More fundamental and profound consequences than the American Revolution! Meant to be ________________!
French Revolution was a ________________,__________________revolution that upended the social order and transformed world history.
Worldwide impact; still felt today! It was exported all over the world!
Becomes model for future revolutions worldwide! Even communists will find inspiration in the French Revolution!
Phases of French Revolution
The National Assembly (1789-1791) Moderate Change (1st Phase)
June 29, 1789: _______________________________________________. Nat. Ass. resolves not to disband until it has written a __________________________.
July 14, 1789: __________________ stormed and taken by a Paris mob. July 19-Aug. 3, 1789: Great _________. Peasants attack noble manors. Aug. 4, 1789: Nobles in National Assembly renounce feudal rights; ________________________ Club formed.
Aug. 27, 1789: Assembly issues Declaration of the __________ _______of ___________. Oct. 5-6, 1789: King Louis brought from Versailles to Tuileries palace in Paris.
July 12, 1790: Assembly issues Civil Constitution of the _________________, requiring elections and oaths. June 20-21, 1791: King flees to Austria, is caught at Varennes.
Aug. 27, 1791: Austria and Prussia call for support of French King ("Declaration of Pillnitz")
Sept. 1791: National Assembly issues Constitution; elections are held.
Apr. 20, 1792: France declares war on Austria and Prussia.
Aug. 10, 1792: Paris mob storms royal palace; Commune siezes Assembly; Legislative Assembly falls. Minister of Justice Danton purges thousands of presumed traitors.
Sept. 20, 1792: French army stops Prussians and Austrians at Valmy (Belgium).
National Convention (1792-95) Radicalization (3rd Phase)
Sept. 21, 1792: Convention abolishes monarchy and declares France a ___________________.
Oct. 1792: Revolutionary calendar introduced; Sept. 22, 1792=day 1.
Jan. 21, 1793: ____________________ condemns and executes the King.
Feb. 1793: Convention declares war on 1st Coalition of Austria, Prussia, Britain, Holland and Spain.
Feb. 1793: _________________-revolutionary revolt in the________________________ begins.
March 1793: "____________________ of _________________" by Committee of ___________Safety (Robespierre) begins.
Aug. 23, 1793: Levy-in-Mass (military _____________) instituted.
Fall 1793: price controls, ________________________________, administrative reform .
Apr. 4, 1794: Danton executed.
June 26, 1794: French victory over Austrians at Fleurus (Belgium).
July 28, 1794: "______________________________ Reaction:" Robespierre executed, end of terror.
Feb. 21, 1795: Churches reopened.
Aug. 22, 1795: New _____________________________ is adopted, forming the ____________________.
The Directory (1795-99) Collective Oligarchy (4th Phase)
Oct. 5, 1795: Napoleon's "Whiff of Grapeshot" save the Directory from a royalist mob.
Sept. 4, 1797: ___________ d'état removes royalists from Directory.
Nov. 9, 1799: Napoleon's coup d'état abolishes Directory and establishes Consulate.
The Old Regime (Ancien Regime)
Old Regime– socio-political system which existed in most of Europe during the 18th century
Countries were ruled by absolutism – the monarch had absolute control over the government
The king (Louis XVI) lavished money on himself and residences like ______________________
Queen Marie ____________________________ was seen as a wasteful spender
Government found its funds depleted as a result of ____________
Seven Years War
Including the funding of the _______________________ Revolution
____________________________ spending – government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenues.
Privileged classes would not submit to being taxed; wealthiest escaped tax while the poor paid a disproportionate share of the tax burden.
The people of France were ______________, the economy was faltering and the people were being asked for more money in taxes. Recipe for ______________________!
Philosophy of the French Revolution: The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) powered the revolution!
Scientists during the Renaissance had discovered laws that govern the natural world
Intellectuals – philosophes – began to ask if natural laws might also apply to human beings
Particularly to human institutions such as governments
Philosophes were secular in thinking – they used reason and logic, rather than faith, religion, and superstition, to answer important questions
Used reason and logicto determine how governments are formed
Tried to figure out what logical, rational principles work to tie people to their governments—social contract! They sought a more perfect association of individuals in society!
Questioned the divine right of kings and popularized the sovereignty of the people in any legitimate social contract.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an important influence on the French Revolution and the creation of an enlightened, just society governed by the general will. The general will is easily discerned and is never wrong.
Long-term cause(s): The person is often late to work and is generally unproductive on the job.
Short-term cause(s): The person fails to show up for work and does not call the employer
Key: One typically does not happen without the other. Events which bring important change (or action) need both long-term and short-term causes.
Preparing for the Estates-General
Winter of 1788-1789
Members of the _______________ elected representatives
Traditional lists of ____________________________ written by the people
Nothing out of the ordinary
Asked for only _______________________ changes
Meeting of the Estates-General:
May 5, 1789
Voting was conducted by estate
Each estate had _____ vote
______________ and ______________________ Estates could operate as a bloc to stop the Third Estate from having its way
◊ First Estate + ◊ Second Estate - vs. - ◊ Third Estate
Representatives from the Third Estate demanded that voting be by population (__________________________________)
This would give the Third Estate a great advantage
Deadlock resulted as the Third Estate demanded a real voice. The Third Estate took over the event.
Third Estate announced it was the ________________________ Assembly for all of France (national legislature)
Louis XVI locked the delegates of the Third Estate out of the hall. They met in an indoor tennis court the next day and issued the ___________________________, a promise not to leave until a ____________________________ was created and agreed upon.
The Tennis Court Oath was the beginning of the end of _______________________ in France and led to the formation of a __________________________ monarchy in the short term.
