The Great Wall of China Unit of Work Victorian Essential Learning Standards Level 4

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The Great Wall of China
Unit of Work
Victorian Essential Learning Standards Level 4

Humanities/History/ Geography; Information and Communication Technology; Thinking Processes; English; Personal Learning; Communication


Introduction 2

Learning focus 3

Victorian Essential Learning Standards 5

Teaching and learning activities 7

Activity 1: Establishing prior knowledge; preparing to read the text 8

Activity 2: Reading the text 9

Activity 3: Gaining deeper understanding 9

Activity 4: Attending the exhibition at Melbourne Museum 9

Activity 5: Organising research 9

Activity 6: Researching 10

Assessment 11

Unit resources 15

Teacher resources 15

Appendix 1: List of books, audiovisuals and websites 15

Appendix 2: Online glossary 17

Appendix 3: Word web 18

Appendix 4: Who built the Great Wall? When and Why? 19

Student resources 20

Appendix 5: The Great Wall of China 20

Appendix 6: K-W-L-H 21

Appendix 7: Action Planner 22

Appendix 8: Bibliography information 23

Appendix 9: The Four RRRR’s 24

Published by the Department of Education

March 2007
© State of Victoria 2007


In ‘The Great Wall of China’ students develop knowledge of how and why the Great Wall was constructed and its impact on China in the 21st century. Students will use a range of primary and secondary sources to investigate its long history, and will gain a greater understanding when viewing the displays at the exhibition at Melbourne Museum.

‘The Great Wall of China’ is designed with pre and post visit activities, with attending the exhibition an integral part of the unit. As a concluding activity, students will create an A-Z multimedia presentation using the information obtained during the research component and the visit to the exhibition. The unit provides opportunities for students to demonstrate achievement against the standards of: Humanities (History and Geography); Information and Communication Technology; Thinking; English; Personal Learning and Communication.

Learning focus

Discipline-based learning


  • compose comprehend and respond to an expanding range of texts in print, audiovisual and electronic forms that contain increasingly unfamiliar concepts, themes, information and issues about the Great Wall of China.


  • become more systematic in the use of strategies for writing (including note-taking, planning, editing and proofreading) and make decisions about appropriate structures and features of language in texts for different purposes and audiences

  • speaking and listening

  • participate in oral interactions for different purposes, including informing

  • listen and practise identifying the main idea and supporting details of spoken texts and summarising them for others.

Humanities – History

  • develop an understanding of the history of the Great Wall of China and its importance to the Chinese community living in Australia

  • apply their understanding of culture by investigating the history of China

  • investigate the Emperors of China and learn about daily life, religious traditions, customs and governance through the ages

  • use a range of written, visual, oral and electronic sources to study the past

  • research questions and plan their own enquiries using historical language and concepts, such as time, sequence, chronology, continuity, change, culture and tradition

  • learn to develop explanations in a range of forms, such as timelines, oral presentations, posters, multimedia presentations, reports and narratives that will demonstrate their understanding of the rich history of China.

Humanities – Geography

  • develop mapping skills and use conventional geographic language, alphanumeric grid references and legends to locate China and places within China

  • begin to identify features on maps and satellite images and use maps of different scales to locate places.

Interdisciplinary Learning


  • make observations and pose questions about people and events beyond their experiences, demonstrating an understanding of the complex history of the Great Wall from inception to today

  • use these questions as a basis to carry out investigations, independently and with others

  • develop strategies to find suitable sources of information about the Great Wall and learn to distinguish between fact and opinion

  • increase their repertoire of thinking strategies for gathering and processing information

  • practise transferring their knowledge to new contexts

  • carry out an investigation with a group.

Information and Communication Technology


  • develop their skills in organising ideas and information logically and clearly to suit their purpose and the needs of the audience.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards

The table shows how some Level 4 standards might be applied to this unit.




Key elements of the standards

Physical, Personal & Social Learning

Personal Learning

Individual Learner

…demonstrate the ability to learn independently and with peers

Managing personal learning

…monitor and describe progress in their learning.

…develop and implement plans to complete tasks within time frames

Discipline- based Learning



…read interpret and respond to a wide range of texts, both print and electronic.

…draw on knowledge of text organisation when interpreting texts containing unfamiliar ideas and information


…employ a variety of strategies including note taking, planning, editing and proof reading.

Speaking and listening

…project their voice adequately for an audience.

