The John Taylor Papers, by Samuel W. & Raymond W. Taylor Volume I, The Apostle

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. . . . Where do these things come from, but from the men who manufacture the

raw materials? Even the gold by which these things are purchased could not be

obtained but by the labor of man.

[171] When we are in the fat valleys of the Rocky Mountains, what do we want

to do? We want to . . . prepare everything necessary to bring about this

wealth. We have the resources in our possession in great abundance, for it is

one of the best countries in the world for cattle, and for sheep, so that wool

will be quite plentiful, and of the best quality . . . .

There is nothing we require but we can manufacture ourselves . . . . We

need sugar; the sisters won't like to get along without their teaI care

nothing about it without sugar myself. How must we get that? We are going to

raise beets, the same as they do in France. (8)

Getting the machinery for the two manufacturing enterprises made,

shipped, and transported overland to the valley was a heroic undertaking.

Taylor and a young convert from Jersey, Philip De LaMare, spent eight

months investigating the manufacturing process at French beetsugar

factories. Taylor sent a shipbuilder, Captain Joseph H. Russell, ahead

to construct 52 wagons to haul the sugar machinery across the plains; and

dispatched De LaMare to find, purchase, and break to the yoke 600 oxen to

pull the wagons.

Before leaving Europe, Taylor also finished two other tasks. One was

to have busts made of the martyred Joseph and Hyrum Smith. The other was

to finish a book, The Government of God.

To the SaintsI have just got out the busts of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. I

have thought the Saints might be desirous of getting a correct likeness of

these two martyrs. . . .

There are two qualities; one is of the best quality Plaster of Paris, the

other is made of a finer material ....


The prices are 5s for the common kind, and 9s for the best kind, per pair . .

. .

They are neatly executed, and will make a beautiful ornament for the

chimney piece or library, and are of such a size as to be easily conveyed to

the Valley. (9)

He completed The Government of God, and delivered it to Franklin D.

Richards at headquarters of the British Mission, No. 15 Wilton Street,

London, just before sailing on the Niagara for America.

The Kingdom of God is the government of God, on the earth or in the

heavens . . . . In God's government there is perfect order, harmony, beauty,

magnificence, and grandeur; in the government of man, confusion, disorder,

instability, misery, discord, and death. In the first, the most consummate

wisdom and power are manifested; in the second, ignorance, imbecility, and


There were signs of the coming of the Kingdom:

That the nations, having lost the spirit of God, will assemble to fight

against the Lord's people, being full of the spirit of unrighteousness, and

opposed to the rule and government of God.

That when they do, the Lord will come and fight against them himself;

overthrow their armies; assert his own right; rule the nations with a rod of

iron; root the wicked out of the earth; and take possession of his own kingdom

. . . .

What will be the effects of the establishment of Christ's kingdom, or the

reign of God on the earth? . . . It is the doing away with war, bloodshed,

misery, disease, and sin; and the ushering in of a kingdom of peace,

righteousness, justice, happiness and prosperity. It is the [173] restoration

of the earth and man to their primeval glory and pristine excellence; in fact,

the "restitution of all things spoken of by all the prophets since the world

began. . . ."

Not only will the earth be restored, but also man; and those promises

which, long ago, were the hope of the Saints, will be realized. The faithful

servants of God who have lived in every age will then come forth and

experience the full fruition of that joy for which they lived, and hoped, and

suffered, and died. The tombs will deliver up their captives, and reunited

with the spirits which once animated, vivified, cheered and sustained them

while in this vale of tears, these bodies will be like unto Christ's glorious

body. They will then rejoice in that resurrection for which they lived . . . .

Having tasted the nature of the fall, and having grappled with sin and

misery, knowing, like the Gods, both good and evil; having, like Jesus,

overcome the evil, and through the power of the atonement having conquered

death, hell and the grave, regains that paradise from which he was

banished, not in the capacity of ignorant man. . . . but like unto God. He can

now . . . live and flourish eternally in possession of that immortality which

Jesus long ago promised to the faithful: "To him that overcomes, will I grant

to sit with me in my throne, and eat of the tree of life which is in the midst

of the paradise of God. (10)

Upon arriving in America, Taylor found that everything had seemingly

conspired against the success of the sugar project. The U. S. Government

assessed a duty of nearly $5,000 on the machinery; a river boat hauling

it up the Mississippi exploded; Captain Russell's wagons began breaking

down during the first day's travel, and had to be replaced, on credit.


Then, when the machinery finally arrived in the valley, the sugar

and woolen projects were taken completely out of Taylor's hands, and he

was called on a mission to visit settlements of the Great Basin. From

that point on, he had nothing to do with either enterprise.