The Tennis Court Oath
“The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly;
“Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”
Four Phases (Periods) of the French Revolution: List them below:
National Assembly (1789-1791)
Louis XVI did not actually want a written _________________________
When news of his plan to use military force against the National Assembly reached Paris on July 14, 1789, people stormed the ___________________________, an act which symbolized the beginning of the ___________________ Revolution and the complete overthrow of the old order (the _______________ regime)
Storming the Bastille
Reasons for the attack on the Bastille:
Capture ________________________ and _______________________
Free _______________________ prisoners
The stubbornness of the governor of the fortress led to drawn out battle
Celebrations on the night of July _____th: The people of Paris tore down the prison by hand
Sparks tremendous popular revolution all over France
Marks the official beginning of the French Revolution! It is a people’s revolution!
“The Great Fear”
Independent revolutionary agitation in the countryside
General revolt all over France against ___________________________________, fees and __________________________—nobles flee!
Rumors of Royalist troops becoming wandering vandals
Fear breeds fear and peasants start marching
The Great _________ spread throughout France in the summer of _________
Within_____ weeks of July 14, the countryside of France had been completely changed
Abolition of the Nobility—August 4, 1789 the National Assembly voted to abolish ________________ rights and aristocratic ____________________!
“Revolutionaries in the Streets”
_____________ poor, ____________________ and desperate, part of the _________________ of France.
“________________________________” (without knee britches)—became the uniform of the urban radical!
Picked up the ideas and slogans of the Revolution from the more educated leadership of lawyers and journalists and acted it out!
Enforced revolutionary radicalism in the streets!
What were the Motivations of these Revolutionaries?
________________________ and __________________—spike in ______________ prices and long term ____________________
Low __________________ and fear of ______________________________
Heightened _________________________________and the exposure to a _______________________perspective
___________________________ thought permeated the lower classes; expectations were raised!
Strong ______________ for and distrust of the ________________, the ________________ and the ____________________. Looking for major change!
Wanted to punish the elites who were oppressing the people and create a new social order to uplift the masses.
Goodbye, Versailles! Adieu, Versailles!
Paris _____________________ (revolutionary city government of Paris) feared that Louis XVI would have foreign troops invade France to put down the rebellion
Louis XVI’s wife, ____________________________________, was the sister of the Austrian emperor
A group of women attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789
Forced royal family to relocate to Paris along with National Assembly to show support for the revolution
Royal family spent next several years in the _________________ Palace as virtual prisoners
Hatred of the king had not yet reached a fever pitch
Beginning in 1791, King Louis XVI would be a _______________________ monarch.
Absolutism in France was over and Monarchy was on the way out as well; events are out of the control of Louis XVI.
Rouget de Lisle wrote the “________________________________”
Became the ____________________________________________________.
Inspired troops as they were led into battle
After two years
Coalition was defeated
France had gained, rather than lost, territory
France was most powerful land power in Europe!
The French Revolution was being exported all over Europe!
Reign of Terror:
September 5, 1793-July 27, 1794
Despite military successes, the ____________________ continued to face problems __________________________________
___________________ and his ____________________ political party came to dominate French politics
Committee of ____________ Safety
Headed by Danton (and later _______________________________)
Those _______________________ of _______________________ were tried by the Committee’s Revolutionary ______________________ and summary __________________________ were carried out
Robespierre was trying to create a “________________ of ______________”
Approximately __________________ people died on the __________________
Guillotine became known as the “_______________________________”
Including innovative thinkers like Olympe de Gouges and Madame Jeanne Roland
Total weight of a guillotine is about _________________ lbs
The guillotine metal blade weighs about __________ lbs
The height of guillotine posts average about________ feet
The falling blade has a rate of speed of about _________ feet/second
Just the actual beheading takes _____________ of a second
The time for the guillotine blade to fall down to where it stops takes ___________ of a second
Considered a __________________ method of _______________________!
DeChristianization of France under the Committee of Public Safety
The Committee of Public Safety attempted to create a new order based on _____________ and therefore sought to reduce or eliminate influence from the ______________, in the quest to form an ___________________________, ___________________ society.
The word “_________________” was removed from street names
___________________________ were _______________ and closed by revolutionary forces
The ____________________________________ Cathedral was renamed the “___________________ of _______________________” for the worship of reason
New calendar was adopted that ignored the year of Christ’s birth and started with the year of the revolution as the year one. There were 12 months with 3 10 day weeks. The names of the months invoked the seasons to accurate reflect the weather.
Any ____________________ influence in public life was _______________________.
Members of the Girondist political party tried to end the Reign of Terror initiated by the Jacobin political party
This opposition to the Committee of Public Safety caused many Girondists to be tried and executed for treason
Eventually, even Georges Danton wanted to end the executions
This resulted in _______________ being tried and ________________ for ____________________________
Maximilien _____________________________became leader of the Committee of ________________________________________
He continued the ______________________ at a frenetic pace; wants to wipe out enemies of the revolution!
Convention came to blame Robespierre for the Reign of Terror
July 27, 1794 – ended the Reign of Terror
Convention sent Robespierre and other members of the Committee of Public Safety to the guillotine
Robespierre was guillotined on July 28, 1794
Constitution of the Year III of the Republic (1795)
With the foreign invaders vanquished and the Reign of Terror at an end, the Convention was finally able to inaugurate its new constitution
Constitution of the Year III of the Republic (1795) created the ________________________, an ____________________ of _____ men to collectively govern France, with a ___________________ (2 house) legislature to pass laws.
The Directory increasingly relied on the ___________________ to stay in power! This opened the door for ___________________ Bonaparte to gain power.