…modify texts to clarify meaning and information

…plan, rehearse and make a presentation about their research.

Humanities and History

Historical knowledge and understanding

Historical reasoning and interpretation

…demonstrate an understanding of the histories of some cultural groups which make up Australia today.

…explain significant events and people in the history of China

…compare and contrast values and beliefs - between Australia and China

…use a range of primary and secondary sources to investigate the past.

…research questions and plan their own enquiries.

… use historical language and concepts to develop historical explanations.


Geospatial skills

…uses atlases to accurately locate places and landmarks in China

…identify features from maps, and satellite images.

Interdisciplinary Learning


Reasoning, process and inquiry

… develop their own questions for investigation.

Reflection, evaluation and metacognition

… use a range of thinking processes and tools.

…document changes in their own ideas and beliefs.

Information and Communications Technology

ICT for visual thinking

…use graphic organisers to help structure their thinking and assist in constructing knowledge

ICT for communicating

..use ICT as a forum to share ideas and knowledge

…use search engines and limited key words to locate information from websites related to the topic

ICT for creating

…use ICT to create an on-line glossary or Wiki to house historical terms and definitions

…use ICT to create a multimedia presentation.


Listening, viewing and responding

…develop skills in organising ideas and information logically and clearly to suit their purpose and the needs of the audience.


…develop the ability to present information in a logical sequence.

Teaching and learning activities

This unit is premised on the students having some understanding of the history of the Great Wall of China prior to attending the exhibition at Melbourne Museum. Using this understanding, and the knowledge gained when viewing the displays, they will complete an A-Z multimedia presentation. Throughout these activities students will work independently and cooperatively in groups, with regular opportunities for feedback from their peers and members of the group.

Students will be given the opportunity to increase their knowledge, skills and behaviours using multimedia tools (ICT). These skills could include:

  • creating an on line glossary or Wiki

  • creating a multimedia presentation

  • importing graphics

  • refining research skills.

Recommended books to read to the class:

  • The Great Wall of China, by Leonard Everett Fisher – a picture story version

  • The Great Wall, by Elizabeth Mann – a longer story version

  • Dragonkeeper, by Carole Wilkinson – a good novel for serial reading, set during the Han dynasty. (see Unit resources, Appendix 1).

All completed activity sheets, should be inserted into students’ Learning Journals. The unit is structured with pre-visiting the exhibition and post-visit attendance activities. This unit culminates with students completing an A-Z multimedia presentation that will detail aspects of the history of the Great Wall of China.

Research task and presentation

Using a variety of primary and secondary sources (see Unit resources, Appendix 8) students will research how and why the Great Wall was constructed, as well as daily life, customs, and traditions of the dynasties that created it. Each group will then select a theme for their alphabet, research and find graphics for each word, and create a multimedia presentation. Individual members will take responsibility for an equal share of the research and presentation.

Activity 1: Establishing prior knowledge; preparing to read the text

Activity 1(a) Location activity

Students are given a blank map of the world and an atlas, and working in pairs locate:

  • China

  • neighbouring countries

  • capital city of China

  • cities of Xian and Shanghai

  • East China Sea

  • The Great Wall of China.

Activity 1(b)

Have students look at the map of China at and do a ‘Snapshot’ activity. In a Snapshot activity, students look ‘into’ a picture. They need to answer questions such as:

  • what do I see?

  • what would I hear?

  • what does this picture tell me about the Great Wall?

  • what does it tell me about how people lived at that time?

    Groups do a ‘Think, pair, share’ activity.

Activity 1 (c)

Using information from the ‘snapshot’ activity, pairs of students create a ‘Word web’ (see Unit resources, Appendix 3) about the Great Wall. This can be added to as they do their research. ‘Inspirations’ or a ‘Sunshine wheel’ may be used instead of the word web. Students write ‘The Great Wall’ in the centre of the rectangle and any other facts in the surrounding cells. They may add more cells if required. Each group will report back to their peers and a class word web will be compiled with words inserted into suitable categories such as:

  • describing the Wall

  • daily life

  • geography of China

  • construction of the Great Wall.

Activity 2: Reading the text

Read the text ‘Who built the Great Wall and why?”(see Unit resources, Appendix 4). Discuss the text and add new words associated with the Great Wall to the class word web. As a class, find more categories for the word web. Categories could include:

  • kingdoms

  • people in power

  • customs and traditions

  • soldiers

  • Terracotta Warriors

  • history

  • artefacts

  • The Nomads.

