The france of napoleon III

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  1. Louis Napoleon: Toward the Second Empire

  1. Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of France in December, 1848

  2. many of his contemporaries dismissed the new President, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, as a nonentity whose success was due only to his name

  3. Louis Napoleon turned out to be a clever politician who was astute at understanding popular forces of his day

  4. for three years he persevered in winning support of the French people while using governmental favors to gain the loyalty of the army and the Catholic church

  5. he faced considerable opposition from the National Assembly, which had a conservative-monarchists majority after the May elections of 1849

  6. when the assembly voted to deprive 3 million men of the right to vote, Louis Napoleon achieved even more popular favor by posing as the savior of universal male suffrage

  7. on December 1, 1851, troops loyal to the president seized the major administrative buildings and arrested opposition leaders when the assembly refused to let him stand for re-election

  8. after restoring universal manhood suffrage, Louis Napoleon asked the citizens of France to elect him president for a ten year term (7.5 million to 650,000 was the vote in favor)

  9. late the next year, he asked for the people to restore the empire (97% of the voters voted in favor of bringing back the monarchy with Louis Napoleon as their king)

  1. The Second Napoleonic Empire

  1. Louis Napoleon was crowned Napoleon III on December 2, 1852

  2. Napoleon III kept the image of the republic, while ruling absolutely

  1. the Legislative Corps gave an appearance of representative government since its members were elected to six-year terms (couldn’t introduce legislation or affect the budget)

  2. as chief of state, Napoleon III:

  1. led the armed forces

  2. controlled the police

  3. controlled the civil service

  4. had his government ministers answer only to him

  5. was the only person who could introduce legislation

  6. was the only person who could declare war

  1. the first five years of Napoleon III’s reign were a spectacular success as he reaped the benefits of worldwide economic prosperity as well as some of his own economic policies

  2. in economic matters, Napoleon III believed strongly in using government resources to stimulate the national economy and promote industrial growth

  3. he promoted the expansion of credit by backing the formation of new investment banks which provided long-term loans for industrial, commercial, and agricultural expansion

  4. government subsidies were used to foster the rapid construction of railroads as well as harbors, roads, and canals

  5. iron production tripled

  6. the king provided hospitals and free medicine for the workers

  7. among Napoleon III’s great domestic projects was a vast reconstruction of Paris with broad boulevards, public squares, and new municipal utilities

  8. although free speech was not permitted, through public opinion polling done by his underlings, Napoleon III began liberalizing his regime to stem growing unrest with some of his policies

  1. legalized trade unions

  2. allowed workers the right to strike

  3. allowed opposition candidates for the first time under his regime the freedom to campaign

  4. gave the Legislative Corps more say in affairs of state including the right to debate on budgetary issues

  1. Foreign Policy: The Crimean War

  1. as heir to the Napoleonic Empire, Napoleon III was motivated by the desire to free France from the restrictions of peace settlements of 1814-1815 and make France the chief arbiter of Europe

  2. the Crimean War erupted between Russia and the steadily declining Ottoman Empire in 1853 when the Russians demanded the right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine and the Ottomans refused (this privilege had already been extended to the French)

  3. concern over the prospect of an upset in the balance of power in Europe led France and Great Britain to side with the Ottomans against the Russians

  4. the Crimean War was poorly planned and poorly fought

  1. Britain and France attacked the Russians on the Crimean Peninsula in the Black Sea

  2. after a long and bloody siege, the main Russian fortress of Sevastopol fell in September 1855, six months after the death of Czar Nicholas I

  3. shortly after Sevastopol, the new Russian Czar, Alexander II, sued for peace

  4. altogether, 250,000 soldiers died in the war (60% due to disease)

  5. Treaty of Paris (1856) officially ended the war with the provisions that Russia was forced to give up Bessarabia and accept the neutrality of the Black Sea (in addition, Moldavia and Walachia were placed under the protection of the Great Powers)

  1. the Crimean war broke up long-standing European power relationships and effectively destroyed the Concert of Europe

  2. only Napoleon III seemed to have gained in prestige from the Crimean War


  1. The Unification of Italy

  1. the breakdown of the Concert of Europe opened the way for the Italians and the Germans to establish national states

  2. the Italians were the first people to benefit from the breakdown of the Concert of Europe

  3. after the failure of Mazzini and the republicans in 1849, advocates of unification focused on the northern Italian state of Piedmont as their best bet to achieve their goal

  4. the royal house of Savoy ruled the kingdom of Piedmont, which also included the island of Sardinia

  5. Victor Emmanuel II (1849-1878) took over Piedmont and appointed the able Count Camillo di Cavour his prime minister

  6. Cavour was a moderate who favored a constitutional government

  7. after becoming prime minister, Cavour pursued a very successful policy of economic expansion for Piedmont which gave the government the revenues to pour into its military

  8. Cavour then set out to organize the Italian unification movement

  9. Austria was the dominant foreign power in Italy prior to unification

  10. Cavour realized that his army could not defeat the Austrians alone, and he turned to the French for assistance

  11. after cutting a deal with the French that would give the French Nice and Savoy and a kingdom in Central Italy for Napoleon III’s cousin in return for French support, Piedmont provoked an attack from Austria

  12. in the initial stages of fighting, it was the French who were largely responsible for defeating the Austrians in two major battles at Magenta and Solferino

  13. France, fearing Prussian involvement on the side of Austria, quickly negotiated a peace with the Austrians in July, 1859 leaving Cavour far short of his goals

