The Gilded Age During the Gilded Age the Presidents of the United States were chiefly occupied in which of the following roles? (A) commander-in-chief of the armed forces (B) initiator of proposals for federal legislation (C) formulator of foreign policy



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The Gilded Age
1. During the Gilded Age the Presidents of the United States were chiefly occupied in which of the following roles? (A) commander-in-chief of the armed forces (B) initiator of proposals for federal legislation (C) formulator of foreign policy (D) proponent of social reform (E) dispenser of patronage to party loyalists.
2. All of the following factors contributed to the weakness of the Presidents during the Gilded Age except: (A) the impeachment of Andrew Johnson (B) the relative absence of domestic

tensions and strife (C) the prevailing belief that they should execute the laws, and not make them (D) their lack of personal qualities of leadership (E) the evenly balanced party divisions in Congress.


3. Which of the following statements best summarizes the American political system during the Gilded age? (A) The Republican dominated the Presidential elections, but the Democrats controlled Congress. (B) The Democrats dominated the Presidential elections, but the Republicans controlled Congress. (C) There was a virtual stalemate between the two parties in both Presidential elections and control of Congress. (D) The Republicans dominated both the Presidential elections and the control of Congress. (E) The Democrats dominated both the Presidential elections and the control of Congress.
4. “Waving the bloody shirt” refers to a political tactic used by (A) southern Democrats to force the end of Radical Reconstruction (B) northern Republicans to label the Democratic the party of disloyalty to the Union (C) imperialists to win support for foreign war in the 1890s (D) southern blacks to halt the terror of the Ku Klux Klan (E) western settlers to attack Indians.
5. During the late nineteenth century all of the following groups voted consistently for the Republican party : (A) urban Catholics (B) New England Protestants (C) large manufacturers (D) northern blacks (E) farmers from the upper Midwest.
6. “Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West. The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development.”
This quotation was written by: (A) Theodore Roosevelt (B) Frederick Jackson Turner (C) Charles Beard (D) Abraham Lincoln (E) Mark Twain.
7. The most important long-term consequence of the Pendleton Act of 1883 was the (A) establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission (B) institution of a merit and tenure system for the federal administration (C) creation of a civil service system for state and local governments (D) acceptance of the principle of federal regulation of big business (E) increased use of silver in the national currency.
8. During the late 1800s many Westerners demanded an increase in the supply of currency to achieve which of the following goals?

I. higher prices for farm goods

II. a reduction on their burden of debt

III. a reduction of the power of eastern bankers

IV. the expansion of silver mining

V. lower prices for manufactured goods

(A) I, II, and III only (D) I, II, and IV only

(B) I, II, III, and IV only (E) all of the above

(C) I, II, and IV only
9. During the late nineteenth century Republicans defended a high tariff policy partly on the grounds that it (A) guaranteed high wages and individual advancement for American workers (B) gave American manufactured goods access to European markets (C) gave American agricultural goods access to European markets (D) protected native born workers from competition from

immigrants to the United States (E) brought additional revenue into the United States treasury.


