II. NATIVE AMERICAN ORAL POETRY (McQuade 30-32)
1. These are poems by Mayan poets of _____________ America, an area which had suffered brutal Spanish conquest.
2. Both poems stress the violence, disruption, and disease brought by the Spanish.
3. “THE BEGINNING OF SICKNESS” (31-32)
(1) Theme: The contrast of life in Central America before and after the arrival of the Spanish.
(2) Life before the Spanish came was a Native American Paradise: the people knew neither _______ nor _____________ nor ______________. These the Spanish brought.
4. “THEY CAME FROM THE EAST” (32)
(1) Theme: Christianity brought _____________, not peace, to the Native Americans.
(2) The Spanish, like the ___________ _____________ in the Biblical account of the birth of Christ, came from the _____.
(3) However, the Spanish brought not the Christian message of peace and brotherhood, but its opposites--______ and slavery.
III. COLUMBUS 1. Columbus (1451-1506) was an _______________-born navigator, who sailed for King Ferdinand and Queen ______________ of Spain.
2. Columbus made ___________ voyages between 1492 and 1503.
3. The FIRST VOYAGE (50-53): Columbus’s account of this voyage concentrates on the natives. It establishes some of the European prejudices about the native Indians:
(1) The Indians were gullible since they could be entranced by trinkets or “things of ____________ value, in which they took much ___________” (51).
(2) They are barbaric since they “go quite as __________ as their mothers bore them” (51).
(3) The simple Indians can “easily be made ______________” (51).
(4) Columbus hopes that they can tell him where there was gold: I “worked hard to know if there was any ___________” (53).
It contains the first use of the word Cannibal, meaning simply Caribbean Indian, but because these natives are said to “__________ [humans up] and then ________ them” (54), the term has come to mean “humans who eat other humans.”
The Cannibals killed the first European, but in self-defense since the Spaniards were pursuing them.
The speaker’s rape of a native American woman is vividly described: “Since I wanted to have my _______ with her and she was not ___________, she worked me over so badly with her __________ that I wished I had never begun. [Finally], I got a _________ and __________ her up so tightly that she made unheard of cries,” but afterwards she accepted her “school for _________” position (55).
5. The THIRD VOYAGE (56-60): This is Columbus’s own account.
Here he states his belief that in these islands (now the West Indies) he had found the exact location of the Biblical Garden of Eden: “But I am completely persuaded in my own mind that the Terrestrial ______________ is in the place I have described” (59).
He stresses the Christian impulse of his exploration: Christianity “will here be ___________” (59) and on all of the islands he visits “I order a ___________ to be set up” (59).
6. The FOURTH (AND LAST) VOYAGE (60-62): Again, we have Columbus’s own account.
Here a fever-ridden Columbus records that he had a visionary dream in which an angelic voice told him he was the Chosen One, intended by God to find the way to the Indies: “What more did [God] do for ____________ or for ____________ His servant than for thee [Columbus]. . . . From thy birth He had ever held thee in __________ charge. . . . The __________, so rich a portion of the world, He gave thee for thine own” (61).