The Industrial Revolution Name Second Most Transformative Date Pd. Revolution in Human History Notes Worksheet

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The Industrial Revolution Name____________________________

Second Most Transformative Date______________Pd.____________

Revolution in Human History Notes Worksheet

Renaissance to Industrialization

The Renaissance provided the intellectual spark that led to the ___________________ Revolution.

The Scientific Revolution led directly to the Industrial Revolution by providing the solutions and ____________________ to mechanize the production of goods for human consumption

The Industrial Revolution is one of the most _________________________ events in human history!

Terms and Concepts

______________________ – Having to do with industry, business or manufacturing

______________________ – a transformative change in the way things are done

_____________________________ – a change from making things by hand to making them in factories.

Historical Significance of the Industrial Revolution

An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life was not much different – ______________________ and ____________________________ were not much changed in 2000+ years!

The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically & irrevocably!

More was created in the last 250+ years than in the previous 2500+ years of known human history

Industrialization made possible the ______________ class and the high _________________ of ___________ we enjoy today!

What was the Industrial Revolution?

The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way ____________ were _______________, from human ________ to _____________________, speeding up production while drastically reducing __________.

Industrialization fits perfectly into the ethos of _____________________ and the effects of this change have been ______________.

The more efficient means of production and subsequent higher levels of production triggered far-reaching changes to ___________________________ societies

Created a prosperous middle class

Expanded the scope of human achievement and knowledge

Allowed man to control his _____________________ and take charge of his destiny.

The Industrial Revolution

_____________________________ were invented which replaced human labor

New ____________________ sources were developed to power the new machinery – _____________, ___________________, ________________________, ____________ (gas, kerosene) which made the machines independent of human power

Some historians place advances in atomic, solar, and wind energy at the later stages of the Industrial Revolution

Increased use of metals and minerals

Aluminum, coal, copper, iron, _______, etc.

Increased sophistication and power allows for an ever increasing living standard for humans.

Expansion of human endeavor and human knowledge is made possible!

The Industrial Revolution

____________________________ improved


Wooden ships → Iron ships → Steel ships

Wind-powered sails → Steam-powered boilers

___________ are the most cost-effective way to transport raw materials and finished goods. Almost everything we buy is transported at least partially by ship.

_____________—steam, coal and diesel powered, provided the most efficient way to transport raw materials, finished goods and human beings on land. It still is the most cost-effective way to transport goods on land.

Automobiles—Automobiles and trucks provided mobility for the individual and a way to efficiently ship merchandise to retail locations. This changed the culture of the US and altered forever the living standards of Americans.

Communication improved—rapid communication possible! Global reach!

Telegraph Telephone Radio

Transportation: Rail and Canal


_________________________________ nations first laid track in their own countries, then in their colonies and other areas under their political influence

Russia – Trans-Siberian railroad (1891-1905)

Germany – Berlin-to-Baghdad railroad across Europe to the Middle East

Great Britain – Cape-to-Cairo railroad vertically across Africa


____________ Canal (1869) – provided access to the Indian Ocean from the Mediterranean Sea without the need to sail around Africa

Kiel Canal (1896) – North Sea connected to the Baltic Sea

_______________________ Canal (1914) – provided access from one side of the Americas to the other without the need to sail around the tip of South America

Transportation: Auto and Air


Charles Goodyear – vulcanized ______________, 1839

Gottlieb Daimler – ____________________________, 1885

Henry Ford – ___________________ line, 1908-1915


Orville and Wilbur Wright – airplane, 1903

Charles Lindbergh – first non-stop flight across the Atlantic, 1927

20th-century – growth of commercial aviation


__________ production of goods

Increased numbers of goods

Increased ______________ of goods produced

Development of ________________ system of production

________________-to-_____________ migration

People left farms to work in _______________

Development of modern __________________________

Financial capital for continued industrial growth

Development and growth of new socio-economic classes

Working class, __________________________, and wealthy industrial class

Commitment to research and development

Investments in new technologies

Industrial and governmental interest in promoting _________________________, the _____________________, and overall _____________________________ growth

Increase in investment in science and technology

Origins of the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution

First Phase of Industrialization (1740-1860)

Industrial processes are introduced

Marriage of science, technology, energy, organization to produce industrial efficiency

________________________ are the first to industrialize, iron for ships, trains, buildings and machines; hallmark of the age!

