The Interpreter



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The US Navy Japanese/Oriental Language School Archival Project

The Interpreter


Archives, University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries

Number 246 Remember September 11, 2001

arv@colorado.edu August 1, 2018

Our Mission


In the Spring of 2000, the Archives continued the origi­nal efforts of Captain Roger Pineau and William Hudson, and the Archives first at­tempts in 1992, to gather the papers, letters, photographs, and records of graduates of the US Navy Japanese/ Oriental Language School, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1942-1946. We assemble these papers in recognition of the contribu­tions made by JLS/OLS instructors and graduates to the War effort in the Pa­cific and the Cold War, to the creation of East Asian language programs across the country, and to the development of Japanese-American cultural rec­onciliation programs after World War II.




My Dad's Dreams: Camp to Congress
Congress Wednesday [November 2011] honored Japanese-American World War II veterans with the Congressional Gold Medal, the nation’s highest award for distinguished achievements. My father, Giichi “Byron” Honda, is one of these vets. In a brutal irony, he served in the Military Intelligence Service, even as his family lived behind barbed wire in a Colorado internment camp.

The deeds of the 6,000 MIS troops were long shrouded in secrecy. These bilingual Japanese-Americans served their country as translators, interrogators and Japanese-language instructors. Not only did they help win the war in the Pacific, their understanding of the Japanese built a pathway to peace after the war. Because MIS work was classified until 1972, their heroism was often hidden from public view.

My father was born in Walnut Grove, Calif., and was a Boy Scout growing up. He graduated high school as a member of the California Scholarship Federation, then worked as a truck driver to pay for community college, pursuing his dream of becoming a doctor.

But his dream was dashed on Feb. 19, 1942, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, declaring the West Coast a military zone and forcing more than 120,000 Japanese Americans, my family included, to evacuate. My family was hauled to Merced Assembly Center and incarcerated behind barbed wire at the Amache internment camp in southeast Colorado. I was less than a year old.

Men of Japanese ancestry were originally prohibited from enlisting in the armed forces. Despite their patriotism and willingness to fight for freedom and democracy, countless Japanese-American men were classified “4C” — enemy aliens.

But when the military needed servicemen who could read and write Japanese, 6,000 men, including my father, quickly joined the MIS. In 1943, my Dad left Amache to teach Japanese to the Navy Intelligence Service at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He was later transferred to Northwestern University. He was able to bring his family, including me, to Chicago with him.

Life in Amache had taught me that being Japanese in America was bad. In the years after my internment, Dad was quick to teach me that Japanese-Americans had been treated unjustly and our constitutional rights as Americans had been violated.

My father’s lessons still guide my work in Congress today — as we approach the 70th Anniversary of Executive Order 9066.

The Congressional Gold Medal recognizes the strength that Japanese-American servicemen demonstrated in risking their lives for their country – even as their families were imprisoned back home. As President Harry S. Truman told these veterans at the end of the war, “You fought not only the enemy, but you fought prejudice, and you won.”

My father’s service with MIS protected America in the darkest of hours. His legacy as a Japanese-American is a lodestar for every future generation – inspiring us to work tirelessly to forge a more perfect union.

His name, along with those of thousands of Japanese-American war heroes from MIS, the 100th Infantry Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, is now etched in U.S. history. Their devotion to country is an indelible reminder that we must never let “war hysteria, racial prejudice and a failure of political leadership” derail the continuing mission of America – to live as one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

Rep. Mike Honda (D-Calif.) is a member of the House Appropriations and Budget Committees and chairman emeritus of the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus.


Rep. Mike Honda

November 2, 2011

http://www.politico.com/story/2011/11/my-dads-dreams-camp-to-congress-067486#ixzz3wgTWWl7j
[Ed. Note: Byron G. Honda is listed as a sensei (teaching associate) of the USN JLS/OLS, ending date listed as August 25, 1944. Mr. Honda was, as Tom Flournoy (JLS 1944) described in 2002, one of that “gallant breed that came from behind the barbed wire to sharpen our skills and contribute to our eventual victory.”]

________________
Curtis Prendergast

1917-2014

OLS 1945
Curtis W. Prendergast, 98, one of Time’s outstanding correspondents and editors and co-founder of TLAS, died at home in Bethesda in July. Curt was Time’s gregarious, gung-ho bureau chief in four foreign capitals and served the company in many other ways.