Each pair creates their on-line glossary or ‘Wiki’ (see Unit resources, Appendix 2) and enters the words from the class word web, using a dictionary to then add definitions. This online glossary is to be maintained throughout the unit.
Activity 3: Gaining deeper understanding

Recommended books to read to the class at this stage:

  • The Great Wall of China, by Leonard Everett Fisher – a picture story version

  • The Great Wall, by Elizabeth Mann – a longer story version

  • Dragonkeeper’ by Carole Wilkinson – A good novel for serial reading, set during the Han dynasty. (see Unit resources, Appendix 1).

The first two books give an interesting story version of the start of the Great Wall, or the ‘Great Wall of China’ (see Unit resources, Appendix 5). As a class, discuss the facts contained in these stories, and the implications for the Chinese people at that time. When discussing Qin the First Emperor of China, the teacher should introduce the Terracotta Warriors. Each student starts a KWLH chart (see Unit resources, Appendix 6) and enters what they know in the K column. Students could also view a short video of the Great wall, ‘Travelling in China’ (see Unit resources, Appendix 1).
Activity 4: Attending the exhibition at Melbourne Museum

Students attend the exhibition. Teachers may wish to prepare a worksheet, or allow the students to explore and gain their own understandings.

Activity 5: Organising research

On returning from the exhibition, students continue their KWLH chart, and include information acquired from the displays in the ‘K – What I know’ section.

At this stage the teacher will introduce the Research criteria and Rubric (see page 11). The teacher will explain that each pair of students will create their own multimedia presentation in the form of an A–Z alphabet of words relating to their research. Each page of the display must contain the letter, with the corresponding word and a short description giving its relevance to the Great Wall. A picture may be inserted. The list could have a specific focus, or be a random collection of words.

C is for China and A is for Asia (see Unit resources, Appendix 2) can be used as a model for compiling cultural alphabets. Pairs work cooperatively and write focus questions in their ‘W – What I want to know’ column (see Unit resources, Appendix 6).

Activity 6: Researching

Before commencing their research, students record their personal goals in their Learning Journals using an ‘Action planning organiser’ (see Unit resources, Appendix 7). Students need to include primary and secondary sources while conducting their research. Primary sources include:

  • maps

  • artefacts

  • documents

  • photographs

  • drawings

  • encyclopaedias

  • statistics

  • some Internet sources (these need to be verified – who created the website?)

  • personal knowledge – a person who has visited or climbed the Great Wall

  • the displays at the exhibition are primary sources.

Secondary sources include:

  • non-fiction books

  • stories

  • legends

  • some Internet sources.

All sources need to be entered onto the Bibliography (see Unit resources, Appendix 8). During the research process, students will confer with their partners and ensure that they have answered all key questions. The Rubric should be reviewed to focus their work. Teacher observes and records:

  • the ability for the group to cooperate

  • that students are ‘on task’

  • students ability to take different roles

  • Wiki and Bibliography are maintained

  • their multimedia presentation is being prepared in a logical sequence.

When the research is complete, each group decides on its selected form of multimedia presentation and makes a final decision on the focus. The teacher will conference each group to ascertain that its alphabet is concise and has a logical sequence. When the students have finished their work they will practice their presentation. Students will complete the ‘How’ section on their KWLH chart detailing what they have learnt, and reflect on the skills and behaviours they have developed.


The Victorian Essential Learning Standards supports a combination of assessment practices:

  • assessment of learning (summative)

  • assessment for learning (formative)

  • assessment as learning (ongoing).

When assessing student achievement use the table below which shows a range of assessment criteria, tools and strategies applicable to this unit.


Assessment Focus


Interpersonal learning

Working in teams

  • take on different roles and responsibilities

teacher observes and records students’ role taking abilities.

Personal Learning

Individual learner

  • develop and implement a plan to complete tasks within a time frame

complete Action planner and required work in time frame.



  • research a topic with unfamiliar ideas and information for deep understanding.

read information and take notes from resources used.



  • employ a variety of strategies for note-taking, planning, editing and proofreading.

teacher will observe and monitor the strategies students use.


Speaking and listening

  • plan rehearse and make a presentation on their research findings.

teacher to observe during ‘reporting back’ of research findings.

Humanities and history

Historical knowledge

and understanding

  • explain significant events in the development of the Great Wall

  • describe the contribution of significant people in the development of the Great Wall.

students multimedia presentation to show that they have understood the development and history of the Great Wall.

