The growth of cities and industry in the unitied states



Download 359.21 Kb.
Page1/3
Date20.05.2016
Size359.21 Kb.
#60002
  1   2   3
THE GROWTH OF CITIES AND INDUSTRY

IN THE UNITIED STATES

1885 TO 1920

A UNIT PLAN FOR 7TH GRADE STUDENTS IN US HISTORY

by
Lynn Dille

Submitted through “Teaching American History”

George Mason University

Center for New Media in History



And

US Department of Education



April 12, 20005

Unit Title: The Growth of Cities and Industry


Author: Lynn Dille

Grade Level: 7th

School: Francis Hammond Middle School

Time Estimated: 10 days


Overview: The “Growth of Cities” unit will cover the inventions and technology that led to industrialization. Students will also study the immigrants who would supply the labor for industrialization. Finally, students will learn about some of the people who would create the “big business” financing and industrial infrastructure. Students will be exposed to some of the problems that the rapid expansion of cities and industry created, however, the next unit of study will delve more deeply into reforms and the progressive movement. Following this unit, students will examine the US role in World War I.
Our 7th grade students at Hammond are from many different cultures and backgrounds. Many speak more than 1 language. About 30% of the students’ parents are from Latin America, however, we have many students from Africa, Afghanistan, India, and other countries as well. Few have the resources or background at home that provide a fundamental common base of knowledge in US culture and history. Another factor I consider when teaching is that my students have not yet had any world history or world cultures courses. They will get World History in the 9th and 10th grades and then study US History again in the 11th grade. Finally, given the large number of English as a Second Language students in our classes, vocabulary and writing are challenges for many.
Our students will have just begun their 7th grade year with a review of the outcome of the Civil War and the impact of Reconstruction on the South. Their first unit of new material covered the resumption of the drive to settle the West and the new technologies and adaptations that made this possible after the Civil War. As part of that unit they explored the impact of western settlement on Native American (First Americans) Tribes. Since the unit below will be taught quite early in the school year, it will be used to teach fundamental historical skills for internet use, primary source analysis, and graphing as well as the basic history of the period. This unit on the Growth of Cities will be followed by a study of the problems that industrialization and rapid growth brought and the reforms that began to address these problems.
Historical Background: With the end of the Civil War, the expansion and industrialization that had begun in the first half of the 19th century resumed. The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad and an ever-expanding railroad network in the East allowed the nation to utilize the abundant raw materials of the country. Miles of railroad track went from about 30,000 in 1860 to 254,000 in 1910. Transportation Timeline The availability of cheap labor in the form of immigrants also fueled the industrial growth of the nation. For example, the potato famine in Ireland in 1845 would bring millions of Irish to the United States between 1845 and 1850. The passage by Congress of the “Contract Labor Act” in 1864 legalizing the importation of contract labor would bring millions more. In 1880, political instability, economic depression and crop failures would bring about 4 million Italians to the United States. The 1882 May Laws restricting the rights of Jews in Russia will cause about 3 million Russians to immigrate. Library of Congress Learning Page on Immigration
Plentiful raw materials, labor, and transportation united with the capitalization of industry provided by corporate financing. Corporate financing created the venture capital needed to build the urban and industrial infrastructure necessary for rapid industrial growth. Industrialists such as John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and Cornelius Vanderbilt would develop the huge monopolies and corporate organizations capable of linking and developing national production and marketing.
Finally, while railroads provided transportation, new inventions like the telephone, the process of refining oil, and electric power supplied the technology and power. The transformation of our cities was dramatic. Skylines showed the changes in the smokestacks of the factories, the sweeping lines of bridges, and the towers of the skyscrapers. Population statistics show the huge growth of cities in size and density. Chicago, for example, grew from a population of about 100 in 1830 to 1,100,000 in 1890 to 2,185,000 in 1920. Chicago Population Chart
Such growth did not come without problems. In the cities immigrants worked in sweatshop conditions for subsistence wages. Due to the low wages, sometimes young children were forced to work long hours to help the family survive. Working conditions were unsafe. Living conditions in the tenement neighborhoods were crowded, leading to dangerous fires, as well as outbreaks of diseases such as influenza, TB, and typhus. Political bosses took advantage of the immigrant’s need for aid, trading help for votes and support. This would lead to corrupt and inefficient city services, hampered by bribery and kickback schemes, cronyism, and graft.
Efforts to improve conditions in the cities would begin as early as 1830. However, the energy of these movements would focus on slavery, suffrage and temperance until after the Civil War and Reconstruction’s end in 1877. Reform efforts would gain new energy in the late 19th century and continue into the 20th century under the label of Progressivism. “Battling Bob” LaFollette, Wisconsin’s feisty senator, Theodore Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson, among others, would work to break up large monopolies, promote fair trade, protect consumers, and reduce cronyism in government. The reform movement’s momentum would culminate in the passage of the 18th Amendment prohibiting the sale, transport or manufacture of alcoholic beverages and the passage of the 19th Amendment giving women the vote.
Major Understanding:

