The Hebrews trace their ancestry to Abraham. Hebraic tradition says that Abraham left his home in the Mesopotamian city of Ur about 2200bc. Abraham's grandson, Jacob, established a nation called Israel on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. About 1300BCE, many Hebrews moved to Egypt to escape a famine. A famine is a great hunger. At first, the Hebrews were treated well in Egypt, but in time the Hebrews were enslaved by the Egyptians. According to Hebraic tradition, God sent ten deadly plagues to Egypt when the Egyptians would not release the Hebrew slaves. When the Hebrews did escape, tradition states that Moses, the leader of the Hebrews, parted the Red Sea for just enough time to allow the Hebrews to pass. Once the Hebrews reached the other side of the Red Sea, tradition states that the waters returned and the Egyptian army drowned. After their escape across the Red Sea about 1250BCE, God revealed Ten Commandments to Moses. The Ten Commandments formed the basis of Mosaic Law and are the model for both Jewish and Christian moral thought.
The Hebrews returned to Israel, but they were conquered by Babylon in 586BC and were exiled, or forced from their home. The Hebrews were able to return to Israel, but the Romans conquered Israel and in 66BC, the Romans forced the Hebrews into exile once again. The Hebrews were then forced to live as minorities in many different lands in a period known as the Diaspora. The Diaspora ended with the creation of the modern nation of Israel in 1948.
Jewish people have often faced severe mistreatment. European Jews were exiled from Spain in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. The Jews also faced organized massacres called pogroms in many nations, particularly in Eastern Europe. In the last century, as many as six million Jews were murdered in what we now call the Holocaust, where the Nazi party in Germany attempted genocide. Genocide is the planned killing of a whole group of people because of their religion or nationality.
Jews worship in synagogues led by a rabbi. Rabbi is a Hebrew word that means “teacher” or "master." Their holiest period is the weekly Shabbat, which lasts from sunset Friday to sunset Saturday. Other important Jewish holidays include Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish New Year), Yom Kippur (a Day of Atonement or confession), Simchat Torah (celebrating receiving the Torah on Mount Sinai), Chanukkah (a celebration of a military victory when the oil in their lamps lasted eight days), and Passover (a remembrance of the time the Death Angel passed over their homes when the Hebrews lived in Egypt).
The Torah is the most holy book of Judaism. The Torah is also holy to Christians, who include it as the first five books of the Old Testament of their Bible. The Talmud is another holy book in Judaism. The Talmud is a collection of the laws and customs of the Jewish people.
There are approximately fifteen million Jews throughout the world. Two-thirds of the Jewish population is concentrated in the United States and Israel. Europe was once home to millions of Jewish people, but most of the survivors of the Holocaust emigrated to Israel, the United States or other nations.