The Illinois Open 2003: Transfigured Spite Toss-ups by Iowa State

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The Illinois Open 2003: Transfigured Spite

Toss-ups by Iowa State (Matt Cvijanovich, Sean Kinney, Scott Moser, Warren Miller and Michael Falk)
1. This constellation is located at roughly 15 hours Right Ascension, -15 degrees declination. Its delta star is an eclipsing variable system, with a period of 2.33 days. The brightest stars it contains are Zubeneschemali and Zubenelgenubi, with magnitudes 2.61 and 2.76 respectively. Formerly known as the “claws of the scorpion”, this is, for ten points, what constellation of the zodiac, the only one that does not depict a living organism?

Answer: Libra

The protagonist of this novel meets his future wife at a dance in England, but the two do not begin a relationship until they sail back to their home country. The woman, Clara, informs the protagonist that they cannot marry as she is an osu, or outcast, and the protagonist’s mother insists that she will commit suicide if they marry. Clara breaks off the engagement, but reveals she is pregnant. The protagonist Obi borrows money to pay for her abortion, and coupled with scholarship money he must also repay, he is overwhelmed and finally gives into accepting bribes, a practice he continues until he is caught and put on trial at the end of the novel. For ten points, name this Chinua Achebe work about the travails of Obi Okonkwo, the sequel to Things Fall Apart.

Answer: No Longer at Ease

3. In an action apart from the main battle, Captains Webster and Shover held off Col. Minon’s attempts to cut the road to Saltillo. General Wool chose the battlefield, which was marked with ravines and gullies, but General Lane committed a major blunder when he ordered the 2nd Indiana to advance without support. The day was saved largely through the efforts of Washington’s, O’Brien’s and Bragg’s batteries as well as Mississippi riflemen under Jefferson Davis. After a tactical draw, the 15,000 attackers slipped away to the south leaving the 5,000 defenders in command of the field. For ten points, identify the February 1847 battle of the Mexican-American War at which Santa Anna was defeated by Zachary Taylor.

Answer: Battle of Buena Vista

4. Their synthesis is blocked by non-steroidal anti-inflammatories like aspirin and naproxen, which work by inhibiting cyclooxygenases. Derived from the parent compound arachidonic acid, these eicosanoid compounds are used as messengers for many different intercellular messages, but most significantly, pain. For ten points, name these compounds produced by nearly every cell in the body, but which got their name from the Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler from their discovery in semen.

Answer: prostaglandins

5. One legend has it that three brothers, Egil, Slagfinn, and Volund, had three members of this group as wives for nine years. They may have been personifications of the clouds and the glint from their armor was said to be the Northern Lights. Depending on the source, there were three to 16 of them, the most common number being nine. Often called swan maidens, they were immortal so long as they were virgins and one of their tasks was to serve mead to the Einheriar whom they had brought up to Valhalla. For ten points, identify these attendants of Odin who chose who would be slain on the battlefield and whose most famous member was Brunhilde.

Answer: Valkyries or Valkyrs

6. In this work, painted for the ceiling of a room of Egyptian antiquities in the Louvre, two statuesque females, one holding a dagger and the other resting an oar on her lap, sit at the feet of the title figure. Figures in the foreground include Poussin, Shakespeare, Racine, Moliere, and Voltaire. To the title figure’s right are Horace, Virgil, Dante and Rafael, from whose painting School of Athens the artist got his idea for the work, while an Ionic temple looms in the background. For ten points, identify the Ingres work in which Victory crowns the titular Greek bard.

Answer: The Apotheosis of Homer

7. Kenneth Green of the Reason Public Policy Institute argued that it had a “damn the torpedoes” approach to public policy and would result in 22,000 premature deaths annually. It was preceded by the 1992 Rio Convention and has been ratified by the fifteen members of the EU as well as Japan. Russia is considering ratifying it while in 2001 President Bush declared it “dead” although the U.S. had signed it in 1997. It has been criticized for being less stringent on developing nations as well as for giving credit for “sinkholes” like forests. For ten points, identify this U.N. sponsored treaty aimed at cutting greenhouse gases and avoiding global warming.

