The Iron Curtain, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Aid and Comecon

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The Iron Curtain, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Aid and Comecon

Sort the following information into the correct sections in the table on Pages 3-4
Which are describing the Iron Curtain and its effects?
Which are describing the reasons for the Truman Doctrine and its effects?
Which are describing Marshall Aid and the Marshall Plan?
Which are describing COMECON?

  1. The name came from a speech made by Winston Churchill in 1946.

  1. The US government stepped in with an offer of $400,000,000. Harry Truman also took the opportunity to extend the offer of aid.

  1. He offered to help any country that was being threatened either from within or from without its own borders. He did not name any country, nor did he specify what sort of aid would be given.

  1. He wanted to set up a buffer zone of countries in Eastern Europe to protect the USSR against another invasion by Germany.

  1. Between 1945 and 1948 all the countries which had been occupied by the Red Army at the end of the war were brought under Soviet control.

  1. It was intended to be the Soviet Union's response to Marshall Aid. Stalin offered aid to communist countries to help them recover from the effects of the Second World War.

  1. In Czechoslovakia the leaders were simply murdered.

  1. Truman was trying to stop any other countries in Europe becoming Communist. Already the Iron Curtain had cut Europe in two. He did not want that to go any further.

  1. He did not trust the west, Britain and the USA, because they had invaded Russia in 1919 and had delayed the invasion of France until 1944.

  1. He was trying to prevent western influence reaching the east and refugees leaving the east for Western Europe.

  1. In February 1947 the British government informed the USA that it could no longer afford to support the Greek government against Communist rebels.

  1. The Iron Curtain was the name given to the border between east and west in Europe that was set up by Joseph Stalin, the ruler of the USSR in the years after the Second World War.

  1. The Iron Curtain became a thousand mile fence cutting off the Communist countries of Eastern Europe form the non-communist west.

  1. The most famous example of the Iron Curtain was the Berlin Wall, however, this was built in 1961.

  1. In March 1947 President Harry Truman offered grants of American money to all European countries. The plan was named after his secretary of state George C Marshall.

  1. Truman wanted to help the countries of Europe recover from the effects of the Second World War.

  1. He had seen the devastation, which the war had caused and he wanted the USA to play a part in recovery. Marshall Aid was announced at the same time.

  1. Truman also hoped that he might be able to persuade some of the countries of Eastern Europe to break away from Communism. Marshall Aid was also intended to help here.

  1. The USSR and other eastern countries attended the first meetings in 1948, but withdrew when they discovered that they would have to join the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation.

  1. This would mean that the USA would be able to influence the countries of the east and undermine communism. This was what Truman had hoped would happen.

  1. While the Truman Doctrine did not actually mention the Soviet Union, it was obvious that it was intended as a warning to Stalin that Truman was not going to let him get away with any more attempts to take control of Europe.

  1. When the Soviet Union realised what Truman was up to, other Eastern Bloc countries, Czechoslovakia in particular, were forced to withdraw applications for Marshall Aid.

  1. Italy, which had been an ally of Germany during the war, received $600,000,000. Marshall Aid was one of the reasons why Stalin tried to force the west out of West Berlin in 1948.

  1. Truman had said that he was going to ‘get tough with Russia’, This was one example of his policy.

  1. Marshall Aid was an attempt to rebuild Europe after the Second World War. It put the ideas of the Truman Doctrine into effect.

  1. Altogether seventeen countries received a total of $13,750,000,000, which allowed them to recover from the war much more quickly than the countries of the east.

  1. Truman intended that Marshall Aid would be made available to all countries in Europe, but in fact only countries in the west accepted it.

  1. The Truman Doctrine was announced by Harry Truman, the president of the USA, in March 1947.

  1. Stalin set up a Soviet version of Marshall Aid, COMECON, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, on January 25 1949.

  1. The Marshall Plan would control how Marshall Aid would be spent. Individual countries would not be able to decide for themselves

The Iron Curtain

The Truman Doctrine

Marshall Aid and the Plan


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