Following the Civil War the United States industrialized rapidly, which transformed the economic and social structure of America. Cities grew dramatically as immigrants flooded into the United States taking advantage of the freedom and opportunities here. Immigrants would provide the cheap labor needed by a growing industry. Advances in transportation and communication created national markets. New methods of production produced goods more cheaply and efficiently. Abundant natural resources provided the raw materials for the industrialization. Financing and organization resources were provided by “big business” in the form of monopolies, corporations, and trusts.


Objectives: Students will:

Understand how rapid industrialization following the Civil War transformed the economic and social structure of America by examining primary sources including maps, photographs, early films, letters, tables, and documents.


Standards of Learning:

Skills
USII.1 The students will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis, including the ability to

a) analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history from 1877 to the present;
Content
USII.2 The student will use maps, globes photographs, pictures, and tables for

b) explaining relationships among natural resources, transportation, and industrial development after 1877


USII.3 The students will demonstrate knowledge of how life changed after the Civil War by

b) explaining the reasons for the increase in immigration, growth of cities, new inventions, and challenges arising from this expansion;

d) explaining the rise of big business, the growth of industry and life on American farms.
Culminating Assessment:
Students will conclude their study by creating a timeline of inventions which will reflect their knowledge and understanding of the rapid industrial changes for the period They will be required to choose and research inventions from the 1850s – 1890s using their textbook, online resources and the library. Their timeline should include illustrations of the inventions and an explanation about their importance. Students in advanced classes will create a newspaper which will reflect their knowledge and understanding of the period. They will write articles, editorials, and ads as if they were living in 1898 during the Spanish American War.

Resources
Below is a list of resources for the entire unit. Each resource is annotated with reference to the specific lesson for which it was used or would be an additional resource.
Books:
Biesty, Stephen. Stephen Biesty’s Incredible Explosions, Dora Kindersley, New York, 1996. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Detailed exploded drawing of a steam driven generator and a windmill. Also good exploded drawing of a city and the entire infrastructure involved.


Bridgman, Roger. Technology, Eyewitness Books, Dora Kindersley, New York, 1995. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Good coverage of mass production, the automobile and technology in farming.


Burne, David. Machines and How They Work, Dora Kindersley, Inc. New York, 1991. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Good simple explanations and pictures of the windmill, automobile and steam engine.


Coiley, John. Train, Eye Witness Books, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1992. (Juvenile)

Lesson 6: Detailed coverage of the development of rail travel and its impact on cities.


Cole, Joanna. The Magic School Bus and the Electric Field Trip, Scholastic Press, New York, 1997. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Good explanation of electricity and its impact


Errico, Charles C. and Oates, Stephen B. Portrait of America, Volume I: to 1877, The Growth of Technology, p. 275-298, Houghton Mifflen, New York, 2003.

Lesson 5-10: Excellent discussion of the development of railroads


Harwood, Herbert. Rails to the Blue Ridge- The Washington and Old Dominion Railroad, 1847-1968, Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority, Fairfax Station, VA, 2000.

Lesson 5-10: Many pictures of the local area 1860-1968 give an idea of cities and the role trains and electric trolleys played in our area and why they were replaced.


Macauley, David. The New Way Things Work, Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1998. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Good explanations of windmills, steam engines, and electricity.


Paterson, Katherine. Lyddie. Puffin Books, New York, 1991. (Juvenile)
Wilkins, Mary-Jane. Everyday Things and How They Work. Warwick Press, New York, 1991. (Juvenile)

Lesson 5-10: Simple explanations of telephones, radios and many other labor saving devices developed in the beginning of the 20th century.


