that the United States was ready to protect its vital interests in the Western Hemisphere. Actually, the United States had no power at the time to enforce the Monroe Doctrine. The United States knew, however, that Great Britain supported its aims. The British did not want Spain restored to power in the Americas, and the powerful British navy was a force that Europeans could not easily overcome. No European power attempted to challenge the Monroe Doctrine until the 1860’s, and by then the United States was strong enough to enforce it.
In a speech before Congress in 1904 President Theodore Roosevelt explained his new policy. This policy became known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Roosevelt stated that the United States might have to interfere in the affairs of a Latin American country in order to keep European countries out of the Western Hemisphere. Roosevelt first used the Roosevelt Corollary to keep European countries from taking over the Dominican Republic. The Republic owed millions of dollars to European countries. These countries threatened to collect their debts by force if they were not paid at once. In 1905, the United States took over the Dominican Republic’s finances. Forty-five percent of the money earned from customs was kept by the Dominican Republic. The rest went to pay the European powers.
1. The Monroe Doctrine was issued because the United States…
A. wished to take over Spanish possessions.
B. feared British influence in the New World.
C. was afraid of Napoleon’s influence in South America.
D. wished to limit European influence in the Western Hemisphere.
6. Name four countries that were occupied by U.S. troops between 1898 and 1939. _________________________
2. The Monroe Doctrine stated all of the following EXCEPT…
A. the United States would not interfere in European affairs.
B. Europeans must give up all colonies in the Western Hemisphere.
C. Europe was not to interfere in affairs in the Western Hemisphere.
D. no further colonization by Europeans was to be allowed in the Western Hemisphere.
7. Name four countries or territories were U.S. territories by 1939. ______________________________________
3. The Monroe Doctrine was made possible by…
A. the strength of the United States.
B. the support given to the United States by Great Britain.
C. the support given to it by France.
D. the fear of Napoleon in Europe.
8. Which of the places occupied or controlled by the U.S. in the period 1898-1939 is nearest the United States?
4. Which of the following statements is true.
A. European countries always try to get things by using force.
B. Roosevelt used his Corollary to keep Europe out of the Dominican Republic.
C. American business leaders wanted to buy the Dominican Republic.
D. European countries wanted to invade the United States.
9. Which of the U.S. territories in the Caribbean was acquired most recently? __________________________
5. Which country did the U.S. military occupy most often in the period 1898-1939 ___________________________________
10. The Roosevelt Corollary…
A. limited American power in Latin America.
B. granted European powers limited rights in Latin America.
C. reduced the power of the Monroe Doctrine.
D. established the United States as the “policeman” of the Caribbean.