The Holocaust- a destruction or slaughter on a mass scale. The mass murder of jews under the nazi regime



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1940 Key Terms
-The Holocaust- A destruction or slaughter on a mass scale. The mass murder of jews under the nazi regime
-Adolf Hitler- German Nazi dictator during WW2
-Winston Churchill- British statesman and leader during World War 2, and had received a nobel prize for literature
-Joseph Stalin- Russian leader who succeeded lenin as head of the communist party and created a totalitarian state.
-Franklin D Roosevelt- Was the 32nd President of the USA ( January 30,1889- April 12,1945)
-Jews- A person belonging to the world wide group claiming descent from jacob.
-Nazis- A form of socialism featuring racism and expansionist and obedience to a strong leader.
-Frank Hans- A german lawyer who worked for the Nazi party during the 1920s and 1930s
-Benito Mussolini- Prime minister of italy(1922-1943) also known as Duse ll
-World War II- The second world war, was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945



1940’s Timeline:

January 4th: axis powers take over war factories in germany.

January 10: german plane lands in belgium carrying secret plans mobilizing its forces.

January 12: soviet union bombs finland ( sparking the beginning of the war)

February 1: russia bombs finland troops occupying

February 16: altmark incident -- british attacker follows the german ship and is able to save 290 British seamen held aboard.

March 5:Katyn massacre: Members of the Soviet Politburo (Joseph Stalin,Vyacheslav Molotov,Lazar Kaganovich,Mikhail Kalinin,Kliment Voroshilov andLavrenty Beria) sign an order, prepared by Beria, for the execution of 25,700 Polish intelligentsia, including 14,700 Polish POWs

March 12: TheSoviet Union andFinland sign apeace treaty inMoscow ending theWinter War.

March 18: Axis powers: Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini meet at Brenner Pass in the Alps and agree to form an alliance against France and the United Kingdom.

March 21:Édouard Daladier resigns as prime minister of France; Paul Reynaud takes his place.

March 31: WWII: Commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis, leaves the Wadden Sea for what will become the longest warship cruise of the war. (622 days without in-port replenishment or repair)

April 3: WWII: Operation Weserübung: German ships set out for the invasion of Norway.

April 5:Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in what proves to be a tragic misjudgment, declares in a major public speech that Hitler has "missed the bus".

April 7: Booker T. Washington becomes the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp.

April 8: WWII: Operation Wilfred: The British fleet lays naval mines off the coast of neutral Norway.

April 9: WWII: Germany invades the neutral countries of Denmark and Norway in Operation Weserübung, opening the Norwegian Campaign. The British Royal Navy attempts to attack elements of the German fleet off Norway. Vidkun Quisling proclaims a new collaborationist regime in Norway. The German invasion of Denmark lasts for about six hours before that country capitulates.

April 10:WWII: First Naval Battle of Narvik: The British Royal Navy attacks the German fleet in the Ofotfjord.

April 12: The Faroe Islands are occupied by British troops, following the German invasion of Denmark. This action is taken to avert a possible German occupation of the islands with serious consequences for the course of the Battle of the Atlantic.

April 13: WWII: Second Naval Battle of Narvik: The British Royal Navy causes all eight defending German destroyers in the Ofotfjord to be sunk.

April 14: Norwegian Campaign: First British ground forces land in Norway at Namsos and Harstad.

May 10:WWII:

  • Battle of France begins

  • German forces invade Low Countries

  • Battle of the Netherlands begins

  • Battle of Belgium begins

  • Invasion of Luxembourg begins

  • British Invasion of Iceland.

  • With the resignation of Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

May 13:

· Winston Churchill, in his first address as Prime Minister, tells the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, "I have nothing to offer you but blood, toil, tears, and sweat."

· German armies open a 60-mile (97 km) wide breach in the Maginot Line at Sedan, France.

May 14: Rotterdam is subjected to savage terror bombing by the Luftwaffe; 980 are killed, and 20,000 buildings destroyed.

May 15: The Dutch army surrenders.

May 16: President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt, addressing a joint session of the U.S. Congress, asks for an extraordinary credit of approximately $900 million to finance construction of at least 50,000 airplanes per year.

May 17: Brussels falls to German forces; the Belgian government flees to Ostend.

May 20: Holocaust: The Nazi German concentration and extermination camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest of the German concentration camps, opens in occupied Poland near the town of Oświęcim. From now until January 1945, around 1.1 million people will be killed here.

May 22: The Parliament of the United Kingdom passes the Emergency Powers (Defence) Act 1940, giving the government full control over all persons and property.

May 24: The Anglo-French Supreme War Council decides to withdraw all forces under its control from Norway.

May 26: The Dunkirk evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force starts.

May 28: Winston Churchill warns the House of Commons of the United Kingdom to "prepare itself for hard and heavy tidings."

