* This essay appears here with the permission of Edward Arnold, publishers, and, along with the essays by Andreas Huyssen and Ann Douglas in Modernism/Modernity 5, no. 3, derive from papers delivered at the conference "Modern Culture and Modernity Today" held at Brown University, 14-15 March 1997, organized by Professor Robert Scholes and sponsored by the Malcolm S. Forbes Center, the Department of Modern Culture and Media at Brown University, and Modernism/Modernity. Our gratitude to Professor Scholes and Mark Gaipa for their collaboration.--editors' note
** For critical readings, research, and suggestions I wish to thank Paula Amad, Dudley Andrew, Bill Brown, Susan Buck-Morss, Jean Comaroff, Michael Geyer, Tom Gunning, Lesley Stern, Yuri Tsivian, and Martha Ward, as well as inspiring audiences and commentators in various places where I presented versions of this paper.
1. See, for instance, Leo Charney and Vanessa R. Schwartz, eds., Cinema and the Invention of Modern Life (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); John Orr, Cinema and Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1993); and Anne Friedberg, Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993). In addition, of course, there have been numerous studies on the impact of cinema on experimentation in other media, especially fiction, painting, and theater.
2. See, for instance, Marshall Berman, All That Is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982); Andreas Huyssen, After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986); Peter Wollen, "Out of the Past: Fashion/Orientalism/The Body" (1987), in Raiding the Icebox: Reflections on Twentieth-Century Culture (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993); Richard Taruskin, "A Myth of the Twentieth Century: The Rite of Spring, the Tradition of the New, and 'Music Itself,'" Modernism/Modernity 2, no. 1 (January 1995): 1-26; Rosalind Krauss, The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Modernist Myths (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985); Griselda Pollock, "Modernity and the Spaces of Femininity," in Pollock, Vision and Difference (London: Routledge, 1988), 50-90; Molly Nesbit, "The Rat's Ass," October 56 (spring 1991): 6-20; Matthew Teitelbaum, ed., Montage and Modern Life 1919-1942 (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992); Houston A. Baker, Jr., Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987); Michael North, The Dialect of Modernism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994); Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); Homi Bhabha, The Location of Culture (New York: Routledge, 1994), ch. 12; Tejaswini Niranjana, P. Sudhir, Vivek Dhareshwar, eds., Interrogating Modernity: Culture and Colonialism in India (Calcutta: Seagull Books, 1993); Arjun Appadurai, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996); Néstor García Canclini, "Latin American Contradictions: Modernism without Modernization?" in Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity, trans. C. L. Chiappari and S. L. Lopez (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995), 41-65; and Sharan A. Minichiello, ed., Japan's Competing Modernities: Issues in Culture and Democracy 1900-1930 (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1998).
3. Lawrence Rainey and Robert von Hallberg, "Editorial/Introduction," Modernism/Modernity 1, no. 1 (January 1994): 1.
4. Peter Bürger, following Adorno, asserts that the very category of "style" is rendered problematic by the advanced commodification of art in the twentieth century and considers the refusal to develop a coherent style (as in dada and surrealism) a salient feature of avant-gardist, as distinct from modernist, aesthetics; see Bürger, Theory of the Avant-Garde, trans. Michael Shaw (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984), esp. ch. 2, "The Historicity of Aesthetic Categories." The opening up of both modernist and avant-garde canons, however, shows a great overlap between the two, just as the effort on the part of particular modernist artists and movements to restore the institutional status of art may well go along with avant-gardist modes of behavior and publicity; see my Ezra Pounds frühe Poetik zwischen Aufklärung und Avantgarde (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1979). See also Huyssen, After the Great Divide, esp. ch. 2, "Adorno in Reverse: From Hollywood to Richard Wagner."
5. In the second version of his famous essay, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1935), Benjamin wrote of the "the theory [die Lehre] of perception that the Greeks called aesthetics" (Gesammelte Schriften, ed. Rolf Tiedemann and Hermann Schweppenhäuser [Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp, 1989], 7:381; my translation). He conceived of the politics of this essay very much as an effort to confront the aesthetic tradition narrowly understood, in particular the persistence of aestheticism in contemporary literature and art, with the changes wrought upon the human sensorium by industrial and military technology. See Susan Buck-Morss, "Aesthetics and Anaesthetics: Walter Benjamin's Artwork Essay Reconsidered," October 62 (fall 1992): 3-41; see also my "Benjamin and Cinema: Not a One-Way Street," Critical Inquiry 25, no. 2 (winter 1999): 306-43.