There are many other books about inventions, inventors, and technology in children’s libraries. The above were some of the clearest and most suitable for middle school children.
Web Links and Sites:
Association of American Railroads

Offers free resources to teachers of grades K-12, including books, videos, CD-ROMs, maps, safety brochures, activity sheets, and supplies. Select “Teacher Resources.” http://www.railfanclub.org


Chicago History Organization

Extensive on line information and photographs of the development of the city over time. Chicago Historical Society


Digital History Text: University of Houston

Good basic US History text with many interesting links to museum sites for individual cities, advertising collections and primary sources. A good first step to research for teachers and students. http://digitalhistory.uh.edu/


Entrepreneurs and American Economic Growth

Dr. Poole’s Economics course website (UC San Diego) provides excellent graphs and biographical information on Rockefeller, Carnegie and Vanderbilt.


Henry Ford

Bibliography on Henry Ford http://www.hfmgv.org/education/smartfun/class/modelt/resources.html


History Matters: The U.S. Survey Course on the Web

Links and information on all units’ materials and their connection to your community. Helpful information on teaching with documents in the “Making Sense of Evidence” section. http://www.historymatters.gmu.edu


Library of Congress

Many primary sources from the period. Photographs and maps are particularly useful as are the advertising exhibitions. Of particular interest to students are the Edison films in the Early Films exhibition. There are clips of Chicago showing the stock yards, Los Angeles harbor, and many of New York at the turn of the century. The film clip of immigrants arriving at Ellis Island is of particular use. http://www.memory.loc.gov


Money and Inflation

Students often want to know about the relative cost of things and the value of the wages received by factory workers. The following site is a simple value calculator for students. The Inflation Calculator


National Archives

Interesting source of photos, documents and other primary sources. Takes a lot of digging. Very helpful archivists. One of my personal favorites is application number 1 for a homestead site which is an excellent resources for the unit preceding this unit on westward expansion. http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/basic_search


National Museum of American History

Has an extensive of collection of artifacts from the late 1800’s which help give students a picture of life at the turn of the century in the US. Of particular interest to touring classes would be the display on Electricity Lighting: A Revolution which also has an interactive website that would be very good for class who cannot visit the museum.


A new exhibit hall entitled “America on the Move” gives a wonderful idea of the changes in cities that transportation improvements, and the automobile caused in the United States. There is an excellent on-line exhibition for a class web quest if the students cannot actually visit the museum NMAH: America on the Move
Public Broadcasting System

The PBS website has so many resources for all of US history. This link is to the American Experience Homepage which has excellent information on Andrew Carnegie and the development of “Big Business” in America. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/


Train Resources

Extensive information, including listings of railroad resources all over the United States. For information on railroads in your community, look under “Resources” on the left-hand side. Click “Tourist Railroads/Museums” and then your state to find attractions in your area. Clicking on “Historical Societies” leads to an alphabetical state listing of nationwide railroad historical societies. These links will provide railroad information specific to your area. Contact organizations by phone for more information. http://www.trains.com


U.S. Department of Commerce

Click on your state in the map in the right margin. Contact a commerce organization, administration, or department in your area for more information on the role your state plays in the global community. http://www.commerce.gov


U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Click on “About Communities” in the left margin to find maps, statistics, and information on housing in your community. Contact your state housing department for more information. http://www.hud.gov


U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration National Highway System

Learn the difference between types of highways, including President Eisenhower’s interstate system. Scroll down and click on your state to view the different highways that run through or near your community. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep10/nhs



U.S. Historical Census Data Browser

Using the census, find out how the population of your community changed throughout time. Compare different time periods by selecting different years in the left margin. Select “Total Population,” then your state, to find your county’s population.



http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census
Movies:
Lyddie: Available on VHS. Details the difficulties of a young mill worker in Lowell, Massachusetts. This movie has much good information about conditions for workers in the factories. The movie is based on a book for young readers by Katherine Paterson
Far and Away: Popular film about a young Irish immigrant and his difficulties about 1887. Good re-enactment of the corruption and boss system in the urban centers. Hero also takes part in the Oklahoma land rush.
Lesson 1 (days 1, 2, 3)
Title: Changes in Cities from 1850 to 1909.
Objectives: Students will:

1) Gain an understanding of what is meant by industrialization and growth

2) Become familiar with the Library of Congress website as a source of historical knowledge

3) Examine primary documents (maps, lithographs, panoramic pictures, photos, and early films) and identify the type, date, and purpose for which the document was made

4) Identify major changes in US cities in the types of transportation used, the population, and the buildings and industries observed during the period from 1850 to 1909 by examining maps, lithographs, and panoramic pictures of San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, and Alexandria.