Curt was born in 1917 in Stockton, California, but grew up in San Francisco, where he was considered somewhat disruptive in school. However, he profited from a shop class in carpentry that gave him a life-long skill at fine woodwork. Before going to college he spent a year roughing it—working in a sugar mill and on a cargo ship. As a member of the class of 1936 at Stanford he earned mostly Cs but got a taste for journalism on the campus paper. On graduating, he was told he would have a great future in insurance. He chose instead the Fresno Bee, which assigned him to the police beat. He loved it, according to his daughter, Sarah.

World War II took him to the Great Lakes naval training station. At a Christmas party in Chicago in 1942 he met a WAC lieutenant who was to become his wife, Libby. The difficulty of courting between Chicago and Boulder, where Curt was sent to the famous Navy language school to learn Japanese, did not stop them from getting married before the end of the war. Curt was on a troopship bound for the Philippines and the invasion of Japan when the war ended and the ship turned around to head home.

After leaving the Navy, Curt had the idea of joining the State Department, but the day he got accepted he went home and told Libby, “I’ve made a terrible mistake.” The mistake became more evident when he was made vice consul in Seoul. The couple had two children by then and a third was born in Seoul. Then the North Koreans struck in 1950. The family was evacuated, but Curt stayed until he had to leave. Back in the U.S., Curt corrected his mistake, left the State Department and cold-called Time, which was then looking for someone to go to Korea. So back he went to Korea as a war correspondent.

Next came an assignment in Paris in 1952, which the family did not like at first. By now the Prendergasts had four children. An assignment as Tokyo bureau chief (enjoyable) followed and then Johannesburg (difficult, but fascinating), covering sub-Sahara Africa. In 1959 Curt was sent to Paris, then a major news center, mostly because of de Gaulle’s pretentions, to become bureau chief. His predecessor and good friend, Frank White, liked Paris so much that it took a while before Curt could actually take over. Curt and his family liked it too. They stayed through 1968, long enough to witness the rioting in the streets that year.

Curt displayed his unquenchable enthusiasm for his work late one Saturday in Paris when the bureau had just finished an exhausting week on a de Gaulle cover. A late query came in from the People section wanting to know right away the color of some actress’s hair. Curt jumped at the assignment as if he had had nothing to do all week.

Curt’s crowning assignment was London bureau chief from l968 to 1971, the time of the Irish “troubles,” among other things. After that he moved into retirement covering the UN for a while, writing the third volume of the official history of Time Inc (1960-1980), helping to start Time’s European edition, and serving as Time Inc’s representative on the UN’s World Press Bureau, which sent him on missions to study the problems of the press in Eastern Europe. And he became co-founder of TLAS. The couple settled first in Trappe, Maryland, and then in Bethesda. Libby died last year.
Thanks to Sarah Prendergast for much of this information.
TLASconnect

“Farewells”



Time Life Alumni Society
[Ed. Note: This longer, more personal, obituary is a much welcomed addition to the short Washington Post obit in Issue #227.]

________________
Palmer Smith, Jr.

JLS 11/8/44-
Palmer Smith ’50 of Seattle died Feb. 11, 2004. For over 40 years he practiced law in Seattle as a partner at Cary, Durning, Prince & Smith and Smith, Brucker, Winn & Ehlert. He was later a sole practitioner. He worked on legislation prohibiting racial discrimination in housing in Seattle and Washington State, drafted the first abortion-rights legislation in Washington State in the late 1960s and served on a number of boards and committees related to fair housing, human services and civil rights. He studied Japanese and Malay languages in the U.S. Navy and served at the Joint Naval Intelligence Center.
Harvard Law Today

In Memoriam – Summer 2004

Bulletin

________________
Yamada Sensei

WWI Veteran
…’Ed Yamada of Lawai said his father served as a Japanese language instructor in Boulder, Colorado.

“My dad was born in Hilo, his parents coming over to Hawaii to work as contract laborers for the Hamakua Sugar Co.,” Yamada said. “Following their contract, some of the family returned to Japan, but some of the family moved to the Mainland where, following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, they were interned in Amache, Colo.”

Yamada said it was a good thing his dad was a veteran of World War I because when the war broke out, he was involved in importing and exporting with Japan.

