15. Europeans were not the first to explore the world and come in contact with far-off peoples and lands. What were the maritime patterns of Chinese and Muslim global exploration before 1450?
Ans: Students should discuss Chinese exploration, particularly that of the Ming, who sponsored several imperial fleets to extend not only trade but also Ming dominion and power. Ming fleets were grander and more impressive than the later European fleets. The Chinese, however, quickly abandoned maritime expansion in favor of their land-based empire. The rise of medieval Islam led to a network of traders in the Indian Ocean.
16. The Chinese and the Muslims were not the only peoples to explore the maritime world before the Europeans. Trace the maritime progress of Malayo-Polynesians, Africans, and Amerindians before 1450.
Ans: Malayo-Polynesians traveled the Pacific Basin for thousands of years, covering several thousand miles in relatively small craft. Linguistic and biological evidence supports the intentional nature of Malayo-Polynesian expansion. West Africans explored the Atlantic in large oceangoing canoes. South American Arawaks and Caribs colonized the islands and territories of the Caribbean Basin and also undertook voyages to the North American mainland.
17. European overseas expansion before 1550 was the product of two related phenomena. What were these phenomena, and how did they encourage European expansion?
Ans: First, European economic, religious, and political incentives should be explored. Europe's commercial revival, in particular trade with the East, was a motivating factor in exploration. Political unification and the new monarchies played a major role, as did the desire to expand Christianity. Second, maritime and military technologies allowed for the full expression of those incentives, resulting in overseas expansion. The development of the caravel, new mapping and navigation skills, and firearms all contributed to the ability of Europeans to explore and conquer.
18. Describe the interactions of Portuguese and West African peoples, from initial contact by explorers to the permanent settlements established by Portuguese traders. In what ways were interactions between East Africans and the Portuguese similar to or different from interactions between the Portuguese and the Indian Ocean states?
Ans: Early Portuguese visitors sometimes failed to make a favorable impression on African rulers, but Portuguese officials were not above using displays of pomp and pageantry to try to impress Africans. The permanent outposts Europeans established along the coast were primarily for commerce. Students should emphasize the control exercised by Africans. The existence and continued operations of the Portuguese could be halted if Africans so desired. Trade for slaves was not unequal; the Portuguese did not offer valueless trinkets in exchange. Some African kingdoms rejected missionaries and Christianity, while others embraced them. In East Africa, the situation was quite different, partly because of Muslim suspicion of Portuguese motives. Except for their allies Malindi and Ethiopia, the Portuguese bombarded and assaulted rival trading centers. For instance, a fleet of eighty-one Portuguese ships and seven thousand men devastated Swahili Coast cities. Portuguese power was ocean-based and exerted very little control on land. Thus, the maritime trading cities and empires of the Indian Ocean were much more vulnerable than the land-based empires of West Africa.
19. What was the impact of the Spanish in the Americas, as compared with the Portuguese in Africa and the East? What enabled the Spanish to conquer such an enormous territory with so few men?
Ans: The Spanish were more likely to seek territory and conquest, whereas the Portuguese preferred trading partners. Besides, Amerindians had been completely isolated from the rest of the world—in contrast to the peoples that the Portuguese encountered, who were not strangers to world commerce. Epidemic disease reduced the Amerindian population dramatically, allowing the Spanish to gain a foothold. Spanish steel swords, armor, horses, firearms, and deceit, along with allies among the Amerindians, finished the conquest that disease had begun. Spanish imposition of forced labor and religious conversion helped control Spain's new empire.
20. How significant was the role of religion in driving the forces of exploration from Europe?
Ans: While not a prime factor in the era of exploration, religious motives did exist. The two main areas that sent explorers, Iberia and Genoa, differed in their religious approaches. The argument could be made that Genoa's purpose was entirely commercial, while the Spanish and Portuguese were competing in both religion and commerce with the Islamic areas that had already established trade, technology, and navigation ventures within Africa, around it, and extending into India and Southeast Asia. Conversion was a stated mission of Prince Henry the Navigator's voyages, which were funded at least in part by the Order of Christ but which also established diplomatic and trade contacts in Christianized Africa. Islamic contenders in Iberia and North Africa had also established roots and routes in Africa that predated Christianizing missions.
21. What Chinese dynasty sent fleets to make contact with the peoples of the Indian Ocean in the early fifteenth century?
22. The island of Madagascar was settled by
E) both A and B.
Ans: E Page: 414
23. Sailing in the Indian Ocean was less difficult and dangerous than in other places because
A) it is shallow.
B) there is less wind.
C) the monsoon winds are predictable.
D) it isn't an ocean, but rather a large saltwater lake.
E) there are no sharks.
Ans: C Page: 415
24. How did the rise of medieval Islam give trade in the Indian Ocean an important boost?
A) The Muslim cities in the Middle East provided a demand for commodities.
B) Networks of Muslim traders tied the region together.
C) The Muslim traders shared a common ethic, language, and law.
D) Muslim traders actively spread their religion to distant trading cities.
E) All of these
Ans: E Page: 415
25. The Ming Empire attempted to create new Indian Ocean contacts by
A) sending out seven imperial fleets between 1405 and 1433.
B) employing Mongol horsemen to travel the Silk Road.
C) attempting to defeat the Portuguese in the famous sea battle of Calcutta.
D) establishing maritime courts to deal with pirates and privateers.
E) building “artificial” islands.
Ans: A Page: 415
26. Which of the following statements is not true of Chinese-African contacts circa 1415-1433?
A) At least three trading cities in East Africa sent delegations to China in 1415.
B) Zheng's voyages were extended to Africa.
C) Zheng's voyages stimulated the Swahili silk market.
D) The Chinese imported more pepper as a result of this contact.
E) Many cultural misunderstandings led to the Sino-African War.