The Imamate is the leadership ordered by Allah (SW) whereas to the Prophet’s P post era. Prophet Moham`mad P was assigned to communicate such Imamate to all people.
The Imamate Role:
Indeed, there is a general role for the Imams of Ahlul-Elbait (progeny of Prophet Mohammed) and all of them cooperate to realize it despite of the different social and political circumstances they went through, they are bound to safeguard the Islamic vocation. Further to immunizing it against any impurities, they are also responsible for protecting the Nation (Umma) from all threats. In addition to their role in explaining the Islamic rulings and Quranic facts, they are to lead the Islamic State in the face of any miscreant challenge, to educate the Nation (Al-Umma) about Ahlu-Elbait (prophet Mohammed’s progeny) and their merits of leadership, as much as possible and opportune. Amongst the general and common roles of all the Imams of Ahlul-Elbait R is that they are the first to revolt in the face of any unfair ruler, providing that the relevant and necessary means were available for the uprising in all its aspects not just in numbers.
The roles of Imams might be similar due to the resemblance of their surrounding circumstances, as it is for the situation faced by both Imams Al-Baqer, Al-Sadeq L, and Imams Al-Hadi, Al-Askari L.
Nevertheless, the specific roles of Imams might vary from others due to the contradictions of the surrounding circumstances, as it is the case with the truce of Imam Al Hassan Q with Muawiya, and the revolution Imam Hussain Q lead against Yazeed son of Muawiya
The Umayyad Ruling:
After the conquest of the Holy Mecca, Muslims turned into a central powerful force and a victorious state. Quraish – as a polytheist tribe – turned from a central congregation influencing events, into a weak, futile, and torn tribe. Most of the «Umayyad» parties, as well as all Quraish tyrants, insisted on remaining infidels to the vocation of Prophet Mohammad P though apparently they pretended to please him when he asked them upon conquering Mecca:
«What do you think; I’m going to do with you?»
They said: «A noble brother, and a son of a noble brother».
He P said: «Go you are the freedmen».
Quraish tribe showed – as well as the Umayyad Majority – Islam as hypocrisy. They used to lurk the events’ process waiting to grab the opportunity to attack Islam, but when they failed to achieve this during the time of Prophet Mohammed P, they postponed the execution of their devilish intentions.
The prince of the believers, Imam Ali L, said:
«Arabs hated Mohammad’s P distinctive status and envied the grace Allah granted him, even his wife was defamed, while they drove away his camel even though he was greatly kind to them. He was still alive, when the Arabs unanimously agreed upon depriving his family of its preferential right after
his death. If Quraish had not benefited of the Prophet’s name P to reach leadership, and used it as a bridge to dominate prestige and control, it wouldn’t have worshiped Allah after his decease not even for one day1.»
When they realized that Islam during the post-Prophet era P was deviating away of its course, as they had planned, their hopes and wishes were revived to recover their high rank as during the pre-Islam state of ignorance. Accordingly, they started acting with the mentality of the ruling party, thus ignorance state overturned subsequently. Nevertheless, they remained under Islam cover to obliterate the true landmarks of the genuine Islam as delivered by Mohammad P.
The Prince of the believers L adds saying:
«Afterwards Allah granted them (Quraish) many victories, and they became rich after being needy. Financial abundance was enjoyed after striving and suffering from hunger. Thus, they started appreciating parts of Islam that were previously considered repugnant. Their hearts became assured with the religion after being puzzled by it. And they said: «If it (Islam) weren’t right, it wouldn’t be!» Then conquers were attributed to the opinions of their ruling princes and their good management. Thus people verified some people’s insight and the idleness of others. We were amongst those whose role underwent silence, whose brilliance got extinguished, notwithstanding that their voice and repute went so low until being fully forgotten. Years and epochs went by, where many of the knowledgeable people passed away, and lots of uninformed parties emerged2.»
Accordingly, efforts to blockade the Prophet’s Sunna (Rules and way of life) started publicly, while hiding behind the pretended fear of the disagreement spreading out in
the Umma (Nation); thus the psychological paralysis state rised, untill it (the nation) let go of ordering kindness and denying abomination, failing to set any distinction between the right and the evil.
Amongst the most significant negative results, that became prominent throughout the years, between the decease of the Noblest Prophet P and the beginning of Hussain L Imamate are:
Driving the rightful crown prince away of his position.
Subjecting the prophet’s progeny R to oppressing restrictions, and to siege them financially in particular, while pursuing their followers.
Preventing the «Hashem Family» from assuming governmental
The revival of the tribal mentality that used to be the basis of
distinguishing in granting (distribution of the Social Wealth).
The relying on luxury, opulent comfort and the garner of wealth.
Thus, the Nation (Umma) that Mohammad Bin Abdullah P had made (The best emerging Umma for People) was torn.
It went back to tribalism and rigid classification. Quarrels were in vogue instead of brotherhood, which basis were set by the Prophet P. Accordingly opportunism and self – seeking prevailed, inducing to the raise of rich people and wretched poor classes. Thus, people’s utmost endeavor became servile flattering, sycophancy and adulation towards the Sultan
The conciliation with the Umayyad authority was the most odious choices available to Imam Al-Hassan L. He had to take such a choice to protect great Islamic interests. Thus, He L saw how the spineless nation was not concerned with Islam destiny, especially after it previously stranded his father and it had made its choice upon the end of Seffeen Battle. Setting the opposition steering wheel forward enabled Muawiya to abolish Mohammedan truthful believers, through whom Allah (SW) intended to communicate Islam to the coming generations, while it disabled Imam Al-Hassan L from obliging Muawiya into accepting conditions that might reveal his aggression and his claim for the ruling, even though he didn’t have the slightest relation to it, neither directly or indirectly.
Muawiya joined Islam in front of people just five months prior the decease of Prophet Mohammed P. Nevertheless, the Quraish Umayyad Party paved the way for him to reach a position that enabled him to manipulate the destiny of both Islam and Muslims.
It is important, within this frame, to be aware of the alliance between Muawiya and some of the Christians and the Jews, as ascertained by the narration of the Prophet of Allah P.
«Ibn (The son of) Hind will surely die while not being one
of my denominations3.»
What was known as «the treaty», was indeed the only choice revealing the truth about the State of Authority, as well as its hypocrisy, and the second era of ignorance as pointed by the Noble Qur’an.
Imam Hussain L adopted, towards all of Imam Al Hassan’s L stands and decisions, the position of a collaborating partner and a supportive advocate. He ascertained to fully support Al Hassan’s decision in regards to the treaty and he obeyed him as a rightful Imam whom should be obeyed. He refused breaching that treaty and adhered and kept pacifying and calming some of the opponents’ outburst as he ordered them to abide by patience, awaiting and anticipating.
After the martyrdom of Imam Al- Hassan L, loyalists wrote to him asking him to disengage himself off the treaty and to declare his revolution against Muawiya. But, he L answered them:
«I deeply believe that my brother’s opinion, whereas to his holy struggle against injustice, is right and sound, so keep a low profile, avoid attracting attention to yourselves, and hide your passion».