May 29: The Vought XF4U-1, prototype of the F4U Corsair U.S. fighter later used in WWII, makes its first flight.

June 3:

  • WWII: Paris is bombed by the Luftwaffe for the first time.

  • The Holocaust: Franz Rademacher proposes the Madagascar Plan.

June 4:

  • The Dunkirk evacuation ends – the British and French navies together with large numbers of civilian vessels from various nations complete evacuating 300,000 troops from Dunkirk in France to England.

  • Winston Churchill tells the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, "We shall not flag or fail. We shall fight on the beaches... on the landing grounds... in the fields and the streets.... We shall never surrender."

June 7: King Haakon VII of Norway and his government are evacuated from Tromsø to London on HMS Devonshire.

June 9: The British Commandos are created.

June 10

  • Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom.

  • U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounces Italy's actions with his "Stab in the Back" speech during the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia.

  • The Norwegian Army surrenders to German forces.

June 12: 13,000 British and French troops surrender to the then Major-General Erwin Rommel's 7th Panzer Division at Saint-Valery-en-Caux.

June 13: Paris is declared an open city.

June 14:

  • The Soviet Union annexes the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in what becomes regarded as an early example of Soviet imperialism.

  • The French government flees to Bordeaux and Paris falls under German occupation.

  • U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Naval Expansion Act into law, which aims to increase the United States Navy's tonnage by 11%.

  • A group of 728 Polish political prisoners from Tarnów become the first residents of the Auschwitz concentration camp.

June 15:Verdun falls to German forces.

June 16:

  • The Churchill war ministry in the United Kingdom offers a Franco-British Union to Paul Reynaud, Prime Minister of France, in the hope of preventing France from agreeing to an armistice with Germany, but Reynaud resigns when his own cabinet refuses to accept it.

.

June 17

  • Philippe Pétain becomes Prime Minister of France and immediately asks Germany for peace terms.

  • The Soviet Army enters the Baltic states of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia.

  • Operation Ariel begins: Allied troops start to evacuate France, following Germany's takeover of Paris and most of the nation.

  • RMS Lancastria, serving as a troopship, is bombed and sunk by Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 88 aircraft while evacuating British troops and nationals from Saint-Nazaire in France with the loss of at least 4,000 lives, the largest single UK loss in any World War II event, immediate news of which is suppressed in the British press.[4][5]

June 18:

  • Winston Churchill tells the House of Commons of the United Kingdom: "The Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin."

  • Appeal of 18 June: General Charles de Gaulle, de facto leader of the Free French Forces, makes his first broadcast appeal over Radio Londres from London rallying French Resistance, calling on all French people to continue the fight against Nazi Germany: "France has lost a battle. But France has not lost the war".

June 22: Second Armistice at Compiègne: The French Third Republic and Nazi Germany sign an armistice ending the Battle of France in the Forest of Compiègne, in the same Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits railroad car used by Marshal Ferdinand Foch to agree the Armistice with Germany in 1918. This divides France into aZone occupée in the north and west under the Military Administration in France (Nazi Germany) and a southernZone libre, Vichy France.

June 23: German leader Adolf Hitler surveys newly defeated Paris in now occupied France.[6]

June 24:

  • Vichy France signs armistice terms with Italy.

June 30:

  • German forces land in Guernsey, marking the start of the 5-year Occupation of the Channel Islands.

July 2: British-owned SS Arandora Star, carrying civilian internees and POWs of Italian and German origin from Liverpool to Canada, is torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U-47 off northwest Ireland with the loss of around 865 lives.

July 3: British naval units sink or seize ships of the French fleet anchored in the Algerian ports of Oran and Mers-el-Kebir. The following day, Vichy France breaks off diplomatic relations with Britain

July 6 : British submarine HMS Shark (54S) is sunk.

July 10: The Battle of Britain begins

July 11:

  • British destroyer HMS Escort (H66) is torpedoed and sunk by an Italian submarine.

  • WWII: Vichy France begins with a constitutional law which only 80 members of the parliament vote against.

July 14:Winston Churchill, in a worldwide broadcast, proclaims the intention of Great Britain to fight alone against Germany whatever the outcome: "We shall seek no terms. We shall tolerate no parley. We may show mercy. We shall ask none."

July 15: U.S. politics: The Democratic Party begins its national convention in Chicago, and nominates Franklin D. Roosevelt for an unprecedented third term as president.

July 19:

  • Allied victory at the Battle of Cape Spada HMAS Sydney (D48) and five destroyers sink the Italian cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni.

  • Adolf Hitler makes a peace appeal to Britain in an address to the Reichstag. Lord Halifax, the British foreign minister, flatly rejects peace terms in a broadcast reply on July 22.

August 1: British submarine HMS Spearfish (69S) is sunk.