6. On the cinema of the Czarist period, see Yuri Tsivian, "Some Preparatory Remarks on Russian Cinema," in Testimoni silenziosi: Filmi russi 1908-1919/Silent Witnesses: Russian Films 1908-1919, ed. Paolo Cherchi Usai et al. (Pordenone, London: British Film Institute, 1989); idem, Early Cinema in Russia and Its Cultural Reception (1991), trans. Alan Bodger (1994; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998); also see the contributions of Paolo Cherchi Usai, Mary Ann Doane, Heide Schlüpmann, and myself to two special issues of the journal Cinefocus 2, no. 1 (fall 1991) and 2, no. 2 (spring 1992).
7. See Yuri Tsivian, "Between the Old and the New: Soviet Film Culture in 1918-1924," Griffithiana 55/56 (1996): 15-63; hereafter abbreviated "BON"; idem, "Cutting and Framing in Bauer's and Kuleshov's Films," Kintop: Jahrbuch zur Erforschung des frühen Films 1 (1992): 103-13; and Kristin Thompson, David Bordwell, Film History: An Introduction (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994), 130.
8. See, for instance, The Weimar Republic Sourcebook, ed. Anton Kaes, Martin Jay, and Edward Dimendberg (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), section 15; and Antonio Gramsci's famous essay, "Americanism and Fordism," in Selections from the Prison Notebooks [1929-1935], ed. and trans. Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (New York: International Publishers, 1971), 277-318. See also Mary Nolan, Visions of Modernity: American Business and the Modernization of Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994); Thomas J. Saunders, Hollywood in Berlin: American Cinema and Weimar Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), esp. chs. 4 and 5; Alf Lüdtke, Inge Marßolek, Adelheid von Saldern, eds., Amerikanisierung: Traum und Alptraum im Deutschland des 20. Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1996); and Jean-Louis Cohen and Humbert Damisch, eds., Américanisme et modernité: L'idéal américain dans l'architecture (Paris: EHESS, Flammarion, 1993).
9. See "BON," 39-45.
10. A related recruiting of "low" popular culture for the programmatic attack on the institution of art can be found in western European avant-garde movements, in particular dada and surrealism.
11. See Robert B. Pippin, Modernism as a Philosophical Problem (London: Blackwell, 1991), 4.
12. See Thomas Elsaesser, "What Makes Hollywood Run?" American Film 10, no. 7 (May 1985): 52-5, 68; Renoir quoted on 52.
13. Robert Brasillach and Maurice Bardèche, Histoire du cinéma, 2nd ed. (Paris: Denoël, 1943), 369, quoted in David Bordwell, On the History of Film Style (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997), 47. With regard to the earlier edition (1935), which bestows the term "classic" on international silent film of the period 1924-1929, Bordwell remarks that the invocation of the term recalls "the common art-historical conception of classicism as a dynamic stability in which innovations submit to an overall balance of form and function" (40). On the political stance of the authors, in particular Brasillach, see Alice Kaplan, Reproductions of Banality: Fascism, Literature, and French Intellectual Life (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986), chs. 6 and 7, and Bordwell, ibid., 38-41.
14. André Bazin, "The Evolution of the Western," in What Is Cinema? sel. and ed. Hugh Gray (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971), 2:149. In "The Western: Or the American Film Par Excellence," Bazin invokes Corneille to describe the "simplicity" of western scripts as a quality that both lends them "naive greatness" and makes them a subject for parody (2:147). Also see Bazin, "The Evolution of the Language of Cinema," in What Is Cinema? 1:29. Dudley Andrew has drawn my attention to Eric Rohmer who during the same period developed a notion of cinematic classicism that more broadly linked "modern" cinema to the eighteenth-century tradition. See Rohmer, Le Gout de la beauté, ed. Jean Narboni (Paris: Editions de l'Etoile, 1984), esp. "L'Age classique de cinéma," 25-99; see also Bordwell, History of Film Style, 77.
15. André Bazin, "La Politique des auteurs," in The New Wave, ed. Peter Graham (New York: Doubleday, 1968), 143, 154.
16. See, for example, Jean-Louis Comolli and Jean Narboni, "Cinema/Ideology/Criticism," in Screen Reader 1 (London: SEFT, 1977); Janet Bergstrom, "Enunciation and Sexual Difference (Part I)," Camera Obscura 3-4 (1979); as well as writings by Comolli, Jean-Louis Baudry, Christian Metz, Raymond Bellour, Stephen Heath, Laura Mulvey, and Colin MacCabe in Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology: A Film Theory Reader, ed. Philip Rosen (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986).
