The French Revolution



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Fitzgerald/Edwards
Unit - Establishing Our Place in the World

Timeline Topic - The French Revolution – pp. 295 “The French Revolution” – First and Second Paragraphs

French Revolution

http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution/videos/the-french-revolution?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false

Robespierre and Reign of Terror

http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution/videos/robespierre-and-the-reign-of-terror?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false



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pp. 295

“The French Revolution”



France citizens rebelled against their monarchy

  • Started the French Revolution in 1789

  • Follow America's lead

  • Most Americans supported at first

But soon supporting the revolution becomes less clear

  • Revolution became very violent

    • Reign of Terror in 1793

    • Revolutionaries execute 17,000 people

    • Including king and queen

  • Federalists say - blood thirsty monsters

  • Democratic Republicans - to be expected because oppressed people trying to win freedom

Also kill -



  • all nobility

  • all those who worked for the monarchy or nobility

  • all who spoke against the violence

Unit - Establishing Our Place in the World

Timeline Topic - War between Great Britain and France – Neutrality, Seizing of Ships, Impressment - pp. 295-96 “The French Revolution” Third through 6th Paragraphs


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pp. 295-96 “The French Revolution”


By early 1793 France and Great Britain were at war

  • Washington declares neutrality

  • Neutral - not favoring either side

United states trades with both sides

Britain also impresses sailors on U.S. Ships

  • Impressment -seizing sailors and forcing the to join British navy

    • Some sailors are British - had fled British navy

    • Many are American

Hamilton urges Washington to stay friends with Britain for trade

  • 75% of American exports sold in Britain

  • 90% of imports come from Great Britain

British did focus on those of British heritage


Unit - Establishing Our Place in the World

Timeline Topic - The Jay Treaty with Britain concerning respect for American Sovereignty – p. 296 “The French Revolution” – 7th Paragraph through end


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p. 296 “The French Revolution”

Washington tries to repair relations with Britain

  • Sends John Jay

  • Try to resolve most serious problems

Jay Treaty - 1795

  • U.S. agreed to

    • Pay debts owed to British merchants

  • Britain agreed to - 3 things

    • Pay for ships seized

    • Withdraw troops from Northwest Territories

    • Stop aiding Native Americans fighting settlement in Northwest Territories

  • Britain refused to - 2 things

    • Recognize right of U.S. to trade with France

    • Stop impressment of U.S. sailors

Reactions to treaty in U.S.

  • Republicans claim Jay Treaty gave away too much, got little

  • Federalists glad for peace

  • Federalists control Senate - approve treaty




Unit - Establishing Our Place in the World

Timeline Topic - The Pinckney Treaty with Spain concerning New Orleans – p. 314 “The Nation Looks West”


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p. 314 “The Nation Looks West”


Western settlement speeds up with Revolution

  • By 1800 - 1 million settlers

  • West of Appalachians

  • East of Mississippi

Settlers are mostly farmers who rely on Mississippi

  • Few roads, so use river to ship crops

  • At New Orleans change ships to continue in ocean to eastern markets in U.S.

Got Pinckney Treaty with Spain, who controlled New Orleans

  • 1795

  • had threatened to close New Orleans several times

  • guaranteed right to use river and port of new Orleans to transfer to ocean ships



Unit - Establishing Our Place in the World

Timeline Topic - The XYZ Affair – p.298 “Troubles with France," “The XYZ Affair"


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p.298 “Troubles with France””

Adams faces a crisis with France

  • France angered about nuetrality

  • Had expected U.S. support

    • They had helped us in our war

    • Thought we would return the support

Jay Treaty increased tension

  • Treaty put U.S. on Britain's side

  • Refuse to meet with U.S. diplomats

  • Continue to attack U.S. ships




p.298

“The XYZ Affair



Adams sent a new mission to France

  • 1787

  • French demanded a bribe of $250,000

  • Demand a loan of several million

Americans refuse to pay

  • Say "not a sixpence"

  • Becomes slogan "Millions for defense, not one six pence for tribute!"

Bribe Attempt a sensation in U.S.

  • Known as XYZ Affair

  • As nameless French agents who demanded bribe just called X, Y, and Z




Tribute - yearly money paid by nations in Roman Empire to Rome, for privilege of ruling themselves while protected by of Roman Empire


See political cartoon, p. 299



A British political cartoon depicting the affair: The United States is represented by the woman, who is being plundered by five Frenchmen. The figures grouped off to the right are other European countries; John Bull, representing Great Britain, sits laughing on a hill.

Unit - Establishing Our Place in the World

Timeline Topic - France – War or Negotiation? – p. 299 “War Fever”


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p. 299

“War Fever”




XYZ Affair causes war fever

  • Federalists demand war

  • Urge Adams to ask Congress for war

Adams instead uses support to increases size of army and navy

  • Increases power of national government

  • Makes navy a separate department

  • Fights undeclared naval war with France 1798-1800

Adams opposed full-scale war

  • Continues to negotiate

  • France now led by Napoleon

  • Busy with war with much of Europe

  • Agrees to stop seizing ships in 1800

Agreement angers pro-British Federalists

  • Especially Hamilton

  • Adams weakened politically

Adams proud of avoiding war

  • Tells friends he wants it on his tombstone

  • "Here lies John Adams, who took upon himself the responsibility of peace with France in the year 1800."






Unit - Establishing Our Place in the World

Timeline Topic - Jefferson’s Embargo – pp. 324-25 “Jefferson Responds with an Embargo”


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pp. 324-25 “Jefferson Responds with an Embargo”


Congresses passes Embargo Act of 1807

  • Jefferson tries a peaceful method to get France and Britain to respect U.S. neutrality

  • Embargo - a government order that forbids foreign trade

  • U.S. ships were forbidden to sail to any foreign port

  • Thinks this will force both countries to stop attacking U.S. ships

Instead hurts U.S.

  • Exports fell from $109 million to $25 million

  • Prices of U.S. crops fell

  • Hurts farmers and plantation owners

  • 10,000 of Americans lose jobs

Many outraged

  • Especially in New England - most merchants involved in foreign trade

  • Many smuggle - illegally ship anyway

Congress repeals Embargo Act 1809

  • Reopened trade with nations other than Britain and France

  • Would reopen that trade when respected rights as neutral nation

  • War between Britain and France is continuing and worsened by 1805, Jefferson's second term

  • if too many crops at home, more supply than demand

Job Loss

  • if farmers hurt, no longer buy goods or services, causes other to lose jobs

  • all in shipping or ship-building industry lose jobs



A political cartoon showing merchants dodging the "Ograbme", which is "Embargo" spelled backwards.
New England press also played with letters to form

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