Second Phase of Industrialization (1860-1914)

Consolidation of industrialism and the industrial __________________

Expansion of _________________________ to vastly speed up the industrial process; all facets of national economy are mechanized and industrialized (ex. agriculture, education)

_____________________ is industrialized and conflict becomes exponentially more lethal towards the end of this phase, leading to the _________________ Wars and beyond.

________________________ is a system that runs on automatic pilot; no one leader controls it and nothing can stop it once it gets started!

Today we are in the __________-Industrial Age, where the US is a ______________________ nation and manufacturing has moved to more cost-effective locations like __________, Malaysia and Vietnam.

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the result of a marriage between ______________________, _______________________ and ____________________________

The Industrial Revolution used ideas of __________________________ “survival of the fittest” to frame the ________________________ that drove the revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a rapid change in the methods of producing goods.

The Industrial Revolution was the ________________ most ______________________________ revolution in human history

Changed the way goods are produced and consumed

Changed the way humans ____________, ___________ and _______________________, while creating the modern class stratification in society.

Provided material wealth that lifted mankind substantially out of dire poverty!

Transformation of Labor

During the Industrial Revolution, the manufacture of goods was increasingly done by ____________________ instead of human hand labor

The energy to drive the machines was from inanimate sources rather than human or animal power. Water, Coal, Steam and Oil=______________________!

The goods themselves increasingly were derived from _________________________ objects

The central component was the ___________________________, a __________ to speed up manufacturing, increase efficiency and produce more wealth more cheaply than ever.

_________________ no longer creates, but rather runs the machinery of production; part of the process!

Labor is a______________________ like everything else! In a competitive market, _________ trend ___________!

Industrialization of Labor

The processes required to manufacture a product are reduced to their individual steps. (____________________)

Each step now becomes a __________ skill job.

Labor simply operates the machines, the ________________ of _________________________.

Labor is fungible, replaceable and portable; labor typically is performed where costs are the lowest!

________________ is no longer ___________________; Labor is simply a part of the overall industrial system.

Human beings are treated in this system like machines!

The Labor Force

No single description could include all of these 19th century workers:

Factory workers

Urban artisans

Domestic system craftsmen

Household servants


Countryside peddlers

Farm workers

Railroad workers

Variations in duties, income, and working conditions made it difficult for them to unite.

The Condition of Labor

All working people, however, faced possible ________________________, with little or no provision for security.

In addition, they were subject to various kinds of __________________________:

The closing of factory gates to late workers

___________ for tardiness

__________________________ for drunkenness

Public ______________________ for poor quality workmanship

Beatings for non-submissiveness

________________________ in ___________ or non-payment of wages owed!

No disability for on the job injury and no recourse in a dispute with bosses!


During the ______th century, factory workers underwent a process of _________________________________ (i.e., they lost control of the means of production).

Family Structures Changed

With the decline of the domestic system and the rise of the factory system, family life changed.

At first, the entire family, including the children, worked in the factory, just as they had at home.

Later, family life became fragmented (the father worked in the factory, the mother handled domestic chores, the children went to school).

Family members were _________________________ units living in mutual support.

Family as a Unit of Consumption

In short, the European family changed from being a unit of production and consumption to being a unit of ____________________________ alone.

The Family existed to pool its resources together to survive and maintain the human workers needed to tend the machines.

The value of the workers __________________________ with the increasing speed and power of the machines.

Management Revolution

Industrial _____________________________ is _________________________________

Management ______________________ is reduced to smallest individual steps

_____________________ of corporate managers oversee the industrial production

Management allows for ________________ supervision, ___________________________ and adaptability in the _________________________ line.

_____________ can control thousands of employees and implement decisions almost immediately in a highly __________________________ environment.

__________________________ is part of the __________________________ process!

Origins of Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution began in _______________________:

Enclosure Movement

Landowners enclosed common farmland, forcing poor farmers to find jobs in urban areas

Investment Capital

Surplus of money to invest by entrepreneurs

Mature banking system creates capital pools for investment

Natural Resources

Abundant water & coal for energy

Colonial empire for obtaining raw materials cheaply.