The textile machinery was installed on Big Canyon Creek, and called

"Brigham Young's Woolen and Cotton Factory." For reasons unknown at the

time, the sugarbeet factory was a complete failure. When attempts over

several years failed to produce sugaror even good molassesthe project

was abandoned. (11)

(1) This convert, Brother Ballanger, "was ordained to the office of

a Priest and went to the place of his birth to proclaim the great things

of the Kingdom of God." He reported that, "Yesterday my father's house

was filled to overflowing . . . . It rained, but notwithstanding, I was

obliged to stand out of doors and preach to more than one hundred

persons." (MS 1 Dec. 1850)

(2) Letters to Brigham Young and to Taylor's family, 13 March and 23

July 1851; also JD, 2 August 1852.

(3) JD, 22 August 1852.

(4) JD, 27 January 1882.

(5) 15 July 1851.

(6) Taylor worked on the translation with George Viett, Daniel Carn,

Charles Miller, and George P. Dykes. In Hamburg he published a monthly

periodical, a royal octavo sheet called Zions Panier, the first number

issued 1 November 1851. Roberts states that the Book of Mormon was issued

in a bilinqual edition, "the text so arranged that the French and German

would face each other, each page containing the same matter in the same


(7) Letter 13 March 1851.

[175] (8) MS. 1 Dec. 1850.

(9) MS, 1 Nov. and 15 Dec. 1850.

(10) The work was published at Liverpool and London, 1852, a book of

118 pages. H. H. Bancroft in his History of Utah said, "As a dissertation

on a general and abstract subject, it probably has not its equal in point

of ability within the range of Mormon literature."

(11) Inasmuch as two church presidents were involved, LDS historians

have been extremely cautious in ascribing responsibility for the failure

of the sugar project. A comfortable explanation is that the alkali in

western American soils produced beet juice that had to be processed

differently from European methods. Another factor is that Mormon scholars

tend to consider church history as selfcontained, separate and apart

from events in the outside world at the time.

However, if we look at the history of beetsugar manufacture in

America, we find that no less than 16 attempts to establish the industry

here were flat failures, during a period of 77 years, while beetsugar

manufacture was a commercial success in Europe.

The real reason for failure is given by Fred G. Taylor, a

vicepresident of UtahIdaho Sugar Company, in his book, A Saga of Sugar,

Salt Lake, 1944;

"In those days, and even in the long years that followed, masters of

the art of sugar making jealously guarded their secrets from others,

particularly from prospective competitors. Taylor and De LaMare stated

that they `received the courtesy and assistance of the French sugar

manufacturers' while working out their mechanical plans, but nowhere does

the record show that they obtained any information regarding the

chemistry or chemical controls employed in sugar making . . . . It is

safe to say that, notwithstanding the poor quality of their sugar beets,

knowledge of a few minor mechanical and chemical adjustments would have

made the Sugar House project a great frontier success."

It was to be 27 years after the Deseret failure before the first

successful beetsugar factory in America began operation at Alvarado,

California, in 1879. Significantly, once the secrets of manufacture had

finally crossed the Atlantic, there were no more American failures caused

by inability to produce sugar.

[176] Chapter 12


During conference in April, 1853, John Taylor was called on a

mission "to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ in the valleys and the

mountains" of the Great Basin.

At this time he spoke for more than an hour in the new adobe

tabernacle on "Legitimacy and Illegitimacy." This was a powerful

discourse concerning the authority of the priesthood.

We now come to the principle of legitimacy, . . . or Priesthood, if you

please. The question, "What is Priesthood?" has often been asked me. I answer:

it is the rule and government of God, whether on earth or in the heavens; and

it is the only legitimate power, the only authority that is acknowledged by

Him to rule and regulate the affairs of His kingdom.

When every wrong thing shall be put right, and all usurpers shall be put

down, when he whose right it is to reign shall take the dominion, then nothing

but the Priesthood will bear rule; it alone will sway the sceptre of authority

in heaven and on earth; for this is the legitimacy of God.

In the absence of this, what has been the position of the nations? . . .

From whence did they obtain their power? Did they get it from God? . . . Go to

any power that has existed on this earth, and you will find that earthly

government, earthly rule and dominion, has been obtained by the sword . Hence

the common saying is [177] "Thrones won by blood, by blood must be

maintained." By the same principle that they have been put in possession of

territory, they have sought to sustain themselvesthe same violence, the same

fraud, and the same oppression have been made use of to sustain their

illegitimacy . . . .