17. See Judith Mayne, "S/Zand Film Theory," Jump Cut 12-13 (December 1976): 41-5. A notable exception to this tendency is Raymond Bellour who stresses the formal and stylistic principles at work in classical cinema (patterns of repetition-resolution, rhyming, symmetry, redundancy, interlacing of micro- and macrostructures) by which classical films produce their conscious and unconscious meanings and effects. See Bellour, L'Analyse du Film (Paris: Editions Albatros, 1979), which includes the texts translated as "Segmenting/Analyzing" and "The Obvious and the Code," in Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology, 66-92, 93-101.
18. See David Bordwell, Janet Staiger, Kristin Thompson, The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985); hereafter abbreviated CHC. In The Classical Hollywood Cinema, "realism" is equated with verisimilitude and, as such, figures as one of four types of narrative motivation--compositional, realistic, intertextual, artistic (CHC, 19). While this qualification seems appropriate vis-à-vis the diversity of Hollywood genres (think of the musical, for instance), it does not make the issue of cinematic "realism" go away, whether as rhetorical claim, ideological fiction, or aesthetic possibility. In this context, see Christine Gledhill's interesting attempt to understand "realism" as American cinema's way of facilitating the "modernization of melodrama" (Gledhill, "Between Melodrama and Realism: Anthony Asquith's Underground and King Vidor's The Crowd," in Classical Hollywood Narrative: The Paradigm Wars, ed. Jane Gaines [Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1992], 131).
19. See Rick Altman, "Dickens, Griffith, and Film Theory Today," in Classical Hollywood Narrative, 15-17, discusses the problematic relationship of Bordwell's concept of cinematic classicism with its French literary antecedents.
20. Stendhal, quoted in CHC, 367-8.
21. Altman, "Dickens, Griffith, and Film Theory Today," 14.
22. The debate on melodrama in cinema studies is extensive; for an exemplary collection see Christine Gledhill, ed., Home is Where the Heart Is: Studies in Melodrama and the Woman's Film (London: British Film Institute, 1987), especially Gledhill's introduction, "The Melodramatic Field: An Investigation," 5-39; Gledhill, "Between Melodrama and Realism: Anthony Asquith's Underground and King Vidor's The Crowd," in Classical Hollywood Narrative; and Linda Williams, "Melodrama Revised," in Refiguring American Film Genres: Theory and History, ed. Nick Browne (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998). On genres that involve the body in nonclassical ways, see Linda Williams, "Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess," Film Quarterly 44, no. 4 (summer 1991): 2-13. On the mutually competing aesthetics of slapstick comedy, see Donald Crafton, "Pie and Chase: Gag, Spectacle and Narrative in Slapstick Comedy," in Classical Hollywood Comedy, ed. Kristine Brunovska Karnick and Henry Jenkins (New York: Routledge, 1994), 106-119; see also William Paul, Laughing Screaming: Modern Hollywood Horror and Comedy (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994).
23. Gertrude Stein, "Portraits and Repetition," in Lectures in America (New York: Random House, 1935), 177. For a critical account of the industrial, political, and cultural dimensions of Fordism, see Terry Smith, Making the Modern: Industry, Art, and Design in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
24. See D. N. Rodowick, The Crisis of Political Modernism: Criticism and Ideology in Contemporary Film Theory (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988); see also Sylvia Harvey, May '68 and Film Culture (London: British Film Institute, 1978), ch. 2; and Martin Walsh, The Brechtian Aspects of Radical Cinema, ed. Keith M. Griffiths (London: British Film Institute, 1981). For an example of the binary construction of this approach, see Peter Wollen, "Godard and Counter-Cinema: Vent d'est" (1972), in Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology, 120-9.
25. See, for instance, Kristin Thompson and David Bordwell, "Space and Narrative in the Films of Ozu," Screen 17, no. 2 (summer 1976): 41-73; Thompson, Breaking the Glass Armor: Neoformalist Film Analysis (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), part 6; and Bordwell, Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), ch. 12.
26. Such statements bear an uncanny similarity with Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno's analysis of the "Culture Industry" as an all-absorbing totality in Dialectic of Enlightenment (1944/47), though obviously without the despair and pessimism that prompted that analysis.
27. The Basel Kunstmuseum mounted an impressive exhibition of classicist modernism in music and the arts; see the catalogue, Canto d'Amore: Klassizistische Moderne in Musik und bildernder Kunst 1914-1935, ed. Gottfried Boehm, Ulrich Mosch, and Katharina Schmidt (Basel: Kunstmuseum, 1996); and the collection of essays and sources accompanying the concurrent concert series, Klassizistische Moderne, ed. Felix Meyer (Winterthur: Amadeus Verlag, 1996).