Britain has huge overseas colonial _______________ with ___________________ markets for manufactured goods; guaranteed _________________!

Old World Manufacture

Prior to the Industrial Revolution goods were hand made by _______________________ and ______________; need: speed up the process!

__________________ Industry-production done in the____________ by _________________________.

__________ work—individuals piece together a product from parts provided; ____________________ step in industrial process!

_____________________________: During the first half of the 19th century, the European manufacturing process shifted from small-scale production by hand at home to ___________-scale production by machine in a ________________ setting.

The Machine converts workers into industrial cogs in a system of production that creates vast amounts of wealth for industrialists and poverty for workers whose wages are driven lower.

At the Expense of Workers

The shift meant high quality products at _________________________ prices, but often at the _______________ of ____________________. For example, the raw wool and cotton that fed the British textile mills came from:

Lands converted from farming to sheep raising, leaving farm workers without jobs

The southern plantations of the United States, which were dependent upon slave labor

Urban Growth

Those who could no longer make a living on the land migrated from the countryside to the cities to seek work in the factories.

Population Growth

At the same time, the population of Europe continued to grow.

Huge labor pool to feed the machines!

The Plight of the Cities

The sheer number of human beings put pressure on city resources:

Housing, water, sewers, food supplies, and lighting were completely ________________________.

Conditions in the Countryside

The only successful farmers were those with large landholdings who could afford agricultural _________________________.

Most peasants:

Didn’t have enough land to support themselves

Were devastated by poor harvests (e.g., the Irish Potato Famine of 1845-47)

Were forced to move to the _______________ to find work in the __________________________; no other alternative existed for earning a living!

Why the Industrial Revolution Started in England in 18th Century

England’s Resources: __________________

The Commercial Revolution made many English merchants very wealthy

These merchants had the capital to invest in the _________________ system – money to buy ________________, ____________________, and ___________ materials

England’s Resources: Colonies and Markets Stimulate English Industrialism

Wealth from the Commercial Revolution spread beyond the merchant class and created ______________

England had more ___________________ than any other nation; British Empire covered ________% of Earth’s surface.

Its colonies gave England access to enormous markets and vast amounts of raw materials for English factories.

Colonies had rich textile industries for centuries

Many of the natural cloths popular today, such as calico and gingham, were originally created in India

China had a silk industry—the British skillfully dominated this trade.

England controlled the seas!

England’s Resources: Raw Materials

England itself possessed the necessary raw materials to create the means of production

______________ Power (waterfalls, streams, rivers)

_____________ – vast coal reserves powered steam engines

_____________ – basic building block of large machines, railroad tracks, trains, and ships

___________—important metal used in many industrial alloys.

England’s Resources: Workers

Serfdom and guilds ended earlier in England than other countries

English people could freely travel from the countryside to the cities

________________________ Acts – caused many small farmers to lose their lands, and these former farmers increased the labor supply

Concentrated supply of ______________________________workers ready to work the new factories; the first industrial armies!

England’s Resources: Merchant Marine

World’s largest _______________________ fleet

Merchant marine built up from the ______________________________ Revolution

Vast numbers of ships could bring raw materials and finished goods to and from England’s colonies and possessions, as well as to and from other countries

England’s Resources: Geography

England is the political center of ______________________________, an island

Great Britain (as the entire island was called beginning in _________) did not suffer fighting on its land during the wars of the 18th century

Island has excellent ________________ and ______________

Damp climate benefited the ___________________ industry (thread did not dry out)

Government stable

No internal trade barriers

___________________________: 1st to Industrialize!

The Textile industry was the first to industrialize in England

Textiles required relatively _________________ capital investment and firms could _____________________________ out of profits.

Textiles were a ________________________ that was in strong demand thanks to a rising _____________________________!

Technical Innovations

1733-____________________________ invented the flying shuttle for weaving thread.

1764-____________________________ invented the Spinning Jenny to create thread

1787—___________________________ invented the water-powered loom to weave cloth.

1782—___________________ improved the steam engine to drive machinery; factories could be set up anywhere!


With the invention of the _________________________ and the ________________________, the ______________________ industry took off.

___________________ could now be made far faster than ever before.

Cost of production was dramatically slashed and the retail cost of cloth plummeted. A rising tide of cheap goods made a _______________ standard of living affordable for more people.

