What were the primary differences between Russia and the West in the 18th century?
Chapter 19: Early Latin America
Spaniards and Portuguese: From Reconquest to Conquest
What role did religious conflict play in shaping the Iberian Peninsula?
Iberian Society and Tradition
How are Iberian social, religious, and economic characteristics similar to European institutions established in the New World?
The Chronology of Conquest
What are the three periods of colonization outlined in this section? Briefly summarize each.
The Caribbean Crucible
Describe the “encomienda” system established by the Spaniards in the Caribbean What impact does it have on the natives?
What are 3 examples of changes that Europeans make to their new-found lands? What are 2 examples of ways that their new lands force them to change?
The Paths of Conquest
Other than their outcomes, find 2 similarities between the conquests of the Incas and Aztecs by Spanish conquistadors. (Be sure to read about the remaining conquests by the Spaniards)
What are the 5 advantages held by Europeans over their native victims?
Conquest and Morality
Briefly summarize the two sides in the debate on the morality of Spanish conquest, being sure to include their major proponents (who supported them).
Destruction and Transformation of American Indian Societies
After reading the section, examine the charts on page 429. What do you think accounts for the odd shape of the first graph? What are your thoughts on the second graph? (try and use more than one or two words).
Exploitation of the Indians
How does the relationship between natives and Spaniards in the encomienda system to compare to traditional feudal relationships?
What are 2 similarities between Portuguese and Spanish reform efforts in their colonies? What are 2 differences that are unique to Portugal’s reforms?
Reforms, Reactions, and Revolts
What were the common complaints of revolutionaries near the end of the 18th century? How did the division of the social classes affect the success of these revolutionary movements?
Points to Ponder (Answer in Notebook)
In what sense can it be said that the nature of the Latin American colonies was simply a reflection of Iberian society? Be sure to address at least 3 different characteristics (cultural, political, religious, economic, etc)
Compare and contrast the colonies of Spanish America with Portuguese Brazil.
Compare Latin American labor systems with either Russian or feudal European practices.
Compare the Spanish conquest of the Americas with one of the following…
Post-Classical Arab conquest of the Middle East
Classical Roman conquest of the Mediterranean world
Mongol conquest of the Eastern World
How did Latin American demography and environment change from Pre-Columbian times through the era of Spanish/Portuguese colonization?
Chapter 20: Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave trade
Describe the debate between scholars on the importance/impact of slavery. Which side do you agree with? Why?
The Atlantic Slave Trade
Does Portugal or the African kingdoms hold the advantage in their early relationships? Why? How do the Portuguese begin to affect the balance of power?
What are three examples of the impact that Portugal has on African society?
How does the slave trade begin? How does it evolve as time passes?
Trend Towards Expansion
How does this section change/expand your understanding of slavery in British North America (the future United States)?
Create your own question and answer based on the charts on pg 452
How does the slave trade impact population in Africa?
Organization of the Trade
How is the slave trade organized by the various European countries? What are some of the unexpected effects of the trade on Europeans?
Why is it so difficult to determine whether or not the slave trade was as profitable as we’ve always believed?
African Societies, Slavery and the Slave Trade
Describe the institution of slavery within Africa. How does it differ from the type and degree of enslavement created by Europeans on these same people?
Slaving and African Politics
Explain the “gun-slave” cycle. Based on the information in the section, why do you agree/disagree with this theory that tries to explain the continuation of the slave trade despite the obvious negative effects on Africans?
Asante and Dahomey
Compare and contrast the relationship between Europe and EACH of the major slave kingdoms of the West African coast (Asante, Benin, and Dahomey)
East Africa and the Sudan
Is the East-coast slave trade more similar to or different from the West-coast slave trade? Why?
Describe the work of Islam in East Africa. What impact does it have on African society?
White Settlers and Africans in Southern Africa
What does South Africa look like (politically, socially, economically) before Europeans arrive?
Describe the relationship that develops between the Dutch and native Africans. Describe the later conflict between the Dutch and incoming British.
The Mfecane and the Zulu Rise to Power
Explain the Zulu’s rise to power. What allowed them to be successful? How do the neighboring tribal groups/kingdoms respond?
The African Diaspora
Read twice – take your own notes
Read twice – take your own notes
Africans in the Americas
Create your own question and answer
American Slave Societies
Describe the hierarchy that develops within slave societies. What aspects of this system seem most odd or illogical?
The People and Gods in Exile
Describe the ways in which African culture survived in a slave society. In addition, describe the ways in which African and European culture became intertwined.
The End of the Slave Trade and the Abolition of Slavery
List and Explain three reasons or justifications for the end of slavery/the slave trade.
Points to Ponder (answer these in your notebooks)
To what extent was slavery a feature of African society prior to the coming of the Europeans? How was it intertwined with the development of more centralized states?
Compare and contrast African slavery, Latin American forced labor, and Russian serfdom.
Compare and contrast the effects of the slave trade on Africa with the Black Death’s effects in Europe.
What changes do you notice in the practice of Islam in Africa by 1750? How has it remain unchanged since it was first introduced in the Post-Classical period?
Evaluate the causes for the end of the Atlantic slave trade. (*This means to not only “describe” them, but to also critique or judge them based on the thinking at the time.)
What 2 characteristics/weaknesses of this trade network will the Europeans ultimately be able to exploit?
Trading Empire: The Portuguese Response to the Encounter at Calicut
What objections do the Portuguese have to using silver as a medium of exchange in their trade with the East?
How do the Portuguese change the way trade is conducted in the East. Describe at least one example of their ability to dictate the terms of trade and exchange.
Portuguese Vulnerability and the Rise of the Dutch and English Trading Empires
What are 3 reasons for the failure of the Portuguese to establish a trading empire, thus opening the door for the Dutch and English? How do the Dutch methods differ from the Portuguese?
Going Ashore: European Tribute Systems in Asia
What prevented Europeans from simply taking over the foreign countries they visited? What methods were used (particularly with smaller kingdoms) to ensure that Europeans were able to get the products they wanted with a minimum of fuss?
Spreading the Faith: The Missionary Enterprise in South and Southeast Asia
Why do you suppose Christian missionaries had success in converting lower-caste Hindus, but not those of the upper castes?
Despite the best intentions of European missionaries, what were the primary reasons that the “native pagans” agreed to conversion?
Ming China: A Global Mission Refused
Read twice…no question
Another Scholar-Gentry Revival
How has the exam system changed from its Foundations-era origins? How has it remained the same?
Reform: Hongwu’s Efforts to Root Out Abuses in Court Politics
What steps does Hongwu take to prevent corruption in the bureaucracy? How does he attempt to keep peace in the palace itself?
A Return to Scholar-Gentry Dominance
Describe the conditions of the peasant class during the Ming dynasty. In addition, how has the status of women changed/remained the same?
An Age of Growth: Agriculture, Population, Commerce, and the Arts
Create your own question AND answer
An Age of Expansion: the Zhenghe Expeditions
Read twice…no question (This should be mostly review for you)
Chinese Retreat and the Arrival of the Europeans
Describe the successes and failures of European missionaries in China (be sure to mention efforts focused at both upper and lower classes).
Ming Decline and the Chinese Predicament
Describe the effect of dynastic decline on the peasantry.
Fending Off the West: Japan’s Reunification and the First Challenge
How do the plans/policies of Hideyoshi compare with those of his successor Tokugawa Ieyasu? Whose are ultimately more successful for Japan?
Dealing With the European Challenge
Describe the initial reaction of the Japanese to the Christian missionaries. What causes their attitude to change as time progresses?
Japan’s Self-Imposed Isolation
How do Japanese attitudes towards Europeans begin to change during the 16th and 17th centuries? What are some of the causes of this shift?
Points to Ponder (Answer in your Notebook)
Define the characteristics of the Asian sea trading network. In what ways did the European incursion change the Asian system? In what ways did it remain the same?
What was the nature of the Ming restoration of traditional Chinese values? What innovations were made?
Compare and contrast Chinese and European means (how they did it) and motives (why they did it) for commercial expansion.
Following the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, what was the nature of Japanese relationships with Europe? With China?
Compare and contrast the spread of Christianity in Asia with the spread of Islam in Asia.