28. See CHC, 7-9, 58-9; Bordwell, Narration in the Fiction Film, ch. 3 and passim; and idem, "A Case for Cognitivism," Iris 5, no. 2 (1989): 11-40. See also Dudley Andrew's introduction to this issue of Iris, devoted to "Cinema and Cognitive Psychology," 1-10; and the continuation of the debate between Bordwell and Andrew in Iris 6, no. 2 (summer 1990): 107-16. In the effort to make cognitivism a central paradigm in film studies, Bordwell is joined by, among others, Noël Carroll; see Bordwell and Carroll, eds., Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), 37-70; and Carroll, Theorizing the Moving Image (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
29. Bordwell, "La Nouvelle Mission de Feuillade; or, What Was Mise-en-Scène?," The Velvet Light Trap 37 (spring 1996): 23; see also idem, On the History of Film Style, 142; and idem, "Convention, Construction, and Cinematic Vision," in Post-Theory, 87-107.
30. See Bordwell, "La Nouvelle Mission de Feuillade"; On the History of Film Style, ch. 6; and Classical Hollywood Cinema, ch. 30. Kristin Thompson's new study is concerned with the persistence of classical principles past 1960, see her "Storytelling in the New Hollywood: The Case of Groundhog Day," paper presented at the Chicago Film Seminar, 3 October 1996.
31. Rosen, Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology, 8.
32. Patrice Petro, drawing on the work of Karsten Witte and Eric Rentschler, contrasts this centrifugal quality of Hollywood cinema with the literalization of classical norms in Nazi cinema: "The Nazi cinema [in its strategies of visual enticement and simultaneous narrative containment] represents the theory (of classical Hollywood narrative) put into practice rather than the practice (of Hollywood filmmaking) put into theory" (Petro, "Nazi Cinema at the Intersection of the Classical and the Popular," New German Critique 74 [spring-summer 1998]: 54).
33. Dipesh Chakrabarty, "Postcoloniality and the Artifice of History: Who Speaks for 'Indian' Pasts?" Representations 37 (winter 1992): 20.
34. Victoria de Grazia, "Americanism for Export," Wedge 7-8 (winter-spring 1985): 73. See also de Grazia, "Mass Culture and Sovereignty: The American Challenge to European Cinemas, 1920-1960," Journal of Modern History 61, no. 1 (March 1989): 53-87.
35. De Grazia, "Americanism for Export," 77. Mica Nava, "The Cosmopolitanism of Commerce and the Allure of Difference: Selfridges, the Russian Ballet and the Tango 1911-1914," International Journal of Cultural Studies 1, no. 2 (August 1998): 163-96, argues for a similar distinction, that is, between a commercial culture of cosmopolitan modernism shaped in the United States and the cultural imperialism of colonial regimes.
36. On the role of foreign markets for the American film industry, see Kristin Thompson, Exporting Entertainment (London: British Film Institute, 1985); Ian Jarvie, Hollywood's Overseas Campaign: The North Atlantic Movie Trade, 1920-1950 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992); David W. Ellwood and Rob Kroes, eds., Hollywood in Europe: Experiences of a Cultural Hegemony (Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1994); and Ruth Vasey, The World According to Hollywood, 1918-1939 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997). On the celebration of film as a new "universal language" during the 1910s, see my Babel and Babylon: Spectatorship in American Silent Film (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991), 76-81, 183-7.
37. On the practice of converting happy endings of American films into "Russian endings," see Yuri Tsivian, "Some Preparatory Remarks on Russian Cinema," Silent Witnesses, 24; see also Mary Ann Doane, "Melodrama, Temporality, Recognition: American and Russian Silent Cinema," Cinefocus 2, no. 1 (fall 1991): 13-26.
38. See, for instance, Rosie Thomas, "Indian Cinema: Pleasures and Popularity," Screen 26, no. 1 (January-February 1985): 116-31; Sara Dickey, Cinema and the Urban Poor in South India (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993); Stephen Putnam Hughes, "'Is There Anyone out There?': Exhibition and the Formation of Silent Film Audiences in South India," Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1996; Onookome Okome and Jonathan Haynes, Cinema and Social Change in West Africa (Jos, Nigeria: Nigerian Film Corporation, 1995), ch. 6; see also Hamid Naficy, "Theorizing 'Third World' Film Spectatorship," Wide Angle 18, no. 4 (October 1996): 3-26.
39. For an example of such a critique, see Peter Wollen, "Modern Times: Cinema/ Americanism/The Robot" (1988), in Raiding the Icebox, 35-71.