Rising production of wealth made possible the ________________________ Class and created the modern ______________________________ class, the ________________________________.

Spinning Wheel

The spinning wheel was the first invention for the manufacture of textiles, but it was very slow.

Threads were spun one at a time, by hand and then had to be woven into cloth.

James Hargreaves:
The Spinning Jenny

The spinning jenny could spin up to eight threads at time. The spinning jenny was much faster than the spinning wheel.

Automated the process of thread making and sped up the production of textiles.

Samuel Crompton (1753-1827)
The Spinning Mule

The spinning mule used water power to spin the thread, which was much faster than doing it by hand.

More cloth could now be made faster and more efficiently.

The Spinning Mule was invented by Samuel Crompton between 1775-79.

Edmund Cartwright (1743-1823) The Power Loom

The power loom used water power to weave ______________

People could make a lot of cloth quickly.

Edmund Cartwright developed the Power Loom in 1784

_________________________ the textile industry!


With the invention of _____________, buildings could be made much taller=______________________!

Steel was much harder than iron, which would bend if made too tall.

The steel industry created many new products, and led to the invention of the car.

_________________________ Steel reshaped the landscape of American cities, allowing for _________________ development and skyscrapers, which changed the ___________________ of urban areas.

Iron & Steel Processes

___________________________ (1741-1800) invented the __________________ process to burn off impurities and create a higher grade of iron—British iron industry boomed as a result, producing 3 million tons by 1852

________________________________(1813-1898) invented the Bessemer Process for __________ production

Used ____________________________ blown through molten pig iron to burn off the impurities

Steel was created quickly and in large batches of up to 30 tons. It was economical in the use of fuel and the process operated around the clock to make ____________, reliable, high ____________________ steel.

Steel became the ___________________________ building material of the late Industrial Revolution!

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919)

Andrew Carnegie, an ________________________ from ______________________, became a multi-millionaire in the ________________ business by putting many of his competitors out of business.

He helped create ___________________ in Pittsburgh, PA, the largest steel manufacturing firm in the world.

Carnegie gave away most of his fortune when he died, establishing ____________________ all over the country

Ripple Effects of the Industrial Revolution: Transforming Life!


________________________-efficient bulk transportation

Railroads created new jobs for farm laborers, cheap transport meant cheap prices for goods everyone could afford; transport efficiency led to higher profits that were invested---__________________ growth!

_____________—large, ocean going vessels made of ___________ & ______________ and capable of carrying immense cargoes allowed for very cheap transport of goods. Most raw materials and manufactured goods were carried by ship to market—most efficient form of transport; still is!


Water– waterfalls and waterwheels provide energy

Coal—cheap source of energy makes factory location variable; cities favored locations!

Factory System

______________________ production facility transforming _________ materials into _______________________ goods quickly and _________________________ on a large scale basis in 24/hr production

Urban Areas

Cities provide cheap __________ pools centrally located for _____________________; transport, residential hubs for workers make cities efficient industrial centers!


Skilled—machinists, operators

Unskilled—brute labor

Immigrant—pool of cheap labor for emerging industrial economy!

Factory System

Developed to replace the domestic system of production

Faster method of production

Workers concentrated in a ______ location & production regime.

Production anticipated demand

For example: Under the domestic system, a woman might select fabric and have a businessperson give it to a home-based worker to make into a dress. Under the factory system, the factory owner bought large lots of popular fabrics and had workers create multiple dresses in common sizes, anticipating that women would buy them.

Economic Changes: Factory System Perfected with the Assembly Line

Developed by ___________________________ between 1908 and 1915

Brought the work to the worker instead of the worker to the work

Product moves along a ________________________ belt, with each worker contributing labor along the way to create the finished product

Efficient manufacture of ______________________ products at the __________________ possible cost.

Factory Assembly lines depend on the principle of _________________ of ___________________

Economic Changes: Factory System – Assembly Line Brings Division of Labor

Assembly lines bring the____________ to the worker, saving time

Each worker ___________________ in one part

An automobile worker may spend 30 years in a factory only ever putting passenger-side doors on motor vehicles

Focusing on one aspect of production can be ________________________ but can also make a worker an expert at that particular aspect

_____________ level of labor is__________________________ to only that portion of the process that is required of the worker; keeps labor ____________ down!