10. Which of the following best summarizes the federal government’s financial policies during the late 1800s? (A) an increasing use of greenback dollars not backed by specie (B) the substitution of silver for gold to back the currency (C) a substantial increase in the federal debt and currency convertible into specie (D) the retirement of the federal debt and currency convertible into specie (E) a national regulation of currency through the Federal Reserve Act.
11. The “Mugwumps” played a crucial role in deciding the outcome of the Election of 1884 through their (A) criticism of the Republican candidate and defection from the party (B) opposition to Radical Republican Reconstruction policies (C) criticism of the Democratic candidate and defection from the party (D) opposition to the policy of forcing Indians onto reservations (E) opposition to the annexation of the Philippines.
12. All of the following were leading reform causes during the Gilded Age except: (A) civil service reform (B) Prohibition (C) social and sexual purity (D) anti monopoly (E) settlement house work.
13. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 federal policy toward the railroads shifted from the (A) fixing of rates to the regulation of “reasonable” rates (B) granting of land subsidies to the fixing of rates (C) prohibition of rebates to the granting of land subsidies (D) granting of land subsidies to the prohibition of rebates to favored customers (E) fixing of rates to the prohibition of rebates to favored customers.
14. The best explanation for the changes in the number of homesteads obtained form public lands between 1910 and 1930 as indicated in the chart shown above is (A) the closing of the western frontier (B) the effects of the Great Depression (C) World War I followed by the farm depression of the 1920s (D) the populist agitation followed by World War I (E) World War I followed by the Great Depression.
15. A fundamental purpose of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) was to (A) restore business competition and a self regulating economy (B) give the states the power to break up large business corporations (C) establish strict federal controls over business practices (D) increase the power of labor unions in their negotiations with big business (E) establish federally regulated monopolies in railroad and other public utilities.
16. During the Gilded Age, the economic issue that most clearly divided the Republicans from the Democrats was (A) the currency (B) railroad legislation (C) antitrust legislation (D) the tariff (D) western homesteads.
17. The Election of 1892 is significant because of (A) William Jennings Bryan’s challenge to the Eastern establishment (B) the election of the first Democratic President since Buchanan (C) the strong gains by a nationally organized Socialists Party (D) the election of a strong Democrat as a President (E) the strong gains by the Populist party in the West.
18. The depression of the 1890s was similar to previous periods of economic hard times in that it (A) was caused by a significant decline in federal spending (B) began with a financial panic (C) affected manufacturers more than farmers or workers (D) was caused by a significant decline in foreign trade (E) affected farmers and workers more than manufacturers.
19. The Cleveland Administration angered farmers when it responded to the depression of the 1890s by (A) authorizing welfare payments too workers but not to farmers (B) taking the U S off the gold standard (C) increasing the amount of silver purchased by the federal government for use as currency (D) repealing the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and maintaining the gold standard (E) raising the tariff on foreign imports.
20. During the 1870s and 1880s the largest stream of native born migrants to the Trans-Mississippi West came from (A) Europe (B) the rural northeastern states (C) eastern and Midwestern cities (D) the southern states (E) the old northwestern states.
21. All of the following statements about the Homestead Act are true except: (A) it was well suited to agriculture on the Great Plains (B) it marked a departure from previous federal land policy (C) it provided that a settler could acquire 160 acres by living on it and improving it for five years (D) it led to considerable fraud by land speculators (E) it applied to the Great Plains region as other areas had already been settled.
22. During the late 1800s a major issue concerning the federal finance was how to (A) reduce the growing budget deficit (B) pay for the increasing costs of social security (C) spend the increasing federal budget surplus (D) pay for farm subsidies (E) pay for the increased costs of welfare for the urban poor.
23. Which of the following concepts are the basic themes in Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis of the significance of the frontier in American History?

I. The West acted as a “safety valve” for discontented Easterners

II. American democratic institutions were not imported from Europe

III Frontier experiences shaped the American national character and democratic institutions

IV American democracy owes a great deal to English political institutions

V The western frontier was more crucial to American development than the earlier eastern and southern influences

(A) I, II, & III only (D) III & IV only

(B) I, III, & IV only (E) I, III, IV, and V only

(C) I, II, III, & V only

24. The basic purpose of the Dawes Severalty Act (1887) was (A) assimilate the Native Americans into white culture (B) preserve tribal Indian government on reservations (C) establish a system of reservations for Native Americans (D) grant citizenship to Native Americans (E) force all the remaining Native Americans to move west.

25. Which of the following were officially endorsed policies of the U S Government towards the Native Americans between 1865-1890?

I Containment on Reservations

II Allotment of lands to individual Indians

III Extermination

IV preservation of distinct and separate tribal cultures

(A) I, II, & III only (D) I, II, III, IV only

(B) I, II, & IV only (E) All of the above

(C) II, III, & IV only

25. The Bessemer process was an important technological innovation in (A) the development of electrical power (B) the manufacture of steel (C) the harvesting of grain (D) meat processing (E)

photography.


26. The Industrial Revolution had all of the following consequences during the period from the Civil War to 1890 except: (A) real wages for workers declined (B) the production of goods increased dramatically (C) a new type of business corporation emerged (D) immigration into the United States increased (E) the average price of manufactured goods fell significantly.
28. Frederick W. Taylor’s system of scientific management was designed to (A) give skilled workers more control over the production of goods (B) introduce the concept of interchangeable parts to industry (C) make housework for women as efficient as factory production (D) transfer control over production from workers to supervisors (E) raise the morale of workers through profit sharing plans.
29. Which of the following themes were important elements in the ideology of Social Darwinism ?

