The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900

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25-1: The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900

The Industrial Revolution begins in Britain, spreads to other countries, and has a strong impact on economics, politics, and society.


Rail locomotives began connecting U.S. cities in the 1840s, enabling transport of goods between factories, cities, and ports.
The Beginnings of Industrialization

The Industrial Revolution starts in England

and soon spreads to other countries.
New Ways of Working

Industrial Revolution—greatly increases output of

machine-made goods

• Revolution begins in England in the middle 1700s

The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way

Enclosures—large farm fields enclosed by fences

or hedges

Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned

by village farmers

• Enclosures allow experimentation with new

agricultural methods

British Enclosed Fields
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Rotating Crops

Crop rotation—switching crops each year to

avoid depleting the soil

• Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed,

improve food supply
Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England

Industrialization—move to machine production of


• Britain has natural resources—coal, iron, rivers,


• Expanding economy in Britain encourages


Britain has all needed factors of production—land, labor, capital

Inventions Spur Industrialization

Changes in the Textile Industry

• Weavers work faster with flying shuttles and

spinning jennies

• Water frame uses water power to drive spinning


• Power loom, spinning mule speed up production,

improve quality

Factories—buildings that contain machinery for


• Cotton gin boosts American cotton production to

meet British demand
Improvements in Transportation

Watt’s Steam Engine

• Need for cheap, convenient power spurs

development of steam engine

• James Watt improves steam engine, financed by

Matthew Boulton

• Boulton an entrepreneur—organizes, manages,

takes business risks
Water Transportation

• Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont,

in 1807

• England’s water transport improved by system of

Road Transportation

British roads are improved; companies operate them

as toll roads
The Railway Age Begins

Steam-Driven Locomotives

• In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven


• In 1825, George Stephenson builds world’s first

railroad line

The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad

• Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester

• Stephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as best locomotive (1829)
Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain

• Railroads spur industrial growth, create jobs

• Cheaper transportation boosts many industries;

people move to cities

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