Economic Changes:
Factory System

Manufacture comes from the Latin manu and facere, meaning to make by hand

But during the Industrial Revolution, the meaning of manufacturer switched from the person who made an article by hand to the ______________________ who hired workers to make articles

Workers no longer owned the means of production (simple hand tools)

Instead, the newer means of production (expensive machinery) were owned by the capitalist

Economic Changes:
Mass Production of Goods

Motor vehicle production in the United States

1895 – 33,000 motor vehicles

1910 – 181,000 motor vehicles

2000 – 5,542,000 passenger cars alone

Factors contributing to mass production

Standardized (or interchangeable) parts

Assembly line

Labor ___________________ and ____________________________

_______________ production meant more items were produced at lower costs

More people could afford to buy manufactured goods, which in turn spurred demand

Factory System

Work performed in a factory where workers tend the machines as part of the process, ___________________ to the machines.

Workers frequently had to “______________________” for a job, working without pay sometimes for months to prove they could do the job.

Women and children worked 12-16 hours per day for low wages that were continually lowered due to competition for scarce jobs.

No safety standards were in place; workers were ___________________________; workplace accidents were deadly and ____________________.

_________________ Labor-children as young as 6 worked in coal mines and textile mills. No possibility for education existed for most

_________________________ housing—most workers lived in crowded tenement apartment buildings that were unsafe and unsanitary in ______________ areas that were experiencing population explosions.

Worker health was _____________; in England, workers lived only ____________ as long as the owners.

Reactions to Industrialization

Adam ________________—wrote “The _________________ of __________________” (1776) advocating lassiez-faire, free-market economics of ________________________; he predicted the market would work as though guided by “an _______________________ hand”

Thomas ___________________—wrote about the problem of ____________________________ in the industrial world and the inevitability of __________________________ and _____________________.

David ____________________________, a British economist supported Malthus and the “_________________________ of ______________”—when wages are high, more children are born, creating more workers and in the long run, lower wages; _______________________ is inevitable!

The ______________________________- (1800) Jeremy ___________________—preached _________, goal of society is to provide ________________________ to the greatest number of ______________. Therefore all laws or actions should be judged according to their utility. John Stuart___________ was also a utilitarian “On Liberty”, said government should stop harm to workers.

Karl ____________ and _____________________________—Marx wrote the Communist ______________________ as a reaction to the ______________________ Revolution. Said ________________________ was the last stage before a return to nature, _______________________________. Marxism is a _____________________________ determined theory rooted in ________________________________.

______________________ Darwinism—”Survival of the Fittest”—only the worthy survive and succeed was the motto of the age.

The Nature of Social Change

Social Changes

The Industrial Revolution represented a triumph of the_________________________ class and _________________________ over the landed __________________________.

Strong ____________________ Class emerged and access to ______________________ was expanded

An impoverished __________________ class emerged to fill the ______________ of Europe and America.

___________________ of ________________—overall, it did _________, despite pervasive poverty in urban areas.

______________________—unemployed craftsmen who tried to stop the Industrial Revolution by smashing the machines—they failed!

New Social Classes Emerged:

_________________________—owners of ___________________ (means of production)

_________________________- property-less workers who sell their labor to survive; the poorest segment of the new industrial society, the human cogs in the industrial machine!

Process of Diffusion

spreading industrial mechanization from Europe to America and beyond. History of Industrialization has been one of______________________________!

Competition and Imitation

Capitalism encouraged extreme ________________________ and _____________________ of successful technologies that provided a competitive edge

Despite laws governing industrial _______________________, __________________________ was transferred to countries eager to industrialize; lure of _____________ triumphed over rule of ________!

_________________ Law—_____________________ could get patents and the exclusive right to profit from their inventions for a set period of time. This encouraged innovation and the many violations of patent law quickened the diffusion of industrial mechanization throughout the world.


___________________________ became larger, multinational and increasingly powerful in the global marketplace

The Industrial Revolution and revolutions in transportation and the unification of markets led to the globalization of the economy, an ___________________________ that binds all trading nations together.

__________________________ drives industrial activity globally, in the quest for new _________________, more efficient production and higher_______________!

