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Mr. Oberholtzer Name_________________________

World History & Cultures Date______________Pd._________

Unit: The Age of Revolutions Topic: The French Revolution

The French Revolution Power Point Notes Worksheet

More fundamental and profound consequences than the American Revolution! Meant to be ________________!

French Revolution was a ________________, __________________revolution that upended the social order and transformed world history.

Worldwide impact; still felt today! It was exported all over the world!

Becomes model for future revolutions worldwide! Even communists will find inspiration in the French Revolution!

Phases of French Revolution

The National Assembly (1789-1791) Moderate Change (1st Phase)

June 29, 1789: _______________________________________________. Nat. Ass. resolves not to disband until it has written a __________________________.
July 14, 1789: __________________ stormed and taken by a Paris mob.
July 19-Aug. 3, 1789: Great _________. Peasants attack noble manors.
Aug. 4, 1789: Nobles in National Assembly renounce feudal rights; ________________________ Club formed.
Aug. 27, 1789: Assembly issues Declaration of the __________ _______of ___________.
Oct. 5-6, 1789: King Louis brought from Versailles to Tuileries palace in Paris.
July 12, 1790: Assembly issues Civil Constitution of the _________________, requiring elections and oaths.
June 20-21, 1791: King flees to Austria, is caught at Varennes.
Aug. 27, 1791: Austria and Prussia call for support of French King ("Declaration of Pillnitz")
Sept. 1791: National Assembly issues Constitution; elections are held.

Legislative Assembly (1791-1792) Constitutional Monarchy (2nd Phase)

Apr. 20, 1792: France declares war on Austria and Prussia.

Aug. 10, 1792: Paris mob storms royal palace; Commune siezes Assembly; Legislative Assembly falls. Minister of Justice Danton purges thousands of presumed traitors.
Sept. 20, 1792: French army stops Prussians and Austrians at Valmy (Belgium).

National Convention (1792-95) Radicalization (3rd Phase)

Sept. 21, 1792: Convention abolishes monarchy and declares France a ___________________.

Oct. 1792: Revolutionary calendar introduced; Sept. 22, 1792=day 1.
Jan. 21, 1793: ____________________ condemns and executes the King.
Feb. 1793: Convention declares war on 1st Coalition of Austria, Prussia, Britain, Holland and Spain.
Feb. 1793: _________________-revolutionary revolt in the________________________ begins.
March 1793: "____________________ of _________________" by Committee of ___________Safety (Robespierre) begins.
Aug. 23, 1793: Levy-in-Mass (military _____________) instituted.
Fall 1793: price controls, ________________________________, administrative reform .
Apr. 4, 1794: Danton executed.
June 26, 1794: French victory over Austrians at Fleurus (Belgium).
July 28, 1794: "______________________________ Reaction:" Robespierre executed, end of terror.
Feb. 21, 1795: Churches reopened.
Aug. 22, 1795: New _____________________________ is adopted, forming the ____________________.

The Directory (1795-99) Collective Oligarchy (4th Phase)

Oct. 5, 1795: Napoleon's "Whiff of Grapeshot" save the Directory from a royalist mob.

Sept. 4, 1797: ___________ d'état removes royalists from Directory.
Nov. 9, 1799: Napoleon's coup d'état abolishes Directory and establishes Consulate.

The Old Regime (Ancien Regime)

  • Old Regime – socio-political system which existed in most of Europe during the 18th century

  • Countries were ruled by absolutism – the monarch had absolute control over the government

  • Classes of people – privileged and unprivileged

    • Unprivileged people – paid taxes and treated badly

    • Privileged people – did not pay taxes and treated well

Society under the Old Regime

  • In France, people were divided into three estates, representing the traditional social order of France:

    • First Estate

      • High-ranking members of the ________________

      • Privileged class; paid no taxes; biggest landowner

      • Collected ____________, fees, ____________

    • Second Estate

      • _______________________

      • Privileged class; paid almost no taxes; owned most land; relics of ____________________!

    • Third Estate

      • Everyone else – from ____________________ in the countryside to wealthy ________________________ merchants in the cities

      • Unprivileged class; paid most of the taxes, did most of the work, had few rights and no privileges

      • Third Estate made up the vast majority of the population (75-_______%)

The Three Estates

Government under the Old Regime:

The __________________ Right of ___________

Monarch ruled by divine right

God put the world in motion

God put some people in positions of power & Power is given by God

No one can question God, hence Nobody can question someone put in power by God—rationale for absolutism

Questioning the monarchy was blasphemy because it meant questioning God!

Economic Conditions under the
Old Regime

  • Rapid ___________________________ growth strained the food supply and social systems of 18th century France.

