The July Crisis Producto de B. Arthur Hecho en eeuu round 6 Tossups

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The July Crisis

Producto de B. Arthur

Hecho en EEUU

Round 6
1. When a scholar named Fang refused to write a speech for this ruler, he had Fang, nine generations of Fang’s family, and all of Fang’s students killed. On the advice of a magistrate from Shandong Province, he began a revitalization of the Grand Canal. On the invitation of the deposed Tran Dynasty, this ruler launched a war against the Ho Dynasty, though his victory was short-lived because he would soon have to deal with an uprising led by Le Lo in Vietnam. More successfully, this ruler, who came to power by overthrowing the Jianwen Emperor, dispatched several naval expeditions led by the Hui eunuch Zheng Ho and began construction of the Forbidden City. For ten points, name this Chinese ruler whose name translates as “perpetual happiness”, a son of the Hongwu Emperor and the third emperor of the Ming dynasty.

Answer: Yongle Emperor [accept: Zhu Di]

2. In 1941, one of these named Marcelino Soule was presented to Mayor La Guardia, but was quickly arrested after refusing to pay a cab fare. These people play a bone-tossing game known as taba as well as a polo-like game once played with a live duck. They carry a knife called the facon, which is used for a type of ceremonial combat called duelo criollo. Painted by Florencio Campos in the 20th century, an army of these led by Martin de Guemes won the Battle of Salta, and many were employed by caudillos as cavalrymen. Immortalized by Jose Hernandez in the national epic Martin Fierro, for ten points name this type of cowboy found on the Argentine pampas.

Answer: Gauchos

3. Strabo correctly observed that this city’s economic prosperity originally had much to do with the fact that it essentially possessed two harbors, Lechaeum and Kenchreae, although he is perhaps less accurate in his suggestion that its economy was propped up by the thousand prostitutes servicing the temple of Aphrodite here. Those two ports were connected by the Diolkos, a stone ramp over which ships could be carried. This city is associated with a type of black-figure pottery and a type of bronze. Psammetichus was a ruler of this city descended from the tyrant Cypselus. The general Diaeus was unsuccessful in defending this city, leading to a sacking by Lucius Mummius. This home of Periander was noteworthy for its bad relations with its colony Corcyra, which led to the Peloponnesian War. For ten points, name this Greek city-state located on an isthmus associated with a type of column and a type of leather.

Answer: Corinth

4. This event was condemned by Security Council Resolution 134. It was preceded by the Cato Manor massacre, in which nine police officers were killed by an angry mob, and it occurred on the same day as the smaller events at Evaton and Langa. Many victims of this event were giving the thumbs-up salute while attending an event organized by Robert Subukwe on Bree Street. This event resulted in the formation of the Poqo guerilla organization, and it led the British Commonwealth to expel the perpetrating country, which was led by Hendrik Verwoerd. For ten points, name this protest against the pass card system that resulted in South African police shooting 87 Africans, a 1960 massacre that wasn’t Soweto.

Answer: Sharpeville Massacre

5. His early reign saw the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier and an invasion by Maximilian I of Austria, part of a conflict against the regents appointed for him by the Estates General of Tours, known as the “Mad War”. Those regents were Peter II, Duke of Bourbon, and this man’s older sister, Anne. His most influential advisor, who would later be Duke of Nola, was Etienne de Vesc, who urged this man to take advantage of the death of Rene of Anjou. This man was defeated at the Battle of Fornovo by the League of Venice, which was formed to counter him. For ten points, name this French King who claimed Naples and is sometimes credited with ending the Renaissance with his 1494 invasion of Italy.

Answer: Charles VIII of France

6. Security Council Resolutions 425 and 426 condemned one of these incidents that was sparked by the Coastal Road Massacre and the earlier Ma'alot and Kiryat Shmona massacres.  The end of one came with the May 17 Agreement, while another ended after the previously mentioned Security Council Resolution 425 was finally fulfilled, 22 years after its passing. The most recent one was an unnamed response to Operation Truthful Promise, and one was abbreviated as Operation Sheleg, while another was known as Operation Litani after the river it followed.  The purpose of the second was to dislodge an organization which had fled Jordan after Black September. The SLA, a Christian organization, frequently helped armies performing this action, though they are now a small minority in the target country, which is often the source of Katyusha rockets. For ten points, name this action that took place in 1978, 1982, and 2006, when a country home to Hezbullah was invaded by the IDF.