August 3: The Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR (August 5) and Estonian SSR (August 6) are incorporated into the Soviet Union six weeks after their anaxation.

August 4: Gen. John J. Pershing, in a nationwide radio broadcast, urges all-out aid to Britain in order to defend the Americas, while Charles Lindbergh speaks to an isolationist rally at Soldier Field in Chicago.

August 8: Wilhelm Keitel signs the "Aufbau Ost" directive, which eventually leads to the invasion of the Soviet Union.

August 20: Winston Churchill pays tribute in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom to the Royal Air Force: "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few."

September 2: An agreement between America and Great Britain is announced to the effect that 50 U.S. destroyers needed for escort work will be transferred to Great Britain. In return, America gains 99-year leases on British bases in the North Atlantic, West Indies and Bermuda.

September 5: Commerce raiding German auxiliary cruiser Komet enters the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait after crossing the Arctic Ocean from the North Sea with the help of Soviet icebreakers Lenin, Stalin, and Kaganovich.[10]

September 7: The Blitz – Nazi Germany begins to rain bombs on London (the first of 57 consecutive nights of strategic bombing).

September 16: The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 is signed into law by Franklin D. Roosevelt, creating the first peacetime draft in U.S. history.

September 17–18: SS City of Benares is torpedoed by German submarine U-48 in the Atlantic with the loss of 248 of the 406 on board, including child evacuees bound for Canada. This results in cancellation of the British Children's Overseas Reception Board's plan to relocate children overseas.

September 25: Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany: GermanReichskommissar Josef Terboven appoints a provisional council of state from the pro-Nazi Nasjonal Samling party under Vidkun Quisling as a puppet government for Norway.

September 26: The United States imposes a total embargo on all scrap metal shipments to Japan.

September 27: Germany, Italy and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact.

October 16: The draft registration of approximately 16 million men begins in the United States.

October 18–19: Thirty-two ships are sunk from Convoy SC 7 and Convoy HX 79 by the most effective "wolfpack" of the war including U-boat aces Kretschmer, Prien and Schepke.

October 26–28:RMS Empress of Britain, serving as a troopship under the British flag, is bombed, torpedoed and sunk off the Donegal coast with the loss of 45 lives. At 42,348 GRT she is the war's largest merchant ship loss.

October 28: Italian troops invade Greece, meeting strong resistance from Greek troops and civilians. This action signals the beginning of the Balkans Campaign.

November 5: United States presidential election, 1940: Democrat incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt defeats Republican challenger Wendell Willkie and becomes the United States' first and only third-term president.

November 8: MS City of Rayville is sunk by a naval mine, the first US merchant to be lost in the war, off Cape Otway, Australia

November 11:

  • The Royal Navy launches the first aircraft carrier strike in history, on the Italian battleship fleet anchored at Taranto naval base.

  • German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis captures top secret British mail, and sends it to Japan.

  • Armistice Day Blizzard: An unexpected blizzard kills 144 in the Midwestern United States.

November 14: The city of Coventry, England is destroyed by 500 Luftwaffe bombers: 150,000 fire bombs, 503 tons of high explosives, and 130 parachute mines level 60,000 of the city's 75,000 buildings; 568 people are killed, during the Coventry Blitz.

November 16: In response to Germany levelling Coventry 2 days before, the Royal Air Force begins to bomb Hamburg (by war's end, 50,000 Hamburg residents will have died from Allied attacks).

November 18: German leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano meet to discuss Benito Mussolini's disastrous invasion of Greece.

November 20:Hungary, Romania and Slovakia join the Axis Powers.

November 27: The Royal Navy and Regia Marina fight the Battle of Cape Spartivento.

December 9: Operation Compass – British forces in North Africa begin their first major offensive with an attack on Italian forces at Sidi Barrani, Egypt.

December 12 and December 15: "Sheffield Blitz" – The Yorkshire city of Sheffield is badly damaged by German air-raids.

December 16:Operation Abigail Rachel – RAF bombing of Mannheim.

December 17: President Roosevelt, at his regular press conference, first sets forth the outline of his plan to send aid to Great Britain that will become known as Lend-Lease.

December 23:Winston Churchill, in a broadcast address to the people of Italy, blames Benito Mussolini for leading his nation to war against the British, contrary to Italy's historic friendship with them: "One man has arrayed the trustees and inheritors of ancient Rome upon the side of the ferocious pagan barbarians."

December 24: Mahatma Gandhi, Indian spiritual non-violence leader writes his second letter to Adolf Hitler addressing him "My friend", requesting him to stop the war Germany had begun.

December 29:

  • Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a fireside chat to the nation, declares that the United States must become "the great arsenal of democracy."

  • "Second Great Fire of London" – Luftwaffe carries out a massive incendiary bombing raid, starting 1,500 fires. Many famous buildings, including the Guildhall and Trinity House, are either damaged or destroyed.









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