The Jewish Community at Dura-Europos: Portrait of a People



Download 127.48 Kb.
Page2/2
Date03.04.2021
Size127.48 Kb.
1   2
Archaeologist 47 (September 1984): 166-181.
Goldstein, Jonathan A. “The Judaism of the Synagogues (Focusing on the Synagogue of Dura-Europos).” In Judaism in Late Antiquity. Part Two: Historical Syntheses, ed. Jacob Neusner, 109-157. Handbook of Oriental Studies: The Near and Middle East. New York: E. J. Brill, 1995.
Goodenough, Erwin R. Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period. Vols. 9-11. New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1964.
Goranson, Stephen. “The Battle Over the Holy Day at Dura-Europos.” Bible Review XII, 4 (August 1996): 23-33.
Gutmann, Joseph. “Programmatic Painting in the Dura Synagogue.” In The Synagogue: Studies in Origins, Archaeology and Architecture, comp. Joseph Gutmann, 210-232. The Library of Biblical Studies, ed. Harry M. Orlinsky. New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1975.
________. “The Illustrated Midrash in the Dura Synagogue Paintings: A New Dimension for the Study of Judaism.” American Academy for Jewish Research Proceedings L (1983): 91-104.

________. “The Dura Europos Synagogue Paintings: The State of Research.” In The Synagogue in Late Antiquity, ed. Lee I. Levine, 61-72. Philadelphia: The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1987.


Hachlili, Rachel. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora. Boston: Koninklijke Brill, 1998.
Hopkins, Clark. The Discovery of Dura-Europos, ed. Bernard Goldman. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979.
Jensen, Robin M. “The Dura Europos synagogue, early-Christian art, and religious life in Dura Europos.” In Jews, Christians, and Polytheists in the Ancient Synagogue: Cultural Interaction during the Greco-Roman Period, ed. Steven Fine, 174-189. Baltimore Studies in the History of Judaism, eds. Joseph Baumgarten, et al. London: Routledge, 1999.
Kelley, Christopher Pierce. “Who Did the Iconoclasm in the Dura Synagogue?” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 295 (August 1994): 57-72.
Kilpatrick, George D. “Dura-Europos: The Parchment and the Papyri.” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 5, 3 (Autumn 1964): 215-225.
Kraabel, Alf Thomas. “Social Systems of Six Diaspora Synagogues.” In Ancient Synagogues: The State of Research, ed. Joseph Gutmann, 79-91. Brown Judaic Studies, No. 22. Ann Arbor: Brown University, 1981.
________. “The Roman Diaspora: Six Questionable Assumptions.” Journal of Jewish Studies Vol. XXXIII, Nos. 1-2 (Spring-Autumn 1982): 445-464.

________. “Unity and Diversity among Diaspora Synagogues.” In The Synagogue in Late Antiquity, ed. Lee I. Levine, 49-60. Philadelphia: The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1987.


________. “The Diaspora Synagogue: Archaeological and Epigraphic Evidence since Sukenik.” In Ancient Synagogues: Historical Analysis and Archaeological Discovery, eds. Dan Urman and Paul V. M. Flesher, 95-126. Studia Post-Biblica, Vol. 47, ed. David S. Katz. Boston: Brill, 1998.
Levine, Lee I. “The Ancient Synagogue.” Chap. in Judaism and Hellenism in Antiquity: Conflict or Confluence? The Samuel and Althea Stroum Lectures in Jewish Studies. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998.

Matheson, Susan B. Dura-Europos: The Ancient City and the Yale Collection. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1982.