Answer: Israeli invasions of Lebanon [generously accept reasonable equivalents, including, but not limited to: Israel-Lebanon Wars; Israel-Lebanon Conflicts; Israeli occupations of Lebanon; Israeli Police Actions in Lebanon; Israeli Self-Defense Actions in Lebanon, etc.] [Accept Operation Litani on a buzz before "May 17"]

7. In the Principality of Moldavia, this legislative action was inspired by a murder-suicide involving a man named Dinca and his French lover, and in Sweden it was done by King Magnus IV in 1364. In the papal bulls Sublimus Dei and Sicut Dudum, Popes Eugene IV and Paul III advocated this action. In Revolutionary France, the Girondist Jacques Pierre Brissot was the chief proponent of this action, which was reversed by Napoleon in 1802, and the Mussolini government did this in Ethiopia after occupying it. In Brazil, this act was supported by Princess Isabel and was accomplished through the “Golden Law”, which succeeded the earlier Law of the Rio Branco. In the British Empire, this was enacted in 1833, a victory for William Wilberforce. For ten points, name this action accomplished in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment.

Answer: Abolition of Slavery [prompt for “slavery” with synonyms of abolition]

8. Legend says that when this region’s capital was besieged by the Mongols, Saint Czeslaw (chess-swav) summoned a fireball to defeat them, though he was unable to save its Duke, Henry II, from being slaughtered by those same Mongols at the Battle of Legnica. Other battles fought here include the victory of Field Marshal Schwerin at Mollowitz. One uprising in this region was put down by the French generals Henri Le Rond and Jules Gratier and ended in a League of Nations brokered cease-fire along the Korfanty line. That was one of three early 20th century uprisings in this region’s famous coal mines, all of which were attempts by the Slavic minority to secede and join Poland, which the Soviets eventually let them do. For ten points, name this area contested by Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great, the main Prussian conquest of the War of the Austrian Succession.

Answer: Silesia [accept: Shlunsk, Shlask, Schlesien, Slezsko]

9. According to the Roman historian Justin, this ruler possessed great speed, which he used to run away from an attempted execution, and used an army of bandits to come to power. This man’s father had an advisor named Shaktar, and this ruler may have ordered the assassination of Philip, son of Machatas, a satrap whose lands this ruler conquered. He made an alliance with King Parvatak, who later betrayed him. The devious minister Rakshas made numerous attempts to poison this man and prevent him from conquering the Nanda Empire. After meeting the sage Bhadrabu, he eventually starved to death after becoming a Jain, which must have disappointed Chanakya, his Machiavellian advisor. For ten points, name this founder of the Mauryan dynasty.

Answer: Chandragupta Maurya [accept: Sandrokuptos; Sandrokottos; Androcottus]

10. Foreign officers who served in this Navy include the Dutchmen Willem Huyseen van Kattendijke and Pels Rijcken, the French engineer Leonce Verny, who built two arsenals for this navy, and the American John M. Brooke, who later served in the Confederate Navy. The Englishman William Adams built the warship San Buena Ventura for this Navy, which consisted of “Red Seal Ships” during the early 17th century. The Sempill, Douglas and Tracey missions were instances of cooperation between this force and the Royal Navy. After the American Civil War, this navy received the French-built CSS Stonewall. This Navy’s power allowed its country to sign a 1902 naval alliance with Lord Lansdowne and the British government. During World War Two this navy included innovative midget submarines and the world’s largest aircraft carrier. For ten points, name this navy that on December 7, 1941 attacked Pearl Harbor.

Answer: Japanese Navy [accept: Nippon Kaigun]

11. This organization gained notoriety for helping LSD advocate Timothy Leary escape from prison at the behest of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. Kathy Boudin was the last member of this group captured when she tried to rob a Brinks Security Truck, and their members also included the leader of the Columbia student revolt, Mark Rudd. This group planned to bomb Fort Dix and during the Days of Rage they planned to rampage around downtown Chicago, destroying symbols of capitalist oppression with baseball bats. Instead, they blew up three of their members in a Greenwich Village townhouse. Led by current University of Illinois professor Bill Ayers, for ten points identify this terroristic offshoot of Students for a Democratic Society who took their name from a Bob Dylan song that said you don’t need one of these to tell which way the wind blows.

