The Jean Monnet Program



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Table of Contents
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List of Tables iv

List of Abbreviations v

Introduction 1

II Recent Cases Regarding “Trade and Environment” 12

A. Article XX of the GATT 12

1. Paragraph (b) 14

2. Paragraph (g) 16

3. Chapeau of Article XX 20

4. Burden of Proof 26

B. SPS Agreement 32

1. Introduction 32

2. Article 5.5: Arbitrary or Unjustifiable Distinctions 36

3. Article 5.6: LTRA Test 42

4. Burden of Proof 45

C. TBT Agreement 50

III Economic Analysis of Judicial Tests 54

A. Potential Pareto Efficiency (PPE) 55

B. Costs and Benefits of ETMs 56

C. Analysis of the LTRA and “Means and Ends” Tests 65

D Evaluation of AB&P’s Use of the LTRA and “Means and Ends” Tests 68

1. Critiques of PPE 68

2. The LTRA Test 71

3. The “Means and Ends” Test 77

4. Conclusion 81

IV The Essence/Application Dichotomy 84

V Allocation of the Burden of Proof 92

A. Burden of Proof 92

B. Burden of Pleading 99

VI Conclusion 103

Bibliography 105





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