Answer: Kyoto Protocol or Kyoto Pact

8. This was first shown to exist experimentally by François Arago, for whom it is sometimes called. It served the exact inverse of the purpose that its usual namesake intended and was called a “strange result” by its theoretical discoverer, who showed it to be a direct mathematical consequence of Fresnel’s wave theory of light. The existence of this is often demonstrated in modern contexts using a ball bearing and laser. For ten points, name this “spot”, which served as a proof for the wave nature of light.

Answer: Poisson Bright Spot (accept Fresnel Bright Spot before it is mentioned)

9. Oddly enough, this man has a statue in Fargo, North Dakota, which is a double of one in his reputed birthplace of Ålesund, Norway, and Icelandic sources suggest his father was Ragnvald, son of Moer. He was still alive in 928, when he held as captive Eudes, the son of Heribert of Vermandois. He was probably dead by 933, as his son William Longsword was in charge. Known as ‘The Gangler,” he was baptized as Robert in 912. A year earlier, with the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte in 911, he was given a strip of land centered a around Rouen by Charles the Simple of France. For ten points, name this Viking leader, the first duke of Normandy.

Answer: Rollo Ragnavaldson (accept Rolf or Hrolf or Robert before it’s mentioned)

10. Minor characters in this work include Bailey, Jake Diefer and Luke Breckinridge. One of its focuses is on Melora Vilas whose family is trying to avoid the war by living in the backwoods and who falls in love with Connecticut intellectual Jack Ellyat. Beginning with an invocation to “The American Muse”, another part revolves around the love triangle between aristocratic southerners Lucy Weatherby, Sally Dupre and Clay Wingate. For ten points, identify this Pulitzer Prize-winning epic poem about the Civil War written by Stephen Vincent Benet.

Answer: John Brown’s Body

11. Originally thought to have two types of receptors, recent studies suggest it has at least five. It was not recognized as a primary neurotransmitter until the 1950s, when the demonstration of its nonuniform distribution in the brain suggested a functional role. One of its primary transmission systems, the nigrostriatal system, governs the portion of the brain responsible for voluntary movements Its neurons are dysfunctional in cases of ADHD, and it is the neurotransmitter most affected by stimulants such as cocaine. For ten points, name this neurotransmitter, which is inextricably linked with movement, learning, the brain's reward center, drug addiction, and Parkinson’s disease.

Answer: dopamine

12. Along with Sukarno, Nasser, and Nehru this man was the major figure in the creation of the “Non-Aligned Movement,” spending much of the 1960’s and 70’s visiting third-world countries. In 1972, he created a 22-member collective presidency to prepare for his succession. In 1968, he, along with Romania’s Nicolae Ceausescu [“CHESH-USE-koh”], opposed the Soviet Union’s intervention in Czechoslovakia and, in 1948, he refused to allow the Cominform into his country. In 1946, he solidified his rule by executing his rival partisan leader Draza Mihailovic. For ten points, identify the leader who liberated Belgrade in 1944 and ruled Yugoslavia until 1980.

Answer: Josef Tito (accept Josip Broz)

13. The future Pope Urban VIII wrote a couplet engraved on the cartouche at the base of this sculpture, a fact used to justify its presence in the villa of Cardinal Scipione Borghese in spite of its pagan theme. Begun when its artist was only 24, it was said that “all Rome rushed to see it as though a miracle” when it was completed in 1625. Originally, it was positioned such that someone entering the room would only be able to see the back of one of the title figures and the outstretched hands of other title figure turning into leaves. For ten points, identify this Bernini work depicting an event from Ovid in which a nymph pursued by a god is changed into a laurel tree.

Answer: Apollo and Daphne

14. He was instrumental in chartering the American Museum of Natural History and the Metropolitan Art Museum and became a member of the board of directors of the Erie railroad after helping Jay Gould legalize illegal stock sales. He died in debtors prison a few years after he was extradited from Spain, where he was recognized due to a Thomas Nast cartoon. His downfall began in 1871 when M. J. Rourke gave the New York Times information on cost overruns on a courthouse construction and was completed when he was successfully prosecuted for graft by Samuel Tilden. For ten points identify this corrupt New York politician and leader of Tammany Hall.