Include information about the significant people in that dynasty.

Humanities and history

Historical reasoning and interpretation

  • use a range of primary and secondary sources to investigate an aspect of the history of the Great Wall of China

  • complete a bibliography.

Complete a bibliography of primary and secondary sources.


Reasoning, process and inquiry

  • students develop their own questions for research.

  • collect relevant information from a range of sources.

Prepare and enter questions on KWLH organiser.

Use recommended resources to gain information.


Reflection, evaluation and metacognition

  • articulate their thinking processes.

Discuss with teacher.

Self evaluation activity completed on Action planner.

Information and Communication technology

ICT for visualising thinking

  • uses graphic organisers to process their thinking.

Complete KWLH , Word web, and Action planner organisers.

Information and Communication technology

ICT for creating

  • students will create an online glossary of historical terms and language.

Enter historical terms and language into online glossary.


Listening viewing and responding

  • organise ideas and information in a logical sequence.

Prepare a logical description detailing their research findings for their final presentation.



  • evaluate the effectiveness of their own presentation.

Complete the evaluation section on their Action planner.

Assessment: Presentation and evaluation

The purpose of the presentation is for the students to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the history of the Great Wall through designing a multimedia A–Z alphabet. At the final presentation, each pair of students takes a turn to present their display to their peers and to answer any questions put to them after their performance.

Assessment of learning

The teacher will observe and record each presentation following the criteria for the assessment focus and provide feedback where appropriate. Students will complete a self assessment task ‘THE FOUR RRRR’s (see Unit resources, Appendix 9) at the conclusion of the unit.

Research criteria and rubric

Students create an A–Z multimedia presentation that will show the results of their research into the history of the development of the Great Wall of China and its impact on China in 2007. Their presentation can be on a special category or a random A–Z list of words that they have found during their research.


Assessment criteria

Towards the level

At the level

Above the level

1. ability to create a colourful title using Word Art or similar program
2. ability to select relevant words to complete an alphabet that would give information about the Great Wall of China
3. ability to select an appropriate image and to insert it into a multimedia presentation.

Title of category or focus

26 slides from A–Z

Each slide contains a single word.

Each word has a definition.

four pictures

Title of category or focus.

26 slides from A–Z

eight slides contain two or more words.

Each word has a definition.

eight pictures

Some colour font selection

Title of category or focus

26 slides from A–Z

14 slides contain two or more words.

Each word has a definition.

12 pictures

A–Z colour and appropriate font selection.

Research project criteria

Name ( student or group)

Title of research


Teacher comments


Depth of understanding

The information demonstrates that the group has researched the topic.


Information is clear and accurate. It includes a bibliography.

They managed time well.

Working in teams

Demonstrated that they worked effectively.

The group was able to work independently and stay on task.


The multimedia presentation is well organised.

Graphics are suitable.

Unit resources

Teacher resources

Appendix 1: List of books, audiovisuals and websites


Serial reading:

  • Wilkinson, Carole, 2003, Dragonkeeper, Black Dog Books, Fitzroy.


  • Fisher, Leonard Everett, 1995, The Great Wall of China, Aladdin Paperback Book Series, Simon & Schuster, New York

  • Mann, Elizabeth, 1997, The Great Wall, Mikaya, New York

  • O’Donell, Kerri, 2003, Great Wall of China, Rossen, New York

  • Joon Liow Kah, 2004, A Musical journey - from the Great Wall of China to the water towns of Jiangnam, Silk Road, La Prairie, Quebec, Canada.

NOTE: These books are available for loan from the Languages and Multicultural Education Resource Centre 150 Palmerston Street, Carlton Tel 9349 1418 Fax 93491295

Reference books:

  • Ross, Stewart, 2006, Ancient China, Tales of the dead Series, Dorling Kindersley, London

  • Fisher, Leonard Everett, 1995, The Great Wall of China, Aladdin Paperback Book Series, Simon & Schuster, New York

  • Dugan, Michael, 1983, The Chinese, Macmillan Company of Australia, South Melbourne

  • Guile, Melanie, 2003, China, (2000 Series - Australia’s neighbours), Reed Educational & Professional Publishing, Port Melbourne

  • Charley, Catherine, 1994, China, (1994 Serise: Country fact file), Simon & Schuster, Sydney

  • Ganeri, Anita, 1994, I come from China, (1994 Series: Don’t forget us), Aladdin Books, London

  • Hatherley, Sheila, 1996, China, Indonesia, (Series: Our Asian neighbours), Macmillan Education Australia Pty Ltd, South Melbourne

  • 1999, China, (Series: Ask about Asia), Blake Education, Glebe NSW

  • Kalman, Bobbie, 1989, China the land, Crabtree Publishing Company, New York

  • Clyne, Margarret and Griffiths Racher, 2004, The Great Wall of China, (Series: Chatterbox) Pearson Education, South Melbourne.


