The Jean Monnet Program



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The Jean Monnet Program
Professor J.H.H.Weiler

European Union Jean Monnet Chair

Jean Monnet Working Paper 09/05


Sanem Baykal
Unity in Diversity? The Challenge of Diversity for the European Political Identity, Legitimacy and Democratic Governance: Turkey’s EU Membership as the Ultimate Test Case

NYU School of Law New York, NY 10012

All rights reserved.

No part of this paper may be reproduced in any form

without permission of the author.

ISSN 1087-2221

© Sanem Baykal 2005

New York University School of Law

New York, NY 10012

USA


Abstract

The current enlargement is, arguably, the most comprehensive and ambitious project of the European integration so far which presents both challenges and opportunities. It will increase the divergences in the EU and might have deleterious effects on the problems of democratic deficit and belonging. The increased diversity and varying arrangements of governance will intensify the problem of legitimacy and lack of a European public space or collective political identity. The Post-Nice constitutionalisation process can be regarded as an effort in strengthening the legitimate, democratic and efficient governance in the Union to overcome the detrimental implications of enlargement, and pursuing the overall aim of deepening the integration.

The European Union’s quest for democratic and legitimate governance, together with an appropriately defined collective identity and boundaries did not start with the current enlargement process. The Union’s search for its finalité politique and collective identity, however, will be the determinant factor regarding its final decision on Turkey’s membership, its historical “significant other”.

This study argues that rather than the size and economic, political and social problems of the country, its factual or perceived divergent identity will influence the course of Turkey-EU relations. The impact of enlargement on European democratic governance and collective identity is analyzed, in this regard, with a view to highlight Turkey’s “special case” status and an analysis of Turkey’s impact on European governance from a democracy/legitimacy vs. efficiency perspective is undertaken. In that context, various approaches to the conceptions of “collective political identity” and “constitutionalisation” in the EU are examined with a special emphasis on “constitutional patriotism”, “constitutional tolerance”, and “pluralism/particularism” in order to determine the consequences of each option for a viable integration between Turkey and Europe.

Thick or thin, exclusive or inclusive, based on “European” or universal values, the forging of a “collective political identity” for the European Union to increase its normative and democratic legitimacy will prove to be a challenging task. The main challenge for the Union, however, will be to strike a balance between diversity/dynamism/plurality on the one hand, and unity/cohesion/solidarity on the other, while aspiring to become a normative civilian power as well as a sufficiently democratic and efficient system of governance. In conclusion, the paper claims that the only normative and viable identity for the Union would be a project-based, flexible, future-oriented, open-ended “EU identity” whether Turkey becomes a member or not. Membership is a political decision that should be based on what the candidate brings to the table, rather than its “identity”.


CONTENTS
PRESCRIPT...............................................................................................................................5

INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................6

I) Deepening and Widening: Impact of Enlargement on Borders, Democracy and Efficiency of the European Governance: Is Turkey “too Big”?.................................................................11


  1. Deeper Integration for an Enlarging Union: What is the EU and What can it Evolve into?...............................................................................................................................11

  2. Boundaries-Borders-Limits: Europe of Diverse Boundaries: Is Turkey Inside or Outside?........................................................................................................................14

  3. Enlargement, Flexibility and Legitimacy: Is There Room for Turkey in a Flexible Union?...........................................................................................................................17

  4. Enlargement from the Perspective of Democracy v. Effectiveness: Impact of Turkish Membership: Relevance of Size...................................................................................21

  5. Why Enlarge? Does the Rationale Change Depending on Who the Candidate is?......25

II) Legitimacy-Democracy-Constitution: The Forging of a European Political Identity and Turkey.......................................................................................................................................28


  1. Legitimacy and the Union: Composite Legitimacy for a Polycentric Polity................28

  2. Democratic Legitimacy and Constitution-Building......................................................31

  3. Conceptions on the European Political Identity............................................................37

1) “No Demos?”: “Economic/Market Citizenship” and “Statist/Communitarian” Approaches to European Political Identity and Turkey.........................................................................................................................37

a) Economic/market citizenship approach..............................................................37

b) Statist or Communitarian Approach...................................................................38

2) Constitutional Patriotism in a European Context and Turkey..................................41

3) Pluralism/Particularism Approach to the European Political Identity and Turkey...48

4) Weiler’s “Constitutional Tolerance” Conception and Its Impact on Turkey’s Membership Prospects........................................................................................................51

5) “European Union Identity” as the Collective Political Identity and Turkey............56

III) European Political Identity: Existing and Potential Referents, Public Opinion and Turkish Membership..............................................................................................................................58

A) The Identity Referents of the European Union According to Its Constitutional Legal Texts and Their Impact on Turkey’s Membership..................................................................................................................58

1) Analysis of the Existing Founding Documents in respect to the Collective Political Identity and Turkey’s Membership...................................................................................................................59

2) Analysis of the Constitutional Treaty in respect to the Collective Political Identity and Turkey’s Membership...................................................................................................................62

B) An Analysis of the Recent Constitutionalisation Process in Respect to its Collective Political Identity Generative Potential.........................................................................................................................69

C) European Public Opinion and Turkey’s European Prospects.......................................74

CONCLUSION.........................................................................................................................77


UNITY IN DIVERSITY? THE CHALLENGE OF DIVERSITY FOR THE EUROPEAN POLITICAL IDENTITY, LEGITIMACY AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE: TURKEY’S EU MEMBERSHIP AS THE ULTIMATE TEST CASE
Sanem BAYKAL1
PRESCRIPT
The research on this paper started around the time the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe was signed by the Heads of State and Government of the Member States in Rome on the 29 of October 2004. On the 17thth of December of the same year, the European Council declared that Turkey was to start the accession negotiations on the 3rd of October 2005. The completion of the paper coincides with that latter date, on which the Member States finally decided to commence the accession negotiations with Turkey following intense debates.

In the meantime, the current endeavor of strengthening the normative, democratic and social legitimacy of the Union, and forging a European collective political identity via constitutionalisation was interrupted by the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty by the French and Dutch people in ratification referendums. The underlying reasons or explanations for this public display of disaffection towards the Constitutional Treaty and the Union are multifaceted and serious. Today, the future of both the Constitutional Treaty and the Union, together with the future designs on enlargement appear to be in flux.

This outcome of events, however, would not take away from the fact that the attempts at forging a European community of solidarity and mutual trust in order to sustain the legitimacy of the European polity, while preserving the diversity prevailing in Europe, have created their own momentum. Such ideal and momentum, together with the underpinning theoretical background that shaped the identity referents of the Constitutional Treaty remain intact, even in the aftermath of the demise of the current text.

Against this background, neither an analysis of the Constitutional Treaty regarding its approach to European collective political identity, nor an assessment of Turkey’s potential conformity with this collective identity became obsolete. With this justification in mind, this study remains unaltered in regard to its fundamental research, basic outlook and arguments.







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