Moon, Warren G. “Nudity and Narrative: Observations on the Frescoes from the Dura Synagogue.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion LX, 4 (Winter 1992): 587-658.
Narkiss, Bezalel. “Pagan, Christian, and Jewish Elements in the Art of Ancient Synagogues.” In The Synagogue in Late Antiquity, ed. Lee I. Levine, 183-188. Philadelphia: The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1987.
Neusner, Jacob. “Judaism at Dura-Europos.” History of Religions 4, 1 (Summer 1964): 81-102.
Perkins, Ann. The Art of Dura-Europos. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.
Pollard, Nigel. “The Roman army as ‘total institution’ in the Near East? Dura-Europos as a case study.” In The Roman Army in the East, ed. David L. Kennedy, 211-227. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series Number 18, eds. P. Foss and J. H. Humphrey. Ann Arbor: Cushing-Malloy Inc., 1996.
Rostovtzeff, M. “Palmyra and Dura” and “The Ruins of Dura.” Chaps. in Caravan Cities, 91-119, 153-219. Translated by D. and T. Talbot Rice. Oxford: 1932; reprint, New York: AMS Press, Inc., 1971.
________. Dura-Europos and Its Art. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1938.
Seager, Andrew. “The Architecture of the Dura and Sardis Synagogues.” In The Synagogue: Studies in Origins, Archaeology and Architecture, comp. Joseph Gutmann, 149-193. The Library of Biblical Studies, ed. Harry M. Orlinsky. New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1975.
Teicher, J. L. “Ancient Eucharistic Prayers in Hebrew (Dura-Europos Parchment D. Pg. 25).” The Jewish Quarterly Review LIV, 2 (October 1963): 99-109.
Weitzmann, Kurt, and Herbert L. Kessler. The Frescoes of the Dura Synagogue and Christian Art. Dumbarton Oaks Studies, XXVIII. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1990.
Welles, C. Bradford. “The Population of Roman Dura.” In Studies in Roman Economic and Social History in Honor of Allan Chester Johnson, eds. P. R. Coleman-Norton, et al., 251-274. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957.

White, L. Michael. “Synagogues in the Graeco-Roman Diaspora: Jewish Adaptation and Accommodation.” Chap. in Building God’s House in the Roman World: Architectural Adaptation among Pagans, Jews, and Christians. The ASOR Library of Biblical and Near Eastern Archaeology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.



Wischnitzer, Rachel. The Messianic Theme in the Paintings of the Dura Synagogue. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1948.

NOTES



iGates, 166; Matheson, 1, 3; Moon, 589; Pollard, 212; Rostovtzeff (1932), 92-94.

iiMatheson, 1.

iiiPollard, 216; Rostovtzeff (1932), 94.

ivKraabel (1981), 86; Matheson, 7; Moon, 589; Rostovtzeff (1932), 94.

vMatheson, 7; Rostovtzeff (1932), 206-207.

viMatheson, 7.

viiKilpatrick, 215; Matheson, 15.

viiiMatheson, 15; Rostovtzeff (1932), 104-105; Welles. 253.

ixMatheson, 35; Rostovtzeff (1932), 104-105, 197-198.

xMatheson, 35; Rostovtzeff (1932), 197-198.

xiJensen, 179; Matheson, 15; Welles, 253.

xiiRostovtzeff (1932), 104; Welles, 253.

xiiiWhite, 93.

xivGates, 167-168; Matheson, 31.

xvKraabel (1987), 52-53.

xviKraabel (1987), 54.

xviiBarclay, 244-245.

xviiiIbid.

xixKelley, 57; White, 93; Wischnitzer, 5.

xxBarclay, 244.

xxiKilpatrick, 215; Moon, 587. Rome’s successful assumption of control of Europos in 165 actually followed three earlier failed attempts. In 55 B.C.E., Crassus, Julius Caesar, and Pompey attacked Parthia but were defeated at the Battle of Carrhae in 53. Twenty years later, Marc Antony attempted an invasion but quickly called it off. Trajan tried again in 113 C.E., leaving soldiers in the city, who were recalled only 4 years later by Hadrian. (Matheson, 17)

xxiiMatheson, 3; Rostovtzeff (1932), 93.

xxiiiKilpatrick, 215; Moon, 587.

xxivGarnsey and Saller, 27. “. . . colonia became an honorific title conferred by special grant, linking a city in its title with an emperor but carrying no substantive privileges.”

xxvGarnsey and Saller, 27-28.

xxviPollard, 214,215, 223-224.

xxviiGarnsey and Saller, 27, 32, 189; Kilpatrick, 215; Moon, 587.

xxviiiWelles, 262, 267-268.

xxixWelles, 267-268.