Today we are in the Industrial Revolution 2.0, as other regions of the world go through the process of Industrialization!

Spread of Industrialism

______________________________ (1768-1835): Father of the American Industrial Revolution

Samuel Slater (June 9, 1768 – April 21, 1835) an Englishman who memorized the plan for a textile mill and brought the technology to the United States; first case of _______________________________!

Sold his expertise to Moses _________________ and eventually set up textile mills throughout New England

Brought in English managerial expertise as well to ensure success.

Owned_________ textile mills when he died and was worth over 1 million dollars.

Eli Whitney (1765-1825)

______________________________ Parts—Eli ________________ (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) conceived of interchangeable parts as a way to mass produce guns for the US Army—led to assembly line style production utilizing division of labor & interchangeable parts

Introduced _____________________________ analysis to determine profitability of industrial process as well as _________________________ studies

_______________________— invented the cotton gin which allowed for efficient cleaning of cotton, stimulating the US cotton boom and the rise of the US Textile Industry.

________________________ Machine- invented the milling machine, which is a machine tool for milling solid objects—used in the manufacture of __________________ machinery.

Whitney's defenders have claimed that he invented the American ______________________ of Manufacturing, the combination of power _______________________, interchangeable parts and ____________________ of ______________ that would underlie the nation's subsequent industrial revolution!

Economic Changes: Factory System Possible Due to Standardized Parts

Eli Whitney is popularly credited with the invention of interchangeable parts in the late 1700s

But interchangeable parts had already been used in Europe

Before the late 1700s, each part of an item (like a musket) was made individually by a single person, with each part made to fit the whole

______________________________, or interchangeable, parts were created en masse to make a lot of duplicate products (such as hundreds of muskets)

Manufacturers decided upon standard sizes for their goods and created large quantities of components

Such as deciding that a musket barrel should be two feet long and making 100 duplicate musket barrels, then deciding that triggers for these muskets should be two inches tall and making 100 2-inch triggers

Standardized parts could be kept in a set location in a factory

As a worker assembled an article, he or she would take whatever parts were needed from a bin of standardized (interchangeable) parts

The Lowell Experiment: Bringing Industrialization to America!

1830’s Lowell Massachussetts—Textile manufacturing center. Need: _____________________________

_______________________________ System of company towns that cared for workers; ________________ ideal for workers.

Rural ___________________ were employed in the mills, provided housing in company _____________, and _______________________ at company sponsored _______________ and literary events.

Company towns were not the answer to labor shortages, _________________________________ was!

More and more people moved to cities where there were factory jobs

This was more true of the North than the South which remained agricultural

Wage labor became the norm

Thomas Edison & The Electric Light

Can you imagine what life would be like without the electric light?

Thomas Edison invented the ________________________ light.

Thomas Edison also invented many other things, like the ________________________.

Samuel Morse (1791-1872) & The Telegraph

In 1844, Samuel Morse demonstrates his ______________________ by sending a message to Baltimore from the chambers of the Supreme Court in Washington, DC. The message, "What hath God wrought?," marks the beginning of a new era in ___________________________.

The telegraph used ____________ and _____________________ to send messages over electric lines. These dots and dashes became known as_____________________ Code.

Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
& The Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell patented the first telephone in 1876.

Provided for ________________________ voice communication over long distances.

Improved communication and served to aid in the eventual ___________________________ of the economy.

Stock Market & Corporations

___________________ market invented

“_________________” would receive a percentage of __________________

_____________________ became stock market center

Stock market became a vehicle for raising capital ______________ for economic _____________________.

___________________________________ became the dominant organization in the new industrial economy; becoming _________________________ integrated and controlling most areas of the industrial process.

Corporations became so powerful they could actually influence the operation of the ____________________!

Results of the Industrial Revolution

Energy and the New Global Economy in the Post Industrial Age


The energy sources for the Industrial Revolution were:





John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937)

Owned _________________________ Oil Company and was the richest American ever. In the second part of the Industrial Revolution _________ became the fuel of choice

The Industrial Revolution represented a globally______________________________ change that has altered the course of human __________________ and human ___________________.

Today we are in the ____________-Industrial Age and are dealing with a global economy where manufacturing is done remotely in _________________________ nations. What will the future look like? Explain below:

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