40. The phrase "Americanization from below" is used by Kaspar Maase in his study of West-German youth culture of the 1950s, BRAVO Amerika: Erkundungen zur Jugendkultur der Bundesrepublik in den fünfziger Jahren (Hamburg: Junius, 1992), 19.
41. On the different economy of gender relations connoted by American culture in Weimar Germany, see Nolan, Visions of Modernity, 120-7; and Eve Rosenhaft, "Lesewut, Kinosucht, Radiotismus: Zur (geschlechter-)politischen Relevanz neuer Massenmedien in den 1920er Jahren," in Lüdtke, Marßolek, von Saldern, eds., Amerikanisierung, 119-43.
42. See my essays "Benjamin and Cinema," and "America, Paris, the Alps: Kracauer (and Benjamin) on Cinema and Modernity," in Charney and Schwartz, eds. Cinema and the Invention of Modern Life, 362-402.
43. J. G. Fichte, quoted in Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens, Scott Lash, Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994), 175.
44. See Beck, Giddens, Lash, Reflexive Modernization; see also Giddens, Modernity and Self-Identity (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991). Lash, "Reflexive Modernization: The Aesthetic Dimension," Theory, Culture and Society 10, no. 1 (1993): 1-23, criticizes his coauthors for both the notion of a "high" or "simple" modernity and for their neglect of the "aesthetic dimension," but he does not develop the latter in terms of changes in the institution of art and the new regimes of sensory perception emerging with mass-mediated modernity.
45. This is not to say that the cinema was unique or original in forging a modern type of publicness. It was part of, and borrowed from, a whole array of institutions--department stores, world fairs, tourism, amusement parks, vaudeville, etc.--that involved new regimes of sensory perception and new forms of sociability. At the same time, the cinema represented, multiplied, and deterritorialized these new experiential regimes. My understanding of the public sphere as a general, social "horizon of experience" is indebted to Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge, The Public Sphere and Experience (1972), trans. Peter Labanyi, Jamie Daniel, Assenka Oksiloff, intr. Miriam Hansen (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993).
46. [Siegfried Kracauer], "Berliner Nebeneinander: Kara-Iki-- Scala-Ball im Savoy--Menschen im Hotel," Frankfurter Zeitung 17 February 1933, my translation; see also "Cult of Distraction" (1926) and other essays in: Kracauer, The Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays, trans., ed., and intr. by Thomas Y. Levin (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).
47. [Siegfried Kracauer], "Artistisches und Amerikanisches," Frankfurter Zeitung, 29 January 1926, my translation.
48. See, for instance, Eileen Bowser, "Subverting the Conventions: Slapstick as Genre," in The Slapstick Symposium, ed. Bowser (Brussels: Féderation Internationale des Archives du Film, 1988) 13-17; Crafton, "Pie and Chase"; and Charles Musser, "Work, Ideology and Chaplin's Tramp," Radical History 41 (April 1988): 37-66.
49. Benjamin, "One-Way Street" (1928), trans. Edmund Jephcott, in Selected Writings, ed. Marcus Bullock and Michael W. Jennings (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996), 476 (translation modified).
50. Antonin Artaud, "The Shell and the Clergyman: Film Scenario," transition 29-30 (June 1930): 65, quoted in Siegfried Kracauer, Theory of Film (1960; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997), 189; Louis Aragon, "On Decor" (1918) in French Film Theory and Criticism: A History/Anthology, 1907-1939, ed. Richard Abel (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988), 1:165. See also Colette, "Cinema: The Cheat"; Louis Delluc, "Beauty in the Cinema" (1917) and "From Orestes to Rio Jim" (1921); Blaise Cendrars, "The Modern: A New Art, the Cinema" (1919); and Jean Epstein, "Magnification" (1921) in ibid. See also "Bonjour cinéma and Other Writings by Jean Epstein," trans. Tom Milne, Afterimage, 10 [n.d.], esp. 9-16; and Philippe Soupault, "Cinema U.S.A." (1924), in The Shadow and Its Shadow: Surrealist Writings on Cinema, ed. Paul Hammond (London: British Film Institute, 1978), 32-3.
51. Benjamin develops the notion of an "optical unconscious" in "A Short History of Photography" (1931), trans. Stanley Mitchell, Screen 13 (spring 1972): 7-8; and in his famous essay, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1936), in Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt, trans. Harry Zohn (New York: Schocken, 1969), 235-7. See also his defense of Battleship Potemkin, "A Discussion of Russian Filmic Art and Collectivist Art in General" (1927), in Kaes, Jay, Dimendberg, eds., Weimar Republic Sourcebook, 627.