5) Develop questions about how and why these changes took place.


Materials:

Overhead projector, poster paper cut in 3” wide strips, markers, map of U.S. and South America

Class computer lab with internet capability, TV with hook-up to computer of LDC projector for computer screen

City Analysis Worksheet (link)

City Report Worksheet (link)

Maud Maxson’s letter Letter from Maud Maxson to her mother, Mrs. Arthur L.Maxson.

List of city links for reproduction Library of Congress American Memory Home Page

Student Research Sites

Group I: New York City, New York



New York City 1776

1856 color lithograph of NYC

New York City 1876

New York City 1882

New York Waterfront 1909 ,

1903, Elevated railroad, New York,

1903, Skyscrapers of New York City, from the North River

Group II: Los Angeles, California



Map of Los Angeles, 1871

Birds eye view of Los Angeles, 1877

View of Los Angeles from the east, 1877, Brooklyn Heights in the foreground; Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica Mountains in the background.

Los Angeles, 1888

Los Angeles, Cal., population of city and environs 65,000.1891

South Spring Street, Los Angeles, California, 190??

Building a Harbor in San Pedro, Los Angeles 1909.
Group III: Chicago, Illinois

The City of Chicago, 1892

Bird's-eye-view of Chicago as it was before the great fire, 1871.

Rascher's birds eye view of the Chicago packing houses.1890

Bird's eye view of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.

Chicago, central business section, 1916

Chicago Stock Yards, 1897 (film)
Extra credit: http://www.chicagohistory.org/mychicago/index.html
Group IV: Alexandria Virginia

George Washington's survey of the site of Belhaven (Alexandria)

Washington's Plan of Alexandria, 1749

Birds eye view of Alexandria, Va.,1863

District of Columbia and Alexandria, the seat of war, 1863

Fairfax County Soil Types, 1877

Atlas of fifteen miles around Washington, including Alexandria, 1879

Coolidge at Alexandria, 1923
Days 1 & 2
Objectives: Students will:

1. Examine primary source maps, photographs, and early films of San Francisco with their teacher and practice completing a City Analysis Worksheet for several sources.

2. Use their computer and the list of web links for their assigned city (NY, Los Angeles, Chicago or Alexandria) to describe the transportation, people and population, location, and buildings and industries for several sources.
Strategies
1. Preparation:

a. Before the class make transparencies and copies for a class set of Maud Maxson’s letter Letter from Maud Maxson to her mother, Mrs. Arthur L.Maxson.

b. Copy the City Analysis Worksheet (link) and the City Report Worksheet (link) for students.

c. Sign up for the computers.

d. Cut strips of poster paper 3” x 24” so you have 1 per student.

e.. Preview the Library of Congress American Memory, Library of Congress American Memory Home Page, website to familiarize yourself with the homepage and search protocols. Preview the San Francisco links below.

f. Copy the city links into a folder accessible by students on their computers. (If you cannot do this, the students will have to search the Library of Congress American Memory website to locate appropriate documents. This is less efficient, but still a great learning experience for the students. Hints: Have students use the gallery view to easily identify good sources. Limit search first to maps, then to prints and photographs, then to Early Films. Be sure students check for appropriate dates.)

2. Hook: as students enter the classroom assign the following warm-up exercise; ask students to complete the journal entry written on the board (students have been keeping a journal since the beginning of the year and are familiar with this type of imaginative exercise). The goal of this exercise is not to display prior knowledge although some students will have a great grasp of the era and enjoy writing using it. The goal is to get the students to connect current knowledge to the situation of someone their age in the 19th century.

Journal entry: Imagine you are traveling by ship to Los Angeles with your Uncle and Aunt. Write a letter home to your parents. You might describe what you do to occupy your time, what you miss at home, what chores you have to do, and what problems you face on your journey.