I the Protestant ethic

II individualism

III classical laissez-faire economics

IV survival of the fittest

V the primacy of environment over heredity


(A) I, II, and III only (D) I, II, III, and IV only

(B) I, II, and IV only (E) all of the above



(C) I, II, IV, and V only
30. Businessmen used the device of the corporation during the late 1800s for all of the following reasons except: (A) to protect the company against interstate competition (B) to limit the liability of corporate executives (C) to raise capital through the sale of shares (D) to give their company all of the legal rights of a person (E) to separate personal ownership from company management
31. The first big business in the United States that used modern systems of corporate management was (A) the textile industry (B) the steel industry (C) the railroads (D) banking (E) meat processing.
32. Some historians have labeled John D. Rockefeller and other big businessmen of the Gilded Age as “Robber Barons” because they (A) controlled large estates in the West (B) stole large sums of money from the federal treasury (C) controlled foreign countries through their domination of international trade (D) were ruthless competitors who cheated their investors and exploited their workers (E) emulated the lifestyles of medieval lords.
33. Which of the following is a valid criticism of the thesis that the federal government pursued a laissez-faire policy during the nineteenth century? (A) It subsidized an extensive system of roads and canals. (B) It pursued a policy of isolationism toward European politics. (C) It gave land grants to railroads and tariff protection to manufacturers. (D) It encouraged extensive European immigration. (E) It generally refrained from intervention in the economy.
34. Mass transit transformed the nature of American cities after the Civil War because it (A) permitted people of all classes to live in any section of the city (B) created immigrant neighborhoods on the fringes of the cities (C) encouraged the building of skyscrapers in downtown districts (D) facilitated a vast geographical expansion of the cities (E) undermined the dependence on the automobile for urban residents.
35. All of the following were important technological innovations that first appeared in urban America between 1865 and 1890 except: (A) the electric light (B) public water systems (C) the skyscraper (D) the telephone (E) the trolley car.
36. An important difference between immigration to the United States before and after the Civil War was that most of the (A) immigrants before the Civil War came from southern and eastern Europe (B) immigrants before the Civil War came from Ireland (C) postwar immigrants were unattached adults (D) postwar immigrants came as families (E) postwar immigrants came to pursue political freedom.
37. The most important factor that channeled groups of immigrants into specific occupations in late nineteenth century America was (A) ethnic stereotypes held by bosses (B) port of entry into the United States (C) religion (D) the system of family and kin networks (E) prior skills learned in the Old World.
38. Which of the following statements best describes ethnic neighborhoods in American cities during the late 1800s?(A) They were strictly segregated by nationality. (B) They were strictly segregated by religion. (C) Their rates of residential mobility were high. (D) Their rates of residential mobility were low. (E) They were located far from the urban core.
39. All of the following were important social institutions which facilitated the assimilation of Catholics immigrants into American life during the late 1800s and early 1900s except: (A) the church (B) the public school (C) the family (D) the political party (E) settlement houses.
40. The cartoon shown above depicts (A) Protestant attacks on Catholic immigrants (B) a Temperance party call for prohibition of alcohol (C) Irish and German immigrant attacks on native citizens (D) a nativist attack on Irish and German political power (E) a Jacksonian Democratic attack on the Whig party’s immigrant voters.
41. Which of the following statements best describes residency patterns in American cities during the late 1800s? (A) The very poor lived close the inner core, the upper classes lived in the suburbs, and the middle classes lived in between. (B) The upper classes lived close to the inner core, the poor lived in the suburbs, and the middle classes lived in between. (C) The middle classes lived close to the inner core, the upper classes lived in the suburbs, and the poor lived in between. (D) The upper classes lived close to the inner core, the middle classes lives in the suburbs, and the poor lived in between. (E) Each of the classes lived in all sections of the cities.
42. “In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.” The philosophy of race relations expressed in this quotation was strongly opposed by (A) W.E.B. DuBois (B) Theodore Roosevelt (C) Booker T. Washington (D) Woodrow Wilson (E) Abraham Lincoln.
43. The Chinese immigrant experience differed from that of the Europeans in the late 1800s in that (A) most were unattached males (B) most were unskilled (C) many eventually returned to their homeland (D) they were victims of discrimination (E) they were excluded from the United States before 1890.
44. Urban political machines provided immigrants with all of the following services during the late nineteenth century except: (A) better housing (B) employment (C) legal assistance (D) psychological comfort (E) emergency assistance.
45. A fundamental difference between the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor was that the Knights (A) focused exclusively on issues of higher wages and better working conditions (B) restricted their membership to skilled workers in each trade (C) demanded the abolition of all private property (D) welcomed all skilled and unskilled workers, blacks, and women (E) welcomed all skilled and unskilled workers, but not women and blacks.
46. An important consequence of the Haymarket Square Bombing of 1886 was that (A) public opinion shifted in favor of union activities (B) the American Federation of Labor lost support (C) Congress restricted the power of labor unions (D) the Knights of Labor gained support (E) skilled workers abandoned the Knights of Labor for the American Federation of Labor.
47. Blacks migrated to northern cities in large numbers between 1890 and 1914 for all of the following reasons except: (A) economic problems in southern sharecropping (B) better educational opportunities in the North (C) increased violence and racism in the South (D) the lure of more freedom and opportunities in the North (E) the chance to work as strikebreakers in northern industry.
