The French Revolution

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Name ________________________________

Date _____________________ Pd ________

The French Revolution
I. Reasons for the French Revolution

A. France in the 1700s

1. In the 1700s, France was the __________________ capital of Europe, home to numerous ________________________________ thinkers, & had wealth from colonies

2. King Louis XIV was the most _____________________________________________ in Europe; After his death in 1715, Louis XV & _________________ continued to rule France as absolute monarchs

3. But, political & economic problems led to the ______________________________________________________________ in 1789

B. One problem was France’s _______________ social hierarchy that was made up of three classes (called _______________________)

1. First Estate—The ______________________ of the Roman Catholic Church made up the First Estate; Owned _________% of land in France but paid little in taxes to the gov’t

2. Second Estate—The Second Estate was made up of ________________________________; Owned _________% of French land but were ___________________________ from paying taxes

3. Third Estate—The Third Estate made up __________% of the population & included ___________________ peasants but also the well-educated ____________________________________ (bourgeoisie); This group paid __________% of their income in taxes

a. The members of the Third Estate ____________________________ the special treatment the First & Second Estates received

b. Members of the Third Estate gained inspiration from the ______________________ ideas of John Locke, Voltaire, & Rousseau

c. After the success of the ______________________________________________________, the Third Estate began demanding ________________________, equality, & liberty in France

C. Social tensions were made worse by a growing _____________________________________ in the 1770s & 1780s

1. The French government faced massive __________ due to decades of lavish spending, expensive wars, & poor economic planning

2. By 1789, half the budget went towards _______________________ on the national debt; _______% of people were unemployed

3. The excessive ___________________ by King Louis XVI & his wife ________________________________ angered French citizens

4. By 1789, France was _________________________________________ & faced a serious financial crisis

D. The Estates-General (1789)

1. Louis XVI called an emergency meeting of the ______________________ where members from all 3 classes could advise the king

a. During the Estates-General, the First & Second Estates voted to ___________________________________ on the Third Estate

b. The First & Second Estates decided to vote by _____________ (1 vote per estate) rather than by ______________ (by person)

2. These decisions angered the members of the Third Estate who believed their ____________ were being ____________________

E. The National Assembly (1789)

1. The Third Estate formed a new ___________________________________________________ to make laws for the French people

2. In 1789, the National Assembly swore to a _________________________________________________________ promising a new constitution & limitations on the king’s __________________

3. The National Assembly wrote their revolutionary ideals in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen which said:

a. “Men are born __________________ and __________________ in rights”

b. Rights include “__________________, property, security, & resistance to oppression”

c. It guaranteed freedom of __________________, &freedom of __________________, & equal justice

II. The French Revolution

A. Meanwhile, the ______________________ crisis continued

1. Citizens were without food & faced _______________________

2. Angry _____________________________ in Paris demanded new reforms

B. Storming of Bastille (1789)

1. When rumors circulated that the king was going to send his _________ to Paris, citizens attacked the prison _________________ to seize weapons to defend themselves

2. The storming of the Bastille in 1789 represented the ______________________ of the ___________________________________

C. In 1791, Louis XVI finally agreed to a new constitution that limited his power & created a ____________________________________

1. But, Louis XVI _________________ to ______________________________ the National Assembly & France’ problems continued

2. Fearing the spread of France’s revolutionary ideas, __________________ & __________________ assembled armies to restore France’s absolute monarchy

D. The National Convention (1792)

1. In 1792, __________________________ took control of France & made important decisions:

a. _____________ was declared against Austria & Prussia and 300,000 French soldiers were _________________________ into a national army in order to defend France

b. The French monarchy was __________________ & democratic _______________ was created called the National Convention

2. In 1793, King Louis XVI was arrested, convicted of _______________________, & _______________________ by guillotine

E. The Reign of Terror (1793-1794)

1. The radical leaders of the National Convention feared that “____________________ of the revolution” would try to overthrow the new republic

2. In 1793, radical ____________________________________________________ slowly gained control of the National Convention

3. From 1793 to 1794, Robespierre __________________ 40,000 “_________________” during an era known as the Reign of Terror

4. The _______________________________________________ ended when French citizens turned on Robespierre & executed him

F. The revolution came to an end in 1795, but France was in ________________

1. The ________________________________________ had not been solved & people faced starvation

2. _________________, Holland, __________________ joined Austria & Prussia in the ___________ against France

3. The National Convention was replaced by France’s ____________ gov’t in __________ years called the Directory

4. The ____________________________ proved to be ineffective & corrupt

G. Napoleon Bonaparte (1799-1815)

1. In 1799, a French military general named _____________________________________ led a coup d'état & seized power in France

2. As emperor of France, Napoleon introduced needed ______________________, defeated foreign armies, & conquered a massive French ____________________________

French Society under Louis XVI
You are a member of that Estate that is preparing to attend a meeting of the Estates General in 1789. Due to the urgent financial crisis facing France, the king has decided to assemble the Estates General, a group that serves as representatives for the people of France. When last used 175 years ago to advise the king, the Estates General met as three separate Estates, or orders, with one vote each. The First Estate is the clergy, the Second Estate is the nobility, and Third Estate represents the rest of France (peasants, workers, and other commoners). Now, in the 1780s, some people question whether the Estates General should be changed to have all the Estates meet together and allow each representative one vote.

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