xxxMatheson, 24; Pollard, 216-217. According to Pollard (212), the total population of Dura was between 10,000 and 20,000, with the military forces numbering about 1000.

xxxiPollard, 212.

xxxiiPerkins, 29-30; Pollard, 212-215, 258-259. According to him the wall was not a real barrier to interaction between the groups that made up Dura’s populace, but it did act as “a physical reminder of the institutional separateness of the army.”

xxxiiiPollard, 214-215, 226, 259; Welles, 259.

xxxivPollard, 214-215.

xxxvPollard, 217-218.

xxxviGates, 167; Goranson, 24.

xxxviiC. Bradford Welles goes even further when he states that during the period of Rome’s occupation of Dura, “conditions were unfavorable to the maintenance of civic government” (260-261).

xxxviiiPollard, 211.

xxxixPollard, 216-217.

xlPollard, 222.

xliPollard, 221, 223.

xliiGutmann (1975), 213; Welles, 258-259.

xliiiRostovtzeff (1932), 110, 114.

xlivIbid.

xlvKilpatrick, 215; Kraabel, 80; Matheson, 18, 35.

xlviGates, 166; Kilpatrick, 215.

xlviiMatheson, 38.

xlviiiGutmann (1975), 213; White, 93.

xlixGoranson, 25; Kilpatrick, 218.

lGoranson, 25; Kilpatrick, 218; White, 218.

liKilpatrick, 218.

liiGates, 172; Kelley, 57; Kilpatrick, 216; White, 93.

liiiGates, 173; Kilpatrick, 216; White, 74, 77.

livWhite, 74, 77.

lvGates, 172, 174; Kilpatrick, 216; Perkins, 29; Seager, 162; White, 77, 96-97.

lviWhite, 77.

lviiGates, 173; Kelley, 57; Hopkins, 140; White, 74, 77, 96-97.

lviiiHopkins, 141; Matheson, 25.

lixKilpatrick, 216.

lxKelley, 158.

lxiMoon, 611.

lxiiBoth Seager (150-151) and Kraabel (1998, 100) argue that there were no external changes made during the second renovation that would signify the structure as a placed used by Jews, while White (93) presses for just the opposite view.

lxiiiMatheson, 24; Pollard, 223-226.

lxivMatheson, 24; Perkins, 30; Pollard, 225-226.

lxvWhite, 86-87, 96-97.

lxviGates, 172, 174; Jensen, 181; Kilpatrick, 216; Levine, 172; Seager, 162; White, 77, 96-97.

lxviiSeager, 150.

lxviiiSeager, 151-152, 155.

lxixSeager, 151-152.

lxxGates, 169: Kraabel, 81.

lxxiSeager, 154-155.

lxxiiSeager, 151-152.

lxxiiiKraabel (1998), 100; Seager, 151-152.

lxxivMatheson, 24; Perkins, 29-30; Welles, 259.

lxxvWhite, 94.

lxxviRostovtzeff (1932), 206.

lxxviiWhite, 95.

lxxviiiHachlili, 406.

lxxixIbid..

lxxxHachlili, 405; White, 77, 97.

lxxxiJensen, 181; White, 77, 97.

lxxxiiHachlili, 405-406.

lxxxiiiLevine, 175-176; Seager, 156-157

lxxxivLevine, 142, 148. But, according to White, 95, “the plan and outfitting of the assembly hall suggest that some formal notions of synagogue worship were beginning to emerge, though they were by no means normative.” He made this statement with respect mainly to the Torah shrine at Dura, an aspect of the synagogue to be addressed later in this paper.

lxxxvKraabel (1981), 81; White, 93.

lxxxviLevine, 148; White, 62.

lxxxviiJensen, 180; Kraabel (1981), 81.

lxxxviiiNor was Dura’s architecture unique in the Diaspora. According to Seager, the synagogues at Ostia and Sardis “have shown that the unorthodoxy which Dura exhibits is not so rare” (150). Though Levine claims that the physical structure of Dura’s synagogue was “provocative and in many ways unique” (149).

lxxxixLevine, 172; Seager, 151.