  • France’s economy was based primarily on __________________________

  • Peasant farmers of France bore the burden of taxation

  • Poor ________________________ in 1787 & 1788 meant that peasants had trouble paying their regular taxes & not enough food was produced.

    • Certainly could not afford to have their taxes raised

  • Bourgeoisie often managed to gather wealth

    • But were upset that they paid taxes while nobles did not

    • Bourgeoisie agitate for reform!

France Is Bankrupt

  • The king (Louis XVI) lavished money on himself and residences like ______________________

  • Queen Marie ____________________________ was seen as a wasteful spender

  • Government found its funds depleted as a result of ____________

Seven Years War

    • Including the funding of the _______________________ Revolution

  • ____________________________ spending – government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenues.

  • Privileged classes would not submit to being taxed; wealthiest escaped tax while the poor paid a disproportionate share of the tax burden.

  • The people of France were ______________, the economy was faltering and the people were being asked for more money in taxes. Recipe for ______________________!

Philosophy of the French Revolution: The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) powered the revolution!

  • Scientists during the Renaissance had discovered laws that govern the natural world

  • Intellectuals – philosophes – began to ask if natural laws might also apply to human beings

    • Particularly to human institutions such as governments

    • Philosophes were secular in thinking – they used reason and logic, rather than faith, religion, and superstition, to answer important questions

    • Used reason and logic to determine how governments are formed

      • Tried to figure out what logical, rational principles work to tie people to their governments—social contract! They sought a more perfect association of individuals in society!

    • Questioned the divine right of kings and popularized the sovereignty of the people in any legitimate social contract.

    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an important influence on the French Revolution and the creation of an enlightened, just society governed by the general will. The general will is easily discerned and is never wrong.

Long- and Short-term Causes

  • Long-term causes

    • Also known as _______________________ causes

    • Causes which can stem back many years

  • Short-term causes

  • Example: A person is fired from his or her job.

    • Long-term cause(s): The person is often late to work and is generally unproductive on the job.

    • Short-term cause(s): The person fails to show up for work and does not call the employer

  • Key: One typically does not happen without the other. Events which bring important change (or action) need both long-term and short-term causes.

Preparing for the Estates-General

Winter of 1788-1789

Members of the _______________ elected representatives


Traditional lists of ____________________________ written by the people

Nothing out of the ordinary

Asked for only _______________________ changes

Requested ________________

Meeting of the Estates-General:
May 5, 1789

  • Voting was conducted by estate

    • Each estate had _____ vote

    • ______________ and ______________________ Estates could operate as a bloc to stop the Third Estate from having its way

First Estate + ◊ Second Estate - vs. - ◊ Third Estate

  • Representatives from the Third Estate demanded that voting be by population (__________________________________)

    • This would give the Third Estate a great advantage

  • Deadlock resulted as the Third Estate demanded a real voice. The Third Estate took over the event.

  • Third Estate announced it was the ________________________ Assembly for all of France (national legislature)

  • Louis XVI locked the delegates of the Third Estate out of the hall. They met in an indoor tennis court the next day and issued the ___________________________, a promise not to leave until a ____________________________ was created and agreed upon.

  • The Tennis Court Oath was the beginning of the end of _______________________ in France and led to the formation of a __________________________ monarchy in the short term.

The Tennis Court Oath

“The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly;

“Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”

Four Phases (Periods) of the French Revolution: List them below:

National Assembly (1789-1791)

  • Louis XVI did not actually want a written _________________________

  • When news of his plan to use military force against the National Assembly reached Paris on July 14, 1789, people stormed the ___________________________, an act which symbolized the beginning of the ___________________ Revolution and the complete overthrow of the old order (the _______________ regime)

Storming the Bastille

Reasons for the attack on the Bastille:

Capture ________________________ and _______________________

Free _______________________ prisoners

The stubbornness of the governor of the fortress led to drawn out battle

Celebrations on the night of July _____th: The people of Paris tore down the prison by hand

Sparks tremendous popular revolution all over France

Marks the official beginning of the French Revolution! It is a people’s revolution!

The Great Fear”

Independent revolutionary agitation in the countryside

General revolt all over France against ___________________________________, fees and __________________________—nobles flee!

Rumors of Royalist troops becoming wandering vandals

Fear breeds fear and peasants start marching

The Great _________ spread throughout France in the summer of _________

Within_____ weeks of July 14, the countryside of France had been completely changed

Abolition of the Nobility—August 4, 1789 the National Assembly voted to abolish ________________ rights and aristocratic ____________________!

Revolutionaries in the Streets”

_____________ poor, ____________________ and desperate, part of the _________________ of France.

“________________________________” (without knee britches)—became the uniform of the urban radical!