This, then, is the position of the world. Authority, dominion, rule,

government, has been obtained by fraud, and consequently is not legitimate.

They say much about the ordination of kings, and their being anointed by the

grace of God, etc. What think you of a murderer slaying hundreds of thousands

of his fellow creatures because he has the power, and while his sword is yet

reeking with human blood, having a priest in sacerdotal robes to anoint him to

the kingship? . . . The kings and potentates of the world profess to be

anointed by the grace of God. But the priests who anoint them have no

authority to do it. No person has authority to anoint a king or administer in

one of the least of God's ordinances, except he is legally called and ordained

of God to that power . . . .

It is impossible that there can be any legitimate rule, government,

power, or authority, under the face of the heavens, except that which is

connected with the Kingdom of God, which is established by new revelation from

heaven . . . . If we profess to be subjects of the Kingdom of God, we must be

subject to the dominion, rule, legitimacy, and authority of God. No person can

escape from this, unless he apostatizes and goes to the devil, like a fool. He

must be a fool who would barter away eternal life, thrones, principalities,

and powers in the eternal world, for the paltry trash which exists in the

shape of wealth and worldly honor; to let go his chance of heaven and of God,

of being a King and a Priest unto Him, of living and reigning forever, and

standing among the chiefs of Israel. I cannot help calling such men fools, for

they are damned now in making such a choice, and will be hereafter . . . .

[178] Those who have been under the dominion of Satanthe proud and haughty

usurpers, the shedders of innocent bloodthese are they that have lived in

the world, and possessed all the good things of it. And what has been the

situation of the Saints of every age? All those who dared acknowledge that God

lived, that his kingdom belonged to Him, that it was His right, and that He

would without doubt possess it, have been trodden underfoot, persecuted, cast

out, hated, killed . . . .

This was the case in ancient days, and has been carried on in modern

times. I have, with my own eyes, seen holy Prophets expire, who were killed by

the hands of a murderous gang of bloodthirsty assassins, because they bore

the same testimony that the holy Prophets did in days of old. How many more of

their brethren who dared acknowledge the truth have fallen beneath the same

influences? have been shot, whipped, imprisoned, and put to death, . . .

while hundreds of others, driven from their homes in winter, have found their

last bed, . . . because of the persecution heaped upon them by the enemies of

truth. The reason for all this vile outrage upon innocent men, women and

children, is because there is no legitimate rule upon the earth. God's laws

and government are not known, and His servants are despised and cast out . . .


The time has come to favor God's peoplea time about which Prophets

spoke . . . and poets sung. These men looked through the dark vista of future

ages, and being wrapped in prophetic vision, beheld the latter day glorythe

time of the dispensation of the fulness of times, spoken of by all the holy

Prophets since the world began; for they all looked forward with joyful

anticipation to the things which have commenced with us; they all had their

eye upon the time when legitimacy would obtain its proper place upon the

earth, in the shape of the Kingdom of God established in the world, when all

false rule and dominion would be put down, and the kingdoms of this world

would become subject to God and His Christ. These are the ideas [179] that

they had, and these are the things that we are seeking to carry out . . . .

What advantage is there, then, between this government and

others? Why, we have peace, and, as eternal beings, we have a knowledge of

eternal things.... The curtains of heaven have been withdrawn, and we have

gazed as by vision upon eternal realities . . . .

Let us now notice our political position in the world. What are we going

to do? We are going to possess the earth. Why? Because it belongs to Jesus

Christ, and he belongs to us, and we to him; we are all one, and will take the

kingdom and possess it under the whole heavens, and reign over it for ever and

ever. Now, ye kings and emperors, help yourselves, if you can. This is the

truth, and it may as well be told at this time as at any other.

"There's a good time coming, Saints,

A good time coming,

There's a good time coming, Saints,

Wait a little longer." (1)

The following year, 1854, Taylor was elected a member of the

Territorial Legislature, but resigned before the first session began,

because of being called upon another mission, to publish a newspaper in

New York called The Mormon.

The official announcement of plural marriage as church policy two

years previously had stimulated inflamatory sentiment against the Saints

in the nation and the world. The subject was adroitly fanned by

politicians; polygamy was coupled with slavery as one of the "twin relics

of barbarism." The Gentile minority in Deseret fostered the issue as a

smokescreen to cover the determination to capture political and economic

control of the territory.


Taylor's call "to publish a paper in New York was but part of a

general movement by which Mormonism and the Saints were to be represented

by their own accredited agents," Roberts says. (2) "Orson Pratt was in

Washington publishing the Seer; Erastus Snow and Orson Spencer were to

publish a paper in St. Louis; and George Q. Cannon, one

in San Francisco."