  14. Piedmont gained only Lombardy as a result of this conflict

  15. soon after the war with Austria had begun, the northern Italian states of Parma, Modena, Tuscany, and part of the Papal states were taken over by nationalists who agreed to become part of Piedmont (France gave its blessing in return for Nice and Savoy)

  16. Cavour, who had no preconceived policy as to how Italian unification would be achieved, may have been satisfied for the time being if it wasn’t for the efforts of Italian patriot, Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts

  17. Garibaldi, who was considered little more than an annoyance to Cavour early on, was an able military leader well indoctrinated in guerrilla warfare

  18. Garibaldi and his outnumbered force was able to subdue the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and had began to march up the Italian mainland when Cavour convinced him to stand down to Piedmont’s own unification aspirations

  19. the newly unified Italian state acquired Venetia because of Italy’s alliance with a victorious Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866

  20. the final act of Italian unification occurred in 1870 when Rome became the capital city following the withdrawal of French troops following France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870

A.The Unification of Germany

  1. after the failure of the Frankfurt Assembly to achieve German unification in 1848-1849, German nationalists focused on Austria and Prussia as the only two states powerful enough to dominate German affairs

  2. Prussia had formed the Zollverein, a German customs union including all German states except Austria which eliminated tolls on rivers and roads among member states

  3. in 1848, Prussia had framed a constitution that at least had the appearance of a constitutional monarchy in that it established a bicameral legislature with the lower house elected by universal male suffrage

  4. Prussia was characterized by a complex voting system where male suffrage was determined by taxable wealth

  5. in 1861, Kaiser Frederich Wilhelm IV died and was succeeded by his brother Kaiser Wilhelm I (1861-1888)

  6. frustrated by liberals in parliament who rejected his military budget and reform package, the Kaiser appointed a new prime minister, Count Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) of the Junker nobility

  7. Otto von Bismarck

  1. conservative statesman that dominated German and European politics from 1862-1890

  2. practiced Realpolitik, politics of reality, in conducting domestic and foreign policy

  3. the emergence of a true parliamentary system in Prussia was blocked by the kaiser's overwhelming executive power (Bismarck called the shots and answered only to the kaiser)

  4. Bismarck under Wilhelm I's direction made extensive reforms and modernization to the Prussian army

  5. Bismarck largely bypassed the parliament in pursuing his political goals of Prussian military modernization

  6. as a statesman, Bismarck can best be appreciated as a consummate politician and opportunist capitalizing on unexpected events and manipulating affairs to his favor

  1. Austro-Prussian War of 1866

  1. Bismarck made agreements with Russia, France, and Italy to keep them from siding with the Austrians

  2. with Austria isolated, Bismarck used the joint occupation of Schleswig-Holstein to goad the Austrians into a war on June 14, 1866

  3. Austria and Europe expected a quick Austrian victory

  4. Reasons for Prussian Victory over the Austrians

  1. the Prussian breech-loading needle gun had a much faster rate of fire than the Austrian muzzle-loader

  2. Prussia had a superior network of railroads which allowed them to mass troops quickly

  3. superior military leadership as displayed at their victory at Koniggratz

  1. Bismarck refused to create a hostile enemy by burdening Austria with a harsh peace

  1. Austria lost no territory except for Venetia to the Prussian ally, Italy

  2. Austria was simply excluded from German internal affairs

  1. with his victory over Austria and his creation of the Northern German Confederation, Bismarck had proved Napoleon III's dictum that nationalism and authoritarian government could be combined

  2. the new constitution of the Northern German Confederation called for:

  1. the Prussian king to be the head of the confederation

  2. chancellor (prime minister) was responsible directly to the king

  3. army and foreign policy were the responsibilities of the king and his chancellor

  4. divided the German parliament into the Bundesrat, members nominated by the states, and the Reichstag, elected by universal manhood suffrage, both being responsible to the Prussian king (Bismarck actively encouraged the formation of a Reichstag of the German parliament, elected by universal male suffrage, because he believed that German peasants and artisans, who made up most of the male population, would support him by regularly voting conservatively)

  5. local government would remain in the hands of the individual states

  1. Franco-Prussian War

  1. the immediate origins of the war concerned Bismarck’s devious editing of a telegram from Kaiser Wilhelm I after the French had demanded an apology and assurance from the Prussians that Leopold, a distant relative of Wilhelm would never take the Spanish throne

  2. the French had barely started its military overhaul when they went to war with Prussia

  3. they proved no match for the better led and organized Prussian forces with the decisive battle taking place on September 2, 1870 at Sedan where an entire French army including Napoleon III were captured

  4. Paris fell after bitter resistance on January 28, 1871

  5. as a consequence of its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, France had to pay an indemnity of $5 billion Francs and had to give the eastern frontier provinces of Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia

  6. much to Prussia’s chagrin, France paid off the indemnity in three years

  7. the loss of the Alsace and Lorraine provinces set the French into revenge mode

  1. Even before the war had ended, the south German states had agreed to enter the North German Confederation

  2. On January 18, 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, Wilhelm I was proclaimed the emperor of the Second German Empire

  3. Prussian leadership of German unification meant that the triumph of authoritarian and dangerous militaristic values over liberal and constitutional values in the development of a new German state

  4. in the opinion of senior British politicians, the proclamation of a newly unified German state ruled by an emperor in 1871 entirely destroyed the