How were the first inhabitants of Australia speculated to originate?
The aborigines are thought to have come from Southeast Asia by way of some seaworthy watercraft. They were hunters and gatherers who used wood, stone, and bone and continue to maintain their hunter and gathering lifestyle in modern time. (p. 2)
What are the pros and cons of the Australian aboriginal hunter-gatherer lifestyle?
The hunter-gatherer lifestyle enforced mobility and created total dependence on natural resources, but it also allowed leisure time. The lifestyle forced the aborigines to keep their material wants to a minimum and direct their energy towards developing complex social and ceremonial lives thought necessary to reproduce resources. (p. 3)
How did foreign visitors affect Australian aborigine culture?
Some aborigines cooperated and conflicted with the first contact of visiting Europeans. The Europeans influenced aborigine material culture, but did not change aborigine society until the Europeans permanently settled on the southeast coast in 1788. (p. 5)
What makes Australian aborigines distinct from other groups?
Each social group is particularly bonded to a certain stretch of territory through material needs and sense of identity. Individual social groups also identify with other aboriginal social groups through shared language and values. Importance is stressed on intergroup contacts. (p. 8)
What does the name “Mardu” refer to?
Mardu refers to the linguistic groups that reside around Lake Disappointment on the western side of the Gibson Desert. “Mardu” is often used as a word for “people.” (p. 12)
The Mardu Aborigines – Chapter 2
Which resource tends to be the scarcest and what do the Mardu people do to find it? Water, they follow animals, watch were plants grow, find water in known rock wells, and dig up roots of trees.
Do men or women hunt and/or gather the majority of the food? What percentage is it of their diet? Women do of course ;-) They gather acacia seeds, bush plums, grass, small animals such as lizards, snakes, etc.
What are the primary ingredients for creating fire? Side of a spear thrower, kangaroo dung and tinder-dry grass; side of a spear thrower forms part of the main fire-making toolset. A mixture of tinder-dry grass and powdered kangaroo dun is rammed into a split piece of dead wood. The thrower is sawed rapidly across the open crack and ignites the mixture. It usually takes only one or two minutes of hard sawing to produce fire.
The Mardu Aborigines – Chapter 7
What does “Mardu” mean?
What were European invaders and Missionaries called?
“Whitefella” & “Christian”
What was Jigalong’s history & usage?
The territory was originally Nyiyabarli, but was transferred to European invaders and turned into a maintenance depot for supplies but primarily Camel & Rabbit breeding. Then it was turned over to a protestant group as a missionary post. Jigalong provided government rations to the local aborigines. Now it is an aboriginal community.
Why did Aborigines abandoned their way of life (living off the land)?
Because they became dependant on rations like tea, flour, twist tobacco, sugar and other useful and easily portable items.
Aborigines had a community network that span over many miles & reached many aboriginal groups & communities. What did the Mardu call this system?
The Kinship system.
Polygamy: What were two of the ways that the aborigines dealt with beating the polygamous marriage system?
Child support allowance = independence. Singles camps = free of demands of marriage.
What was the problem camp?
What were monumental Legislation that affected aborigines?
Aboriginal land rights (northern territory act) of 1976 = first and strongest. Aboriginal land trust in 1972 = creation of an official Jigalong area, but not the traditional homelands that the Mardu thought as inalienably theirs.
Who was the segment of Mardu that got into the most trouble? And what was it?
The young men… From unemployment and boredom. Trouble was alcoholism, vandalism, break-ins theft, law breaking in sexual matters = etc.
AMAN Chapters 1-6
How is the Somali’s lineage tracked?
Through the father’s line
Is divorce acceptable in the Somalia culture?
Who is the descendant of the Profit and a religious leader? This person also married Aman’s mother.
How many wives can one man have at once?
Why does a woman have to stay home for 3 months after she is divorced?
To make sure she is not pregnant
A Somali girl with a white man was called what?
What is the new way of doing circumcision on girls called?
Sunna which is a symbolic ritual
What is amboolo made of?
Dried meat, beans, and white corn
Sheikhs, religious specialists, are devoted to what?