THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Intellectual and Cultural Life The Twelfth-Century Renaissance Controversy: Was there a Twelfth-Century Renaissance?
The existence of a ‘twelfth-century renaissance’ was first suggested in 1840 by French scholars.
But the debate did not really begin until the publication of Charles Homer Haskins, The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, Mass., 1927)
The debate raged during the 1940s and 1950s, see R.N. Swanson, The Twelfth-Century Renaissance (Manchester, 1999), 1-11, 216.
According to a leading historian, the phrase ‘Twelfth-Century Renaissance’ is ‘... a mere term of convenience which can mean almost anything we choose to make it mean... the sort of sublime meaninglessness which is required in words of high but uncertain import.’ [R.W. Southern, ‘The place of England in the twelfth-century renaissance,’ History 45 (1960), p. 201]
Fulbert of Chartres
Guibert of Nogent A Monk’s Confession: The Memoirs of Guibert of Nogent, trans. and ed. Paul J. Archambault (Pennsylvania, 1996)
The quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy).
The trivium was taught more widely than the quadrivium.
According to Adam of Perseigne, ‘...rhetoric adorns the discourse that grammar constructs from words, and... dialectic sharpens it by distinguishing truth from falsity.’ (Quoted in Swanson, The Twelfth-Century Renaissance, p. 29)