48. All of the following were characteristics of the “new” immigrants who are represented by the white bars on the graph shown above except: (A) most settled in cities (B) most came to escape political or religious oppression (C) most were from southern and eastern Europe (D) most were Catholic or Jewish (E) most came with few marketable skills.
49. The most importance difference between the experiences of blacks and white immigrants in northern American cities during the early 1900s was that (A) blacks had come to the cities for different reasons than the immigrants (B) blacks were not permitted to vote (C) job opportunities for blacks did not improve with each new generation (D) blacks were more likely to have come from rural backgrounds (E) blacks tended to come to cities with fewer skills than the immigrants.
50. During the late nineteenth century the opportunities for women (A) improved in higher education but declined in the labor force (B) declined in higher education but improved in the labor force (C) remained unchanged in higher education but improved in the labor force (D) improved in both higher education and the labor force (E) declined in both higher education and the labor force.
51. Thomas Nast achieved fame and influence as a (A) radio commentator (B) newspaper publisher (C) photographer (D) film producer (E) political cartoonist.
52. Organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan were organized in a number of Southern states after the Civil War for the purpose of (A) extorting large amounts of money from former slaves (B) promising the return of former slaves to Africa (C) preventing the former slaves from voting (D) commemorating those who had died in the war (E) preparing for another armed uprising against the federal government.
53. Immigrants coming to America from Eastern and Southern Europe during the late 19th century were most likely to (A) settle in large cities in the Northeast or Midwest (B) settle on farms in the upper Midwest (C) seek to file on homesteads on the Great Plains (D) migrate to the South and Southwest (E) return to their homelands after only a brief stay in the U.S.
54. The Haymarket Incident involved (A) a riot between striking workers and police (B) a scandal involving corruption within the Grant administration (C) allegations of corruption on the part of Republican presidential candidate James G. Blaine (D) a disastrous fire that pointed up the hazardous working conditions in some factories (E) an early challenge to the authority of states to regulate the railroad industry.
55. The “New Immigration” was made up primarily of (A) Europeans who came for economic rather than religious reasons (B) Europeans who were better off financially than those of the “Old Immigration” (C) persons from Northern and western Europe (D) persons from Southern and Eastern Europe (E) persons from Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
56. Which of the following was a goal of the Populist movement? (A) free coinage of silver (B) reform of child labor laws (C) using modern science to solve social problems (D) eliminating the electoral college as a method of choosing the nation’s president (E) national legislation outlawing racial discrimination.
57. The settlement-house movement drew its workers primarily from which of the following groups? (A) young, affluent, college-educated women (B) poor eastern European immigrants (C) disabled veterans of the Spanish-American War (D) idealistic young men who came to the city largely from rural areas (E) often illiterate members of the urban working class.
58. The “Yellow” journalism of the late 19th century might best be described as (A) focusing on the influx of Chinese immigrants to the West Coast and calling for restrictions on such immigration (B) attempting to alarm the public about the supposed “Yellow Peril” of Japan’s growing naval and industrial might (C) focusing exclusively on corruption and abuses in government and big business (D) reporting the news in an exaggerated, distorted, and sensationalized manner (E) dominated by the funding of large corporations so as to take a stance consistently favorable to big business.
59. Which of the following was among the objectives of Booker T. Washington? (A) to keep up a constant agitation of questions of racial equality (B) to encourage blacks to be more militant in demanding their rights (C) to encourage blacks to work hard, acquire property, and prove they were worthy of their rights (D) to urge blacks not to accept separate but equal facilities (E) forming an organization to advance the rights of blacks.
60. The term “Seward’s Folly” referred to Secretary of State William Seward’s (A) advocacy of a lenient policy toward the defeated Southern states (B) break with the majority radical faction of the Republican party in order to back President Andrew Johnson (C) belief that the Civil War could be avoided and the Union restored by provoking a war with Britain and France (D) negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia (E) ill-fated attempt to gain the presidency in 1860.
61. The Morrill Land Grant Act provided (A) one hundred sixty acres of free land within the public domain to any head of household who would settle on it and improve it over a period of five years (B) large amounts of federal government land to states that would establish agricultural and mechanical colleges (C) forty acres of land to former slaves (D) that the land of former Confederates should not be confiscated (E) large reservations for the Indians of the Great Plains.
62. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 (A) required the federal government to purchase silver (B) forbade the federal government to purchase silver (C) made it illegal for private citizens to purchase silver (D) made it illegal for private citizens to purchase federal lands with anything but silver (E) allowed the federal government to buy silver at the discretion of the president.
63. All of the following statements are true of Henry George except: (A) He argued that increasing prosperity was causing increasing poverty (B) He believed government should take a laissez-faire philosophy (C) He asserted that economic inequality was the result of private ownership of land (D) He favored a single tax on the “unearned increment” of land (E) He desired large-scale public works.
64. Edward Bellamy’s book Looking Backward was (A) a fictional expose of the meat packing industry (B) a detailed program for social reform (C) the catalyst of the social gospel movement (D) a denunciation of machine politics in big city government (E) a futuristic Utopian fantasy.
65. All of the following were characteristic of life on a pioneer farm on the Great Plains during the late 19th century


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