In early September, Taylor and a number of brethren "rolled out of

the city on our way to the Atlantic Ocean," his son, George J., reported.

Four people rode in the Taylor wagon:

John Taylor, my father; Angus M. Cannon, my cousin; Mrs. Caroline Gilham,

on a visit to her friends in the south; and myself. (3)

Our wagon was a light one, fitted up with projections, double cover, and

all the appliances considered essential to a trip across the plains. Among

other things we had a light sheetiron stove, which we buckled to the hind end

of the wagon with straps . . . . Inside the wagon we had little pouches

attached to the bows containing munitions of war, awls, shoe thread, nails,

etc.; in short anything that might be wanted in a hurry. We also had looped

straps of leather nailed to the bows to hang our guns to . . . . We also had provisions for sixty days, which without our

bedding and two or three boxes made a heavy load for our light wagon.

Enroute, when the party met companies of Saints headed for the

gathering at Deseret, Taylor sold subscriptions for The Mormon to them.


After arriving at Bluff City, Taylor held a meeting to consider the

best plan for publication of The Mormon.

It was decided that A. Robbins, E. K. Fuller, and I. Wright shall go by

stage across the country to Iowa City and from there on to Davenport and Rock

Island, thence to ChicagoDetroitSanduskyBuffalo and Albany to New York.

Dr. Clinton, Preston Thomas, and G. J. Taylor are to go down through St.

Joseph, Weston, Kansas City, Independence, to St. Louis, and we are to exert

ourselves to procure advertisements and subscriptions on the way for The

Mormon, and Brother Brown is to act as agent in this city.

At St. Joseph, George had his first experience as a guest in a

hotel, and at St. Louis, "I saw gas lights for the first time. I was

wondering where the wicks were, at first."

From St. Louis, John Taylor sent a prospectus of The Mormon to the

Millennial Star, announcing that the weekly journal would advocate the

"claims, social, moral, political, and religious," of the church. (4) In

letters accompanying the prospectus, he revealed that his mission was

"indeed a new phase in the history of Mormonism."

Hitherto, with the exception of home officers, we have not meddled in

politics. Our missions have been strictly religious . . . . But as our

religion embraces everything that pertains to the happiness of the human

family, whether it relates to this life or the life to come, in time or

eternity, I presume that we shall not be out of the bounds of our religion.

At any rate, we are now entered fairly into the political arena, and it

remains yet to be shown whether we can or cannot teach a better order of

things than [182] exists in the world at present . . . . If the kingdom of God

must come, and His "will be done on earth as it is in heaven," something more

orderly, intellectual, and powerful must be introduced than anything that

exists at present.

Referring to the rise of antagonistic political sentiment, he said

that "it would seem that we are none too soon here."

There is at present something brewing in Washington a ruse de guerre that

interests us materially. One of the leading cliques has been

on the wane for some time; its popularity is at a low ebb, and something must

be done to redeem its fortunes. It . . . has hit upon the desperate expedient

of gambling: the tablesat Washington; the stakesMormon blood and the

territory Utah; the winnerspolitical emolument . . . . For this purpose

various bulletins are issued by incognitos, commencing with "The turbulent

Mormons," continued with "Mormon difficulties," "Troubles in Utah," etc., and

ending with "War with the Mormons," softened down with "Polygamy," etc.

Taylor clearly forsaw the course of future events, the rising

hysteria of the witchhunt which would lead to the Utah War and carpetbag


Their plan is to send out meddlers, obnoxious men, to promote

difficulties, with an armed soldiery to sustain them, in the hopes of creating

trouble, and then to raise the cry of "Mormon Aggression," "Treason against

government," etc. . . . Poor fools! Who does not know that there has been more

bloodshed, more turbulence and disorder, in any little frontier village, than

in the whole Territory of Utah since its organization!

We shall, however, be prepared to meet them on their own grounds . . . .

They will find a voice from St. [183] Louis, a voice from Cincinnati, and a

voice from New York. Brother Snow expects to issue the St. Louis

Luminary next week, and I shall as speedily as possible issue The Mormon from

New York City. The Cincinnati paper will not start until after the other two

are established . . . . (5)

We Mormons have the vanity to think that we are quite as good as other

folks. I thought I would stick out the name in bold relief, that when seen it

might be known of all men. I shall have for a motto

"It is better to represent ourselves, than to be represented by

others . . . ." (6)

The cause of God is onward! ONWARD! ONWARD! and it cannot stop. Truth

must go forth, intelligence must spread, the nations must be emancipated, and

a world redeemed; and whatever parts we may be called to act in the grand

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