“That made him a prime candidate for interning,” Yamada said. “But he was a veteran and they had him teaching Japanese at the university. It was so unfair because his family was interned and he was teaching Japanese. This is a long story.”’


from Dennis Fujimoto

Aloha MIS: Kauai Men who served in Military Intelligence Unit during World War II Meet for Final Time”

The Garden Island

June 20, 2014
[Ed. Note: There were several Yamadas on the Sensei staff at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Kenichi Yamada (faculty) started at the USN JLS/OLS in 1942. Hiroshi Yamada (Instructor) was appointed on February 15, 1943. Michiko Yamada is only listed as resigning on January 31, 1944. Often several family members were hired in various functions at the school.]

__________________

Elena A. Varneck

OLS (Russian) Professor/ преподаватель (ница)

(1890-1976)
… Born in Kiev, Elena Alekseevna Varneck graduated from the Smolnyi Institute in St. Petersburg. In addition to Russian, she was fluent in English, French, German, and used several other languages for research and translation: Spanish, Italian, Polish, and Czech. She worked for the Provisional Government of Alexander Kerensky at the Russian Embassy in Washington, D.C., with Ambassador B. A. Bakhmetev.1 To begin her new job, she traveled by train from Petrograd to Vladivostok, and then by boat to Japan and America, as it was too dangerous to sail across the Atlantic due to World War I. When she told her family she was going to America, Varneck's brother Aleksei said: "You are lucky. You might get to travel via [the] Hawaiian Islands." In the Hoover Institution Archives there is a 600-page memoir of the early part of her life. Unfortunately, it ends in 1918, as she is getting on the boat for America.2

After the fall of the Provisional Government, Varneck went to New York City looking for work. There she met Donat Konstantinovich Kazarinoff (1892-1957), a graduate of Moscow University. Hoping to see him again, she thought he would be attending Easter services at the Russian Orthodox Church, where she did find him. Within a short time, they were married, and her husband received a position as professor of mathematics at the University of Michigan from 1918 to 1922. They had one son, Constantine (1919-2000).

Now a single mother, she worked for the Harvard Medical School as a translator from 1928 to 1929. She arrived at the Hoover War Library at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California in 1929, where she worked until 1942 as a research associate for the director Harold H. Fisher. The United States State Department employed her as a translator from 1942 to 1945, during which she worked as a translator at the first United Nations conference in San Francisco, in 1945. She taught Russian during World War II at the Navy Language School at Boulder, Colorado, and German at Montana State University in Missoula. She returned to Stanford to teach Russian from 1948 to 1951.3
from Patricia Polansky,

Pacific Rim Librarianship: Collectors of Russian Materials



on the Far East,”

Indiana Slavic Studies,



16 (Annual 2006): p159.

________________
Ditlev G. M. Bach

USN JLS Sensei
Japanese Ministry of the United Evangelical Lutheran Church
Before the United States Entry into World War II against Japan, the UELC had two missionary couples in that country, Dr. and Mrs. J.M.T. Winther and Rev. and Mrs. Ditlev Gotthard Monrad Bach, in addition to Miss Maya Winther. In early 1941 Miss Winther had already come back to the U.S. on furlough and it was doubtful that she would return upon completing her leave. By June of the same year, Dr. and Mrs. Winther had likewise returned to the United States and the Bachs were expected to come back soon thereafter.

The Forty-fifth Annual Convention Report of 1941 of the UELC raised a number of questions regarding what could be done with these missionaries and how they would be supported a year after their return (in other words after July 1, 1942), as well as the possibility of taking “up a mission among the Japanese people on the Pacific Coast. There were many of them in such cities as San Francisco and Los Angeles… in (and) around Fresno.” The report went on to say that since they would continue to “receive their salaries for one year … this situation will afford an opportunity to make a survey of the possibilities of mission work among the Japanese people … [and it confidently concluded that] undoubtedly Rev. Bach would be happy to make such a survey.”

In October of the same year, the Bachs were present at the Thirty-seventh Annual Convention of the Pacific District. The district’s president’s report gave no hint that Bach had been assigned to another ministry or did he mention that Bach was surveying the Pacific Coast for a possible ministry site. However, the following year’s report mentioned that in the “distribution of the balance on hand [from last year,]” $25 were allocated to Rev. and Mrs. D.G.M. Bach for their work among the Japanese in Concentration Camps.” But the report did not indicate exactly where the Bachs were doing their ministry. In Bach’s own “Biographical Record,” it was recorded that he served as a missionary among the Japanese-Americans in Fresno, California, from 1941 to 1942 and 1947 to 1956.