Travelling in China: included in a kit China Today: Peter Leyden Publications, Artarmon NSW.
Websites – Map of the Great Wall – Large site – How Great Wall was built and lots more – Shows definitions – use for Wiki – Use to look at dynasties and Kingdoms

. –More information on dynasties – Wiki website – photos of the Great Wall – Great wall slide show – click on picture for slide show – Great Wall 2007.

Appendix 2: Online glossary

Wiki website

Suggested words for online glossary:


Artefacts; archers; army; afterlife; adobe bricks


Beacon tower; battle; battlements; bricks


China; costume; chariots; cavalry; Chen dynasty; capital; crossbowman; conquer; culture; characters; clay


Dynasty; dragon; defend; desert; distant; dragons


Emperor; enemy; Eastern Han; expressions–facial; expansion; eroded; excavations


Fortress; foot soldiers; figurines; farms; First Emperor; fired; frontiers; fortify; frame; feng shui


Great Wall of China; guards; grasslands; grain; garrisons; Genghis Khan; Gobi desert; Gulf of Bohai


Han dynasty; height; horsemen; horses; halberd


Imperial; infantry; inscription; invade; inventions; icon; interiors


Jin dynasty; Jin Great Wall; jade


Kingdom; kilometres; kiln


Long wall; livestock; Liang dynasty; li ; Liao dynasty; laces; leg protectors; labourers; local materials; lime


Mausoleum; moats; mountains; Mongolia; Ming dynasty; magical fire flying crow; myth; mortar


Nomads; network; Northern


Ocean; ornaments; organised


Passes; pound; People’s Republic of China; powerful; provinces; peasants; pass


Qin Shihuang–Emperor; Qin dynasty


Raids; retreat; reeds; rivers; rice – sticky; rammed


Son dynasty; strategy; sections; shoes; stance; series; silk; sand; sticks; stone; soldiers; signals


Terracotta Army; traders, Tang dynasty; trousers; towns; trade routes ; tourists


Units; unified


Valuable goods; vertical; variety; vast


Wall, warring states; watchtowers; warriors; weapons; wells; warning system


Xian; Xn dynasty; Xiongnu;


Yuan dynasty


Zhou dynasty

Appendix 3: Word web

The Word Web below may be used, or computer software such as ‘Inspiration’ may be used.

Think, pair, share

This strategy encourages students to think first and then discuss their opinions with a small group of people.

In groups, students consider a question or issue. They begin by reflecting on their opinions and ideas on the topic and recording them on a template, pairing up with the student next to them to discuss their ideas and opinions. The next stage of the process requires the team to come together and share their ideas and collate a group response. This should then be fed back to the class as a whole.

Appendix 4: Who built the Great Wall? When and Why?

Who built the Great Wall? When and why?

Actually, China is not the only country in history that built a wall along its boundary. Athens, the Roman Empire, Denmark and Korea all did so at certain times in the past. Hadrian's Wall in northern England, built "to separate the Romans from the barbarians", extended 117 kilometres from Wallsend-on-Tyne in the east to Bowness-on-Solway in the west. All the walls were built for the purpose of military defence, and the Great Wall of China was no exception.

Yet the Great Wall is unique. It was first built in the 7th century B.C. when China was still divided into many small states. After the unification of China in 221 B.C., the first emperor of Qin Dynasty (you must have heard of his teracotta army) linked the walls of the three states in the north and formed the first "Wan Li Chang Cheng" (ten thousand li Great Wall, li is a Chinese length unit, 2 li = 1 km). Since then, the Great Wall was rebuilt, modified or extended throughout Chinese history for over 2,000 years. Most of the Great Wall we see today was built in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). In some areas, two walls built in two different dynasties can be seen running side by side. For a more detailed history of China and the Great Wall, please click here.