xcGates, 169-170, 172, 176; Matheson, 26.

xciMoon, 608.

xciiGates, 168, 181.

xciiiBickerman, 136.

xcivGates, 166, 169-170.

xcvGates, 172-173.

xcviGates, 171.

xcviiGates, 170-171; Seager, 166.

xcviiiGoldstein, 119; Gutmann, 222-3; Kraabel, 87.

xcixGates, 172-173.

cGates, 176-177.

ciLevine, 159.

ciiGoldstein (1990), 100; Levine, 159, 171.

ciiiGoldstein (1995), 154. Exodus 20:5 and Deuteronomy 5:9.

civNeusner, 100-101.

cvGates, 167-168.

cviIbid.

cviiHachlili, 405; Hopkins, 146; White, 97.

cviiiHopkins, 142-143; Neusner, 101.

cixBickerman, 145.

cxWeitzmann and Kessler, 180-181.

cxiBickerman, 136; Gates 173, 175-176.

cxiiMoon, 600.

cxiiiKelley, 58; Narkiss, 185. Joseph Gutmann (1975) also claims that “many of the scenes contain non-biblical homiletical embellishments, called aggadoth,” or folk tales (213).

cxivGoldstein, 142.

cxvGoranson, 29.

cxviMoon, 587.

cxviiMoon, 589, 591.

cxviiiIbid..

cxixMoon, 590, 608-609.

cxxMoon, 590.

cxxiMoon, 594-595. This motif was also found in the temple to Hadad at Dura.

cxxiiIbid.

cxxiiiMoon, 592.

cxxivMoon, 592-593.

cxxvMoon, 592, 595, 597.

cxxviKelley, 59; Moon, 603.

cxxviiMoon, 598.

cxxviiiMoon, 601-603.

cxxixMoon, 603.

cxxxIbid.

cxxxiMoon, 596-597.

cxxxiiMoon, 602-603.

cxxxiiiBickerman, 135; Neusner, 91.

cxxxivNeusner, 85-86, 88, 91.

cxxxvGoldstein, passim; Weitzmann and Kessler, 180-181. Paul V. M. Flesher has criticized Goldstein’s approach by claiming he only found messianic beliefs reflected in the paintings because they were what he was looking for. Goldstein does make some leaps of faith with his ideas, but the majority of his theory is soundly based and should be seriously considered.

cxxxviGoldstein, passim; Moon, 605.

cxxxviiGoldstein, passim.

cxxxviiiGoldstein, 111.

cxxxixGoldstein, 112.

cxlKraabel, 86.

cxliGates, 174; Goranson, 24-25.

cxliiMoon, 588, 590; Neusner, 85.

cxliiiMoon, 609.

cxlivKraabel, 82-83.

cxlvBickerman, 139; Moon, 599.

cxlviMoon, 604.

cxlviiMoon, 598.

cxlviiiKraabel, 83.

cxlixWeitzmann and Kessler, 178-180.

clWeitzmann and Kessler, 173.

cliMatheson, 28, 30; Perkins, 29.

cliiJensen, 182; Matheson, 28, 30; Weitzmann and Kessler, 84.

cliiiGoranson, 26; Matheson, 28, 30.

clivHopkins, 116.

clvWeitzmann and Kessler, 172-173, 178-179. In particular, the scenes of the “sacrifice of Isaac, Jacob’s blessings, and the prophecies that the Messiah was to be a scion of the house of David.” And the four “wing panels” above and on either side of the Torah shrine signify: “salvation,” “God’s gifts in the past,” “prophecy of restoration,” and the “new covenant.”

clviJensen, 179; Kelley, 60.

clviiKelley, 60.

clviiiKelley, 58, 61. Goodenough later surmised, probably incorrectly, that the defacement had occurred earlier at the hands of fellow Jews who disapproved of the figural scenes on the walls of the synagogue.

clixKelley, 61.

clxIbid.

clxiKelley, 65.

clxiiKelley, 65.

clxiiiKelley, 61, 67.

clxivKelley, 65, 67.

clxvHopkins, 141.

clxviHopkins, 142.





Share with your friends:
1   2




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page