Answer: William Marcy “Boss” Tweed

15. It was first isolated in 1838 by Anselme Payen, who determined that its elemental composition by mass is roughly 44.4% carbon, 6.2% hydrogen, and 49.4% oxygen. Though insoluble in water, it readily dissolves in an aqueous solution of copper (II) tetrammonium hydroxide, known as Schweitzer's reagent. It is a linear polymer consisting of beta-linked glucopyranose units in 4C1 conformation, and due to the presence of the fully equatorial conformation of b-linked glucopyranose residues, it is less flexible than amylose, a similar structure. The basis for a number of well known early artificial polymers, when nitrated, it produces a highly flammable compound that was used in plastics, film, as well as a smokeless propellant. For ten points, identify this naturally occurring polymer that is the primary structural component of trees.

Answer: cellulose

16. In 1956, the author added three stories; “The South,” “The Cult of the Phoenix,” and “The End” to the second part of this collection. In the Foreword to the First Part, he says that the “stories require no great elucidation,” although two of them, “A Survey of the Works of Herbert Quain” and “Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius”, deal with imaginary books. In another, “Pierre Menard,” an author tries to rewrite Don Quixote. The titular story of the First Part concerns a spy who transmits findings by killing a man of the same name as a city to be attacked. For ten points, identify this collection containing “The Garden of the Forking Paths” as well as “The Library of Babel” written by Jorge Luis Borges.

Answer: Ficciones (or Fictions; accept Artifices before “second part”)

17. This is a two-dimensional differentiable manifold without an unambiguous normal. It can be constructed mathematically by taking the connected sum of two real projective planes, and it cannot be embedded in Euclidean 3-space, though it can be immersed there. Like a torus, it is bounded by a compact closed surface that has an Euler characteristic of zero. It is equivalent to two Möbius bands joined along their boundaries. For ten points, identify this non-orientable manifold, the “neck” of which self-intersects and attaches to a hole in the “base.”

Answer: Klein bottle

18. In 1991, an Institute with the same name as this group was founded by Friedrich Stadler, its best contemporary explicator. A.J. Ayer popularized its work in Britain and Quine briefly visited its members. It was founded by Hahn, Frank, and Neuruth in 1922 and many early meetings were discussion of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Primarily concerned with the unification of science and the verifiability principle, its prominent members included Moritz Schlick and Rudolf Carnap. For ten points, identify this premier group of logical positivists based in Austria’s capital.

Answer: Vienna Circle (or Wiener Kreis)

19. John Eccles composed operas based on this man’s libretti for The Judgment of Paris and Semele. His later works include the poems Tears of Amaryllis for Amyntas and A Pindarique Ode as well as a translation of Moliere’s Monsieur de Pourceaugnac. His second play, The Double Dealer, was far less successful than his first, The Old Bachelor. His only tragedy was The Mourning Bride, from which comes the line “Nor hell to a woman scorned.” His two most famous works concern Valentine’s attempt to regain his inheritance and Mirabell’s attempts to snag Millamant. For ten points, identify this Restoration dramatist of Love for Love and The Way of the World.

Answer: William Congreve

20. Views of Mount Fuji were featured on the cover of this piece's original score. It has three movements, the first of which, “From Noon to Dawn on [the title location],” is in 6/8 time following a “very slow” introduction. The composer’s L. 109, it was finished and premiered in 1905 and it is the largest orchestral work written by its composer, much longer than “Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun.” Subtitled “Three Symphonic Sketches,” for ten points name this Claude Debussy quasi-symphony with a maritime theme.

Answer: La Mer (3), symphonic sketches for orchestra, L. 109 (accept The Sea)

Overtime. The 4th stasimon compares the title character with the wife of Phineus, Dryas and Danae. The fifth stasimon appeals to Dionysus to help the city, while the second is concerned with the bad luck of the house of Labdacus. However, the most famous choral section is the first stasion, which contains the “Ode to Man.” At the end of this tragedy, the male protagonist claims that he is a “vain, silly man” after his wife, Eurydice, and son, Haemon, have committed suicide. Other characters include Ismene and Tiresias. For ten points identify the Sophocles play concerning Creon’s punishment of Oedipus’s daughter when she buries her brother.

Answer: Antigone

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