Picked up the ideas and slogans of the Revolution from the more educated leadership of lawyers and journalists and acted it out!

Enforced revolutionary radicalism in the streets!

What were the Motivations of these Revolutionaries?

________________________ and __________________—spike in ______________ prices and long term ____________________

Low __________________ and fear of ______________________________

Heightened _________________________________and the exposure to a _______________________perspective

-- “____________________”—grievances

___________________________ thought permeated the lower classes; expectations were raised!

Strong ______________ for and distrust of the ________________, the ________________ and the ____________________. Looking for major change!

Wanted to punish the elites who were oppressing the people and create a new social order to uplift the masses.

Goodbye, Versailles! Adieu, Versailles!

  • Paris _____________________ (revolutionary city government of Paris) feared that Louis XVI would have foreign troops invade France to put down the rebellion

    • Louis XVI’s wife, ____________________________________, was the sister of the Austrian emperor

  • A group of women attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789

    • Forced royal family to relocate to Paris along with National Assembly to show support for the revolution

    • Royal family spent next several years in the _________________ Palace as virtual prisoners

    • Hatred of the king had not yet reached a fever pitch

    • Beginning in 1791, King Louis XVI would be a _______________________ monarch.

    • Absolutism in France was over and Monarchy was on the way out as well; events are out of the control of Louis XVI.

The National Assembly

The new National Assembly created the The______________________ of the ______________ of ____________, which stated the principle that all men had ___________ rights under the law.

This document has remained the basis for all subsequent declarations of human rights. (Compare TheUniversal Declaration of Human Rights).

Declaration of the Rights of Man

"Men are born free and equal in their rights....These rights are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression.

The fundamental source of all sovereignty resides in the nation.

The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to take part personally, or through representatives, in the making of the law."

Declaration of the Rights of Man reflects Enlightenment principles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Has inspired revolutionaries to the present!

End of Special Privileges

  • Church lands were seized, divided, and sold to peasants

  • _____________ Constitution of the _____________ required that Church officials be __________________ by the people, with salaries paid by the government

-___________ of Church officials fled the country rather than swear allegiance to this

  • All feudal _________ and __________________ were eradicated

  • All special _______________________ of the First and Second Estates were _____________________

The Oath of Allegiance

_______________________ were required to swear an oath to the new constitution.  

Many refused to swear the oath and were placed under_________________.

The measure was very controversial to a nation of Catholics and drew support away from the new government.

Reforms in Local Government

The _______ provinces and their “petty tyrants” (Intendants) were replaced with _______ new _________________________________.

Ruled by elected governors

New courts, with judges elected by the people, were established

People addressed each other as “_____________________” and a new __________________________________ emerged in French society.

Constitution of 1791

  • Democratic features

    • France became a limited, _________________________ monarchy

      • _____________ became merely the __________ of ___________

    • All laws were created by the ______________________ Assembly

    • __________________ was abolished and civil __________________ protected

  • Undemocratic features

    • Voting was limited to taxpayers

    • Offices were reserved for property owners

  • This new government became known as the __________________________ Assembly

Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)

  • Royal family sought help from _____________________

    • In June, 1791, they were caught trying to escape to Austria

  • _____________ who fled the revolution lived abroad as ___________________

    • They hoped that, with foreign help, the Old Regime could be restored in France

  • Church officials wanted Church lands, rights, and privileges restored

    • Some devout Catholic peasants also supported the Church

  • Political parties, representing different interests, emerged

    • __________________—middle class, rural, moderate

    • __________________---middle class/poor, urban, radical

The Flight to Varennes

Although the King reluctantly accepted the new constitution, he could not accept all the reforms (e.g., the Civil Constitution of the Clergy) and decided to leave the country.

On June 20, 1791, the King and his family set out for the border in a carriage.

The King was disguised as a steward and his son was wearing a dress.

At the border village of ______________________, he was recognized and eventually apprehended. He was traveling with some of his valuables, which instantly identified him.

Royal family was brought back to Paris under guard; the king was seen as a _____________________-revolutionary figure. This marked Louis XVI as doomed!

Opposition to the New Government

  • ___________________ monarchs feared that revolution would spread to their own countries—French ______________________________ were trying to ______________ their revolution!

    • France was invaded by _________________ and ______________ troops

  • In the uproar, the Paris ___________________ took control

    • Commune was led by Georges ________________, a member of the ________________ political party

  • Voters began electing representatives for a new _________________________ which would write a _________________________ constitution for France

    • A ______________________ is a government in which the people _________ representatives who will create laws and rule on their ______________.

