The History of Christianity 4: Christianity in the West 1750 to the Present Christianity in the West, 1750 to the Present Intellectual Movements that Influenced Western Christianity



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The History of Christianity 4: Christianity in the West

1750 to the Present
Christianity in the West, 1750 to the Present
Intellectual Movements that Influenced Western Christianity

Christianity in Europe: The French Revolution

Christianity in America: The “Great Awakening” and the American Revolution

Development of Catholicism after 1800

Development of Protestantism after 1800
Intellectual Movements that Influenced Western Christianity
Rationalism (the “Enlightenment”)

Romanticism

Marxism
Rationalism (“The Enlightenment”)
questioned the intellectual credentials of Christianity itself

criticism of Christianity based on “ominicompetence” of human reason

- Christian beliefs rational

- therefore, basic ideas of Christianity should be derivable from reason itself: “Revelation” is only the rational reaffirmation of moral truths available to enlightened reason

- reason supreme source of revelation. Goddess of Reason enthroned Notre Dame 1793

Romanticism
reaction to rationalism; reason spiritually enslaving, experientially and emotionally deficient

appealed to human imagination rather than reason

individual human subjectivity and inwardness mirrors of the infinite, revelations of a higher order than any morality or philosophy

both reason and doctrines of Christianity fail to do justice to the complexity and mystery of the world


Marxism
Karl Marx (1818-1883)

the way human beings respond to their material needs determines everything else (ideas, values, belief-systems, religiosity)



human alienation is a result of:

- division of labor (alienation from product)

- private property (alienation from society)

Capitalism inherently unstable and doomed to collapse



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