3. Discuss and share what the students wrote

4. Project the letter written by Maud Maxson to her mother in 1870 Letter from Maud Maxson to her mother, Mrs. Arthur L.Maxson and discuss it, explaining terms as necessary. Examine the class map and trace the route around the horn Maud took. Where did she land?. How old do you think Maud is? How was she traveling? Why might she have gone? Where did they land do you think? What tells you it was probably San Francisco? Why was the dress so expensive? Why was the letter written in installments? How long did the trip last? (At least 2 months each way) Could she have taken the train in 1870? (Yes)





5. Now it is time to show the students how to use their computers using San Francisco as an example. Hand out the City Analysis Worksheets for students to record their observations. Stress the need to record the correct date for each document recorded. Show them on the overhead how they can circle the document type. Project pictures of early San Francisco from the links below.


(If the school does not have the technology to allow them to access city links directly, their observations will sort naturally if they request only maps or selections from the panorama collection first, then move on to prints and photographs and conclude with a selections from the Early films collection. Request a search for “San Francisco Harbor” through all collections at Library of Congress American Memory Home Page, I have added the dates after the titles to aid in giving the students a good idea of the chronology.)
View of San Francisco, 1846 before the discovery of gold,

San Francisco Harbor, 1850;

San Francisco Rooftops, 1851,

San Francisco in 1855;

San Francisco Bird's-eye view, 1864;

Dupont Street San Francisco, 1870,

San Francisco Harbor, 1890, San Francisco and harbor from Nob Hill, 1902.

US Fleet in San Francisco Harbor 1908.
6. Show several of these links and discuss them with the class. Demonstrate for the students how to use the “zoom” feature on the Library of Congress map viewer. They can zoom in to reveal a great deal of detail. Show them how to zoom out and relocate their view. (You will have practiced this before the lesson of course.) Ask the students to think about the following questions as they record their observations:

Were all cities like this in the 1850’s to 1900’s?

What would account for the differences in development?

What is the impact of climate? Of natural resources?

What role did water have on the development of the city?
7. Discuss what can be deduced from maps about transportation, people, technology, etc. from each type of source, demonstrating how to record the observation on the worksheet. Record several observations about San Francisco with the students. Tell the class that for the rest of today and tomorrow they will be working in groups to identify the changes over time in several major U.S. cities in the years between 1850 and 1920 by looking at maps, old photographs, and early films. If they are not linking directly to the sources on the City List, point out the search categories for the students and show them how to select “Gallery View” to more quickly sort through sources. Remind the students that these sources are primary documentation and they will have to use very careful powers of observation and analysis to use them effectively. Have the students work in pairs. Assign each pair one of the cities to research. Assign each student in the pair 2 categories to focus on. For example, Student A might focus on recording observations about Transportation and People, while Student B in the pair would record observations about the location of the city and the buildings and industries.
Student City Research Sites
Group I: New York City, New York

New York City 1776

1856 color lithograph of NYC

New York City 1876

New York City 1882

New York Waterfront 1909 ,

1903, Elevated railroad, New York,

1903, Skyscrapers of New York City, from the North River

Group II: Los Angeles, California



Map of Los Angeles, 1871

Birds eye view of Los Angeles, 1877

View of Los Angeles from the east, 1877, Brooklyn Hights in the foreground; Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica Mountains in the background.

Los Angeles, 1888

Los Angeles, Cal., population of city and environs 65,000.1891

South Spring Street, Los Angeles, California, 190??

Building a Harbor in San Pedro, Los Angeles 1909.
Group III: Chicago, Illinois

The City of Chicago, 1892

Bird's-eye-view of Chicago as it was before the great fire, 1871.

Rascher's birds eye view of the Chicago packing houses.1890

Bird's eye view of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.

Chicago, central business section, 1916

Chicago Stock Yards, 1897 (film)
Extra credit: http://www.chicagohistory.org/mychicago/index.html

Group IV: Alexandria Virginia



George Washington's survey of the site of Belhaven (Alexandria)

Washington's Plan of Alexandria, 1749

Birds eye view of Alexandria, Va.,1863

District of Columbia and Alexandria, the seat of war, 1863

Fairfax County Soil Types, 1877

Atlas of fifteen miles around Washington, including Alexandria, 1879

Coolidge at Alexandria, 1923

8. Supervise students as they search the sites and take notes (the sites are in chronological order)


Directory: acpstah

Download 359.21 Kb.

Share with your friends:
  1   2   3




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2022
send message

    Main page