Answer: The Weathermen or The Weather Underground

12. This President’s administration negotiated the King-Hawkesbury Treaty, which was scrapped when the Senate added amendments that were unacceptable to Great Britain. His Supreme Court appointments include the author of the dissent in Pierson v. Post, Henry Livingston, as well as William Johnson, the first “great dissenter”. Massachusetts governor Levi Lincoln became his Attorney General but was later replaced by Ceasar Rodney. As Commander-in-Chief he sent Commodore Edward Preble to fight the Battle of Derne. Events during the reign of this former Chairman of the Committee of Five include the violation of the USS Chesapeake by the HMS Leopard. For ten points, name this lover of Sally Hemmings, the third President of the United States.

Answer: Thomas Jefferson

13. The initial members of this organization later agreed to the Federation of the Wells. Created by the Rutlischwur oath sworn by Arnold of Melchtal, Walter Furst, and and Werner Stauffacher, one impetus for its creation was the outcome of the Battle of Gollheim, which brought a threatening enemy to power in the person of Albert I. It was replaced by an organization that would be victorious at the Battle of Sempach, the Alliance of Eight Places, while its greatest victory came when a mere 1,300 of its members defeated the invading army of Leopold I of Austria at the Battle of Morgarten, allowing it to expand to include Zug and Lucerne. For ten points, name this 1291 alliance between Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden: places in Switzerland that had a biome in common.

Answer: League of the Three Forest Cantons [accept: Eternal Alliance of the Three Forest Cantons, Ewiger Bund der Trei Waldstatten; grudgingly prompt on “Swiss Confederation” or “Eidgenossenschaft” before “Sempach” is mentioned]

14. Moses Sash was an African-American participant in this event, which was preceded by the Uxbridge Riot, and attorney Caleb Strong defended Jason Parmenter against charges incurred in this event. John Bly and Charles Rose were hanged for participating in this event, which ransacked the home of Theodore Sedgwick, and participants in this event wore sprigs of hemlock in their hats. General William Shepard led the initial resistance to this event, and Luke Day led a militia that joined this uprising. Many of its participants were captured at Petersham and this event doomed the re-election chances of James Bowdoin. For ten points, name this farmer revolt that tried to capture the Springfield Arsenal in Articles of Confederation-era Massachusetts.

Answer: Shays Rebellion [accept reasonable equivalent; do not accept “Shay”]

15. This practice was the subject of the Thornborough Lamentation, and local priest John Rous wrote a 1459 letter to Parliament complaining about this practice. One tract in support of this practice was titled “Goths and Vandals” and was written by Arthur Young. Studies of this practice were conducted by B.A. Holderness and J. Purdum. John Reynolds of Desborough, who called himself “Captain Pouch”, led one movement against this practice, which was also the target of the Newton Rebellion and Kett’s Rebellion. The Great Debasement created inflationary pressure that drove this practice. A General Act regarding this practice was passed by Parliament in 1801, and this practice is cited as an example of primitive accumulation by Marxists. For ten points, name this British practice of transfering commonly-held land to private owners.

Answer: Enclosure

16. This author of the book Science of Victory received a promotion for his retreat through the snowy Panixer Pass, avoiding what was believed to be certain annihilation by the forces of Andre Massena; earlier, he had won the battles of Novi and Cassano. This victor at Focsani and Ochakov perpetrated the Izmail massacre, where thousands of Turkish civilians were killed. This man ended one uprising by winning the Battle of Maciejowice, where he captured Tadeusz Koscuiszko and he had earlier been sent to put down the Pugachev revolt, but his last assignment required invading Italy to beat back the Directory. For ten points, name this undefeated Russian general who served Catherine the Great and came out of retirement to fight Revolutionary France.

Answer: Alexandr Vasilyevich Suvorov

1. Identify the following about the Rightly-Guided Caliphs FTPE.

[10] Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, led the Muslim community in this set of military campaigns against those who rejected Islam. It is also known as the “War of the Apostasy”.

Answer: Ridda War

[10] This son-in-law of Muhammad served as the penultimate Rightly-Guided Caliph, serving before Ali.

Answer: Uthman Ibn Affan

[10] The Rightly-Guided Caliphs were all members of this Arab tribe, of which Muhammad was also a member. Its name translates as “shark”

Answer: al-Quraysh
2. Boris is a 19th century Russian peasant living east of Moscow. Answer the following about his life.

[10] Boris can participate in local government thanks to these councils created by Tsar Alexander II.

Answer: Zemstvo

[10] Boris has probably never heard of this liberal advisor to Alexander II, which is a shame because this man came up with Zemstvos and urged the Tsar to liberate Nikolai and his family from serfdom.