Based on the technology available at different dynasties, the Great Wall was usually built with local materials, mostly earth and stones. Natural terrain such as mountain ridges was often taken advantage of to form part of the wall. West Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - 25 A.D.), for example, used sand and crushed stones filled with layers of reeds or tamarisk twigs to build the wall in grasslands and desert areas that are subject to strong wind erosion.
(Written by e99, Photograph by Zhou Wanping & Dama)

Student resources

Appendix 5: The Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China snakes across the northern part of China, from the sea at the eastern coast, over mountains, the Gobi Desert, and continues to the north-central part of the country.

The First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, is credited with starting the Great Wall to stop the ‘barbarians’ from the North invading. He ordered an army of millions to build new walls to connect to old ones, and finally completed 4,800 kilometres in 10 years. Emperor Qin proclaimed that the Wall should be six horses wide at the top, eight horses wide at the bottom and five men high.

The Chinese used whatever materials were available in the local area. Some parts of the wall are built of soil, sand and straw, while others of brick, stone, wood or clay. The whole structure was built by hand. Millions of people were forced to build the Wall; many of them died and are buried in it.

A series of watchtowers was built every 100 yards and an alarm system of smoke signals was invented. Wood and straw were mixed with wolf dung. Piles were prepared and if a small army was approaching one pile was lit. The smoke would alert the soldiers at the next watchtower and they would also light one of their piles, and the message would be sent from watchtower to watchtower. If a larger army was spotted a second pile would be lit, sending up more columns of smoke.

Three Chinese dynasties built the Great Wall the Qin (B.C 221–207), Han (B.C 206–A.D. 220) and Ming (A.D. 1368–1644).The Wall we see today was completed by the Ming dynasty.

Many parts of the Great Wall are still in good condition and scientists have tried to find what the Ming dynasty used to join the stones and bricks together. Recently they have discovered that the Chinese invented ‘sticky rice’ which was used to make very strong mortar.

Appendix 6: K-W-L-H

The K-W-L-H organiser provides students with a framework to explore their prior knowledge on a topic and consider what they would like to know and learn. This organiser can be used as an individual or group strategy but is most effective when students are given the opportunity to reflect individually before sharing with others.

K – Stands for helping students recall what they KNOW about the subject.

W – Stands for helping students determine what they WANT to learn.

L – Stands for helping students identify and reflect upon what they have LEARNT at the end of a topic or activity.

H – Stands for HOW did we learn it and aids metacognition by assisting students to reflect upon what they have learnt and how they have learnt it.


What we want to Know

What we want to find out

What we have learned

How did we learn it?

Appendix 7: Action Planner

To assist groups with planning and staying on task during cooperative learning tasks groups can develop an action plan which outlines the following areas:

  • members of the group

  • the topic to be covered

  • the research and data to be collected – where and how they will go about this?

  • the group’s goals/protocols/agreements

  • the action they plan to take

  • the steps they will take in putting the actions into place

  • the resources needed

  • a timeline for the project

  • the format of the final presentation

  • a description of the audience for the report or presentation

  • the roles the various team members play.

Simple action plan


Times (dates)

What has to be done

Whose responsibility?

Resources needed

Review/ check point

Monitor progress


Final review



Appendix 8: Bibliography information
You must acknowledge your sources.

  • Examples of Primary sources are: maps; letters; photographs; drawings; encyclopaedias; statistics; some Internet sources (these need to be verified); personal knowledge – for example, a person who has visited or climbed the Great Wall

  • Examples of Secondary sources are: non-fiction books; stories; legends; Internet sources.

Listing sources in your bibliography – examples:

Book – fiction or non-fiction

Wilkinson, Carole, 2003 Dragon keeper, Black Dog Books, Fitzroy.

Article in encyclopaedia

‘Great Wall’, World Book Encyclopaedia, Chicago: Field Enterprises, c1999, vol 8 pp. 173-176.

Internet sources – web address and subject ; Qin Shihuangdi.

Personal Interview

Interview with Joan Smith, 23 February, 2007.

Appendix 9: The Four RRRR’s

Think back over your learning.

Use the four R’s to help you understand your learning more deeply.

You can record your ideas in words and/or pictures.

Remember – Write or draw three things that you remember doing, saying or hearing in this session/ unit.

Revise – Write or draw 3 important things you have learnt about China or the Great Wall during this unit.

Reveal – Now take one of the important things you learned ( from the list above ) and explain why it is important to you.

React – The Great Wall is in danger!

What can be done to make sure that it will stand for many more centuries?

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