    • Meanwhile, thousands of nobles were executed under the suspicion that they were conspirators in the foreign invasion

Convention (1792-1795)

  • On September 22, 1792, the ______________________________ met for the first time

  • Established the First French ____________________

  • The ____________________ was___________________ and Louis XVI _____________

  • Faced domestic opposition and strife

    • Girondists were ___________________ who represented the rich middle class of the provinces

    • Jacobins (led by Marat, Danton, and Robespierre) represented workers

  • Faced opposition from abroad

    • Austria, England, Holland, Prussia, Sardinia, and Spain formed a Coalition, invading France to stop the revolution!

Abolishment of the Monarchy

  • The Convention abolished the monarchy

    • As long as the royal family lived, the monarchy could be restored, which was a threat to the revolution! Why do you think this was so? Explain:

    • Put the royal couple on trial for ____________________

      • Convictions were a foregone conclusion

    • _______________________ was ______________________ on January 21, 1793

    • _______________________ was guillotined on October 16, 1793

    • Daughter Marie-Thérèse was allowed to go to Vienna in 1795

      • She could not become queen because of ___________ law, which did not allow ______________________ to succeed to the throne

    • Son Louis-Charles, a.k.a. Louis XVII (lived 1785-1795) was beaten and mistreated until he died in prison, a helpless victim of the revolution.

Growing Coalition against the French

  • Coalition: Austria, Prussia,Spain,Netherlands,Sardinia

  • Convention ____________________ Frenchmen into the army to defeat the foreign Coalition—___________________________ national army!

    • These troops were led by General Carnot

    • The people supported military operations because they did not want the country back under the Old Regime

  • Rouget de Lisle wrote the “________________________________

    • Became the ____________________________________________________.

    • Inspired troops as they were led into battle

  • After two years

    • Coalition was defeated

    • France had gained, rather than lost, territory

    • France was most powerful land power in Europe!

    • The French Revolution was being exported all over Europe!

Reign of Terror:
September 5, 1793-July 27, 1794

  • Despite military successes, the ____________________ continued to face problems __________________________________

  • ___________________ and his ____________________ political party came to dominate French politics

  • Committee of ____________ Safety

    • Headed by Danton (and later _______________________________)

    • Those _______________________ of _______________________ were tried by the Committee’s Revolutionary ______________________ and summary __________________________ were carried out

    • Robespierre was trying to create a “________________ of ______________”

    • Approximately __________________ people died on the __________________

      • Guillotine became known as the “_______________________________

      • Including innovative thinkers like Olympe de Gouges and Madame Jeanne Roland

Guillotine Facts

Total weight of a guillotine is about _________________ lbs

The guillotine metal blade weighs about __________ lbs

The height of guillotine posts average about________ feet

The falling blade has a rate of speed of about _________ feet/second

Just the actual beheading takes _____________ of a second

The time for the guillotine blade to fall down to where it stops takes ___________ of a second

Considered a __________________ method of _______________________!

DeChristianization of France under the Committee of Public Safety

The Committee of Public Safety attempted to create a new order based on _____________ and therefore sought to reduce or eliminate influence from the ______________, in the quest to form an ___________________________, ___________________ society.

Dechristianization efforts:

The word “_________________” was removed from street names

___________________________ were _______________ and closed by revolutionary forces

The ____________________________________ Cathedral was renamed the “___________________ of _______________________” for the worship of reason

New calendar was adopted that ignored the year of Christ’s birth and started with the year of the revolution as the year one. There were 12 months with 3 10 day weeks. The names of the months invoked the seasons to accurate reflect the weather.

Any ____________________ influence in public life was _______________________.

End of the Reign of Terror

  • Members of the Girondist political party tried to end the Reign of Terror initiated by the Jacobin political party

    • This opposition to the Committee of Public Safety caused many Girondists to be tried and executed for treason

  • Eventually, even Georges Danton wanted to end the executions

    • This resulted in _______________ being tried and ________________ for ____________________________

  • Maximilien _____________________________ became leader of the Committee of ________________________________________

    • He continued the ______________________ at a frenetic pace; wants to wipe out enemies of the revolution!

    • Convention came to blame Robespierre for the Reign of Terror

  • Thermidorean Reaction

    • July 27, 1794 – ended the Reign of Terror

    • Convention sent Robespierre and other members of the Committee of Public Safety to the guillotine

      • Robespierre was guillotined on July 28, 1794

Constitution of the Year III of the Republic (1795)

With the foreign invaders vanquished and the Reign of Terror at an end, the Convention was finally able to inaugurate its new constitution

Constitution of the Year III of the Republic (1795) created the ________________________, an ____________________ of _____ men to collectively govern France, with a ___________________ (2 house) legislature to pass laws.

The Directory increasingly relied on the ___________________ to stay in power! This opened the door for ___________________ Bonaparte to gain power.

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