Answer: Nikolay Milyutin

[10] Boris probably doesn’t know any Jews, because they all live in this part of the Russian Empire, to which they are restricted by law.

Answer: Pale of Settlement [accept: cherta osedlosti]
3. Answer the following about Nero FTPE.

[10] In AD 65, Nero was threatened by this conspiracy to depose him, which resulted in the execution of his tutor Seneca.

Answer: Pisonian Conspiracy [accept: Piso’s Conspiracy]
[10] Nero’s wives include Poppaea, who was originally married to this Roman nobleman, a future ruler during the Year of the Four Emperors.

Answer: Otho

[10] Late in his reign, Nero put down this revolt in Gaul. With his dying breath, the leader of this revolt proclaimed Galba to be the new emperor, setting up the next anti-Neronian disturbance.

Answer: Vindex’s Rebellion [accept: Rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex]

4. Identify the following people who angered the Mongols and paid for it FTPE.

[10] Mongol expansion began when Shah Muhammad II of this Turkish empire in Persia executed two Mongol diplomats in 1218, sparking an invasion.

Answer: Khwarezm Empire [accept: Khwarezmid Empire, Khwarezmian Empire]

[10] After refusing to surrender Baghdad to Hulagu Khan, this last Abbasid Caliph was rolled up in carpet and trampled by horses.

Answer: Al-Mustasim

[10] This tribe of Kipchak nomads tried to help the Russians resist the Mongol invasions, earning them a death warrant. After Bela IV foolishly gave them refuge in Hungary, the Mongols invaded his country and slaughtered perhaps as much as a third of the population.

Answer: Cumans [accept: Kunok; Kumanlar]
5. Name these disturbances in medieval Italy FTPE.

[10] In 1378, Florence was rocked by a rebellion of these wool carders, who did not have a guild of their own. Salvestro de Medici helped put it down.

Answer: ciompi

[10] This 1478 conspiracy attempted to kill Lorenzo de Medici while he was attending mass. Even though the priest was in on it and joined the stabbing, it succeeded only in seriously wounding Lorenzo.

Answer: Pazzi Conspiracy

[10] One scandal in medieval Italy involved the mysterious 1497 drowning of this son of the pope. The prime suspect was his brother, Cesare Borgia.

Answer: Giovanni Borgia [accept: Juan Borgia; Duke of Gandia]
6. Answer the following related to the First Opium War, FTPE.

[10] The First Opium War was precipitated when this commissioner, known as “the Blue Sky” for his incorruptibility, seized and destroyed British opium stocks.

Answer: Lin Zexu

[10] As part of their war preparations, the British occupied this island in the Pearl River delta that they would keep after the war ended.

Answer: Hong Kong

[10] The First Opium ended in 1842 with the signing of this treaty.

Answer: Treaty of Nanjing
7. Identify the following about a period of Mexican history FTPE.

[10] This period from roughly 1855 – 1867 is known for the liberal rule of men like Benito Juarez.

Answer: La Reforma [accept: The Reform]

[10] This reformist came to power at the beginning of La Reforma, but in 1858 was forced to resign, making Juarez President.

Answer: Ignacio Comonfort

[10] This conservative general and hero of the Pastry War launched numerous coups against Reformist governments during La Reforma. He maintained a parallel shadow government while Juarez was in power.

Answer: Feliz Maria Zuloaga
8. Identify the following subjects of captivity narratives FTPE.

[10] His owners named him Gustavus Vassa, but this slave is better known by the name that appears in the Interesting Narrative of his life.

Answer: Olaudah Equiano

[10] This woman was kidnapped from Lancaster, Massachusetts during King Phillip’s War and wrote living among the native Americans as a hostage.

Answer: Mary Rowlandson

[10] This Quaker merchant from Jamaica decided to move to Philadelphia in 1696, but got shipwrecked in Florida. His narrative tells of his captivity among both cannibalistic Indians and Papist Spaniards.

Answer: Jonathan Dickinson
9. Answer the following about why you shouldn't go riding in the Scottish Highlands in the dark, FTPE:

[10] This Scottish King won the Battle of Largs over the Norwegians in 1263 earning the nickname “The Glorious”. Then he accidentally fell off a cliff, setting Scottish succession into chaos.

Answer: Alexander III the Glorious

[10] Alexander III was succeeded by his daughter Margaret. When she died, Edward Longshanks installed this man on the thrown. An ineffective puppet, he was nicknamed “Tom Tabard” and was later imprisoned in the Tower of London.

Answer: John Balliol

[10] This man, the brother-in-law of the Norwegian King Erik the Priest-Hater, would finally regain control of Scotland with a victory at Bannockburn over Edward II and the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320.

Answer: Robert the Bruce or Robert I of Scotland
10. Identify these Supreme Court decisions that help even the most inept lawyers stay employed.

[10] This 1963 case held that states have to provide lawyers for poor defendants during criminal trials.

Answer: Gideon v. Wainwright [accept either name in either order]

[10] In this 1964 case, the court said that lawyers had to be provided during interrogations.

Answer: Escobedo v. Illinois [accept either order]

[10] In this 1963 case, decided alongside Gideon v. Wainwright, the court held that states had to provide lawyers for criminal appeals.

Answer: Douglas v. California [accept either order]
11. This man’s death was recently re-investigated by the Mukherjee Commission, which ruled that he did not die in a 1945 plane crash in Taiwan, as most believe. FTPE,

[10] Name this rival of Ghandi, who rejected non-violence and set up an Indian provisional government that allied with the Axis and declared war on the United States and Britain.

Answer: Subash Chandra Bose

[10] Subash Bose’s provisional government bore this name. He served as its leader from 1943 to 1945.

Answer: Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind

[10] The Azad Hind never ruled mainland India; at the height of its power, it controlled only two Indian-owned island chains near Indonesia. FTP, name either.

Answer: Nicobar Islands OR Andabar Islands
12. Identify the following troublemakers from Japanese History.

[10] This cloistered emperor essentially sparked the Genpei War, since he believed that the Minamoto clan would give him more power and deference.

Answer: Go-Shirakawa

[10] Late Heian Japan was rocked by this rebellion, which, while put down, led to the conditions that made the Genpei War possible.

Answer: Hogen Rebellion

[10] Later, the Ashikaga Shogunate was greatly weakened by this civil war between the daimyo, which set up the Sengoku Period.

Answer: Onin War
13. Answer the following about the impeachment of Andrew Johnson FTPE.

[10] Andrew Johnson was constantly bedeviled by Radical Republicans trying to impeach him, such as this former Civil War general who acted as prosecutor in his Senate trial.

Answer: Benjamin Butler

[10] Johnson put this Attorney General in charge of his defense. This man would later serve as Secretary of State to Rutherford B. Hayes.

Answer: William M. Evarts

[10] In 1920, Woodrow Wilson violated the Tenure of Office Act by firing an Oregon Postmaster; but instead of impeachment, it led to this 1926 Supreme Court case where the tenure of office act was struck down.

Answer: Myers v. United States
14. Answer the following about a great moment in the history of literacy.

[10] This Orthodox saint translated the Bible into Old Church Slavonic.

Answer: Saint Methodius

[10] St. Methodius wrote the Bible in this alphabet, invented by his brother Cyril. It was the forerunner of modern Cyrillic.

Answer: Glagolitic

[10] Cyril and Methodius visited Slav-land at the invitation of this Prince of Moravia, who ruled from 846 to 870. He would later fight a war with Louis the German in which he was captured and blinded.

Answer: Rastislav [accept: Rastislaus]
15. Identify the following from the military history of 20th century Spain.

[10] This Cuban-born general captured Madrid for the Nationalists, with the help of his famous “fifth column”

Answer: Emilio Mola

[10] The Civil War began with a Republican siege of this fortress in Toledo, which was a local Nationalist stronghold. The failure of the siege did much to swing morale between the two sides.

Answer: El Alcazar

[10] This 1920-1926 war in North Africa saw Spain defeat the namesake Moroccan tribe. A young officer named Francisco Franco impressed many in his military debut.

Answer: Rif War
16. This event was preceded by a rebellion at Langensalza. FTPE,

[10] Name this 1077 event where Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV paid penance to a pope in the namesake location in Northern Italy.

Answer: Walk to Canossa [accept: Way to Canossa; Gang nach Canossa; l’umiliazione di Canossa]

[10] Henry knelt in the snow for three days in front of this pope.

Answer: Gregory VII [accept: Hildebrand]

[10] After Canossa, Henry went back to Germany to crush rebellious princes at the Battle of Mersburg, then returned to Italy with a large army, captured Rome, and had the last laugh when he replaced Gregory VII with this antipope.

Answer: Clement III [accept: Guibert of Ravenna; Wibert of Ravenna]

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