According to the available information, there was no concentration camp in or near Fresno, but the city did serve as an assembly center. Could the person making the district report confuse an assembly center for a concentration camps? Possibly. But Lester E. Suzuki in his book, Ministry in the Assembly and Relocation Centers of World War II, a comprehensive and authoritative volume on the subject, never mentions Bach’s ministry anywhere. It is likely that after Bach returned from Japan he and his wife settled in Fresno and did some unofficial ministry at the Fresno assembly center. His ministry was no doubt interrupted after the people from the assembly center were relocated to different concentration camps. The Bachs themselves moved to Colorado where he served as a teacher of Japanese at the Colorado University from 1942 to 1946.


from Edmond Yee,

The Soaring Crane: Stories of Asian Lutherans in North America (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2002), Pp.33-34.


https://books.google.com/books?id=4Xi3C9RlEtEC&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&dq=Ditlev+Gotthard+Monrad+Bach&source=bl&ots=w3zgvMzsU_&sig=1u-mS43jDgtmWCDUkNEgvTdJZdM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwif262M96fKAhWC6SYKHavkB9kQ6AEIMjAE#v=onepage&q=Ditlev%20Gotthard%20Monrad%20Bach&f=false
[Ed. Note: As often happened with the children of USN JLS/OLS sensei and attendees, their children often followed them into language and Asian studies. D.G.M. Bach’s son, Emmon Bach (1929–2014) became a prominent American linguist. He was Professor Emeritus at the Department of Linguistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst and Professorial Research Associate at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), part of the University of London. He was born in Kumamoto, Japan. His family were American nationals, and received warnings to leave Japan in 1941. In Fresno, California his father was a "pastor to Japanese-Americans interned during the war." Bach attended Boulder High School in Boulder, Colorado and Roosevelt High School in Fresno, CA.

His interests included syntax, phonology, the languages of British Columbia (especially Haisla), problems of tense and aspect in semantics, and formal problems and semantic issues in the morphology of polysynthetic languages. In November 2014, he died in Oxford. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).]

________________
Hugh & Toni Deane

He was JLS 1943
(Taken from longer article)
COLLEGE AND MARRIAGE
Toni attended Wellesley College on a scholarship. As a sophomore, she signed up for an exchange program sponsored by Harvard University at Lingnan University, an elite institution founded by Presbyterian missionaries in Guangzhou (Canton), China. The Japanese invasion of China, however, closed down the exchange

program.


Toni had attended meetings in Cambridge of the former Lingnan University exchange students and fell in love with one, Hugh Gordon Deane, Jr. (1916-2001). A Mayflower descendent from a conservative Republican family in Springfield, Hugh had specialized in Chinese history and government at Harvard and studied in China in 1936-37. He graduated from Harvard in 1938 and was about to return to China as a foreign correspondent for the prestigious Christian Science

Monitor. Although she had only just finished her sophomore year, Toni and Hugh were married on June 14, 1939 at Harvard Memorial Chapel, followed by a wedding reception at the Wilson home, Wee Stone House. Japanese lanterns were strung around the yard in celebration. Two weeks later, the young couple left for China.
BATTLEFIELD HONEYMOON
The Japanese had seized Manchuria in 1931 and proclaimed the puppet state of Manchukuo. With the Marco Polo Bridge Incident outside Beijing (Peking) as a pretext, the Japanese declared war on China on July 7, 1937, the beginning of China’s Anti-Japanese War that lasted until 1945.

The Japanese soon occupied Beijing, the nearby port city of Tianjin (Tientsin), Shanghai, and

Nanjing (Nanking), the seat of the Nationalist Government.4 Wuhan on the Yangtze River, where the Nationalist Government had been reestablished, and Guangzhou in the South fell in late 1938. The Nationalists retreated further up the Yangtze River to Chongqing (Chungking) in Sichuan (Szechwan) province, which served as the capital of China for the rest of the war.5

Hugh Deane, on assignment for the Christian Science Monitor, and Toni, his new bride, sailed from Los Angeles on a lengthy voyage aboard a freighter that took them to Yokohama, Shanghai, and Hong Kong and from there on a French mail boat to the Vietnamese (French Indochina) port of Haiphong. Then, they traveled into China from the south by truck by way of Nanning in Guangxi (Kwangsi) province and Guiyang (Kweiyang) in Guizhou (Kweichow) province, finally reaching their destination, Chongqing.

In a series of letters sent home by Toni to her parents, serialized as “Battlefield Honeymoon: Wellesley Bride Looks at Orient” in the magazine section of the Boston Sunday Advertiser in early 1940, Toni provided Americans with a unique perspective on China during those momentous and dangerous times. She described bombing and strafing by Japanese planes; tours of orphanages and schools; and personal details about the rigors of travel in war-torn China, local food, clothing styles, household furnishings, and shopping.

While in Chongqing, the Deanes met Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, head of the Nationalist Government; Madame Chiang Kai-shek (a graduate of Wellesley College to whom Toni had a letter of introduction from the college president); her sister, Madame Sun Yat-sen, the widow of the founder of the Kuomintang; Chou En-Lai, the Communist foreign minister and liaison to the Nationalists; General “Vinegar Joe” Stilwell, commander of U.S. forces in the China-Burma-India theater; influential Time Magazine correspondent Theodore White; “Old China Hands,” such as John S. Service and Edgar Snow, author of Red Star Over China; and the legendary New Zealander Rewi Alley, founder of the Chinese Industrial Cooperative movement.6

Hugh traveled widely in northwestern China where he had extensive contact with the Red Army. He reported in a prophetic series for the Monitor that Chiang Kai-shek had no support and would not prevail.
AFTER CHINA
Toni spent 1½ years in China. Hugh remained longer, returning just before the 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. When Toni returned from China, she brought her pet Lhasa Apso named Wu Peifu, one of the first of this breed in the United States.7 The dog had been given to her by a retired Yangtze River boat captain who ran an antique shop in Shanghai.

During World War II, the Deans lived in Washington, DC where Hugh worked for the Office of War Information and then in Colorado while he trained at the US Navy Japanese Language School in Boulder. Toni lectured about her experiences in China at churches, colleges and rotary clubs. Following a lecture at a church in Washington, DC, Eleanor Roosevelt invited her to lunch at the White House and they had a two hour conversation about the situation in China and Toni’s views on Chiang Kai-shek’s propaganda campaign to influence American public opinion. While Hugh served as a naval intelligence officer on General MacArthur’s staff in the South Pacific, Toni worked in New York City as a program analyst for CBS radio and then as an editor for Vogue.

Shortly after the end of World War II, Hugh and Toni were divorced. Toni subsequently married an internist and lived for 30 years in Larchmont, New York before they retired to Florida.

Hugh returned to Asia, working as a journalist in Japan, China, and Korea, and married a New Zealander on General MacArthur’s staff. He was a founder of the US-China People’s Friendship Association, chief editor of its US-China Review, and editor of the Hotel Voice, a publication for New York City’s unionized hotel workers. During the McCarthy era, he was blacklisted, a victim to the then-popular notion that conspiring Americans had “lost” China to the Communists, and had to support himself for a time by managing a Laundromat. He would never find work again as a staff journalist, but wrote numerous articles and two books, Good Deeds & Gunboats: Two Centuries of American-Chinese Encounters and Korean War: 1945-1953.


from Stephen J. Lehrman,

Wee Stone House



January 2009

http://jamaicahills.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/wee-stone-house-assembled-and-compressed-graphics-v31.pdf
[Ed. Note: See also Issue #99a. An interesting view from the wife’s (ex-wife’s) side.]

________________

Donald Goldy

Lt. Cdr. USN

USN JLS Cadre


Lt. Cmdr. Donald Goldy. Full military service and burial were held Monday afternoon at Arlington Cemetery for a former Salem man, Lt. Cmdr. H. Donald Goldy. Cmdr. Goldy died Dec. 29, 1956, at his home in Denver, Colorado, following a long illness. Born April 27, 1898 in Salem, he was educated here and attended Ohio State University as a premedical student. He was graduated from Annapolis in 1919. He retired from the Navy in 1938 but was called back to active service in 1941. Cmdr. Goldy was author of a convoy instruction guide used as a rule book for all convoy operations during World Wai II, and was consultant for convoy operations for the African invasion in 1942. He served as executive officer and chief of staff of the Navy’s Japanese language school at Boulder from 1943 to 1945.

After his retirement from the Navy in 1946, he was products manager at Denver University four years. He was last employed by the Colorado Department of Revenue as business manager and fiscal agent, retiring in October of 1955 because of ill health.

Survivors include his wife, Mrs. Edith Moore Goldy of Denver; a son. Donald C. Goldy of Denver; a daughter, Miss Carol Goldy of Washington, D.C.; a sister. Mrs. Madeleine Pinardi of Dearborn Mich.; and a grandson.

The Salem News



January 9, 1957

Page 8

________________
Helen Canzoneri

Sensei 1913-2010
Helen Mary (Zimmerman) Canzoneri, 97, died on Nov. 18, 2010, at Larksfield Place in Wichita, Kansas.

Born in 1913 to Joseph and Myrtle Zimmerman, she was raised in Sterling and graduated from high school there. She earned her bachelor of arts Phi Beta Kappa from Stanford University and a master of arts in Japanese history from Harvard University. She met her husband, Vincent, while working on her doctorate in Japan. The couple returned to marry in 1936 in Sterling, then lived in Tokyo until September 1941. During World War II, she taught Japanese at the Navy Language School [where Vincent was attending USN JLS/OLS as a naval student at the University of Colorado] and worked as a censor of Japanese mail in Honolulu, where Vincent served in Navy Intelligence.

She raised three sons in Newton, where she was president of the library board and, at the request of local parents, taught a pre-college enrichment course for high school students. She moved to Wichita in 1971, where her husband was an executive at Ross Industries. In Wichita, she taught weaving, helped to run the Blue Warp weaving shop and served on the acquisitions committee of the Wichita Art Museum.

She is survived by her sons and their wives, Matthew and Sarah of Washington, D.C., Vincent and Tova of Newton, Mass., and Wren and Amy of Toronto, Canada; and her five grandchildren, Emily of Washington, D.C., Matthew and his wife Corinne of Boulder, Colo., Julian of Boston, and Vincent and Alexander of Toronto, Canada.


Harvey County Genealogical Society

January 27, 2011
[Ed. Note: See Issues #164, #172, #196, #205, and especially Dick Moss’s piece in #216. I did not realize that she was a sensei. This seems to be a faculty issue.]

________________
$Donations Accepted
If you wish to support the JLS/OLS Archival Project you may contribute to our US Navy JLS/OLS Fund. Contributions are used to support work work on the USN JLS/OLS Archival Project, to prepare and mail the newsletter, to survey, and inventory and process collections. To donate, make your check out to the University of Colorado, writing US Navy JLS Fund on the memo line to the bottom left of your check, and mail it to our contact address.
David Hays

Special Collections & Archives

University of Colorado Boulder Libraries

184 UCB

Boulder, Colorado 80309-0184

________________



1 Boris Aleksandrovich Bakhmetev, also spelled Bakhmeteff. Check the Web for the emigre archive that he helped establish at Columbia University: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/rbml/collections/bakhmeteff/.

2 Hoover Institution Archives, 2 boxes (1890-1976) that include her memoirs, written when she was eighty.

3 "Elena Vameck Dies; Researcher on Russia," Palo Alto Times, February 17, 1976, 2. There are some conflicts in dates in her printed obituary and papers in her boxes at the Hoover.

4 The occupation of Nanking was marked by one of the worst atrocities in human history, called the Rape of Nanking. Japanese troops savagely slaughtered several hundred thousand Chinese civilians and raped many thousands of women and girls in a brutal month-long rampage.

5 A story on the front page of the Boston Evening Transcript on the same day in 1939 as the Wilson-Deane wedding highlighted the spreading conflict in Asia. The British and French concession areas of Tianjin, forcibly obtained by the western powers from China in 1858, had been blockaded by the Japanese and people there were starving. Britain was debating a retaliatory ban on Japanese ships in its ports of Hong Kong and Singapore.

6 The term “Gung Ho” (Work Together) was the first two Chinese characters and the motto of the Chinese Industrial Cooperative movement, known as Indusco. It entered the English lexicon when US Marine Colonel, later General, Evans F. Carlson, who had worked with Alley for the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives a year before Pearl Harbor used Gung Ho – which became extended to mean unquenchable enthusiasm – as the battle cry of his renowned battalion, “Carlson’s Raiders.” Press coverage of the unit’s victories and a 1943 film Gung Ho!: The Story of Carlson’s Makin Island Raiders (Randolph Scott was Carlson) spread the battalion’s fame and its use of Alley’s motto. The Chinese Industrial Cooperative movement aimed to build hundreds of small, flexible factories in the countryside in response to Japanese destruction of China’s major manufacturing capability. The movement acquired widespread support in the West, both technologic and financial. Hugh Deane interviewed Alley in Chongqing in October 1939 and became a lifelong friend of Alley and supporter of the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives.

7 Wu Peifu was a Chinese warlord general who became a national hero shortly before his death in 1939 because he refused to cooperate with the Japanese when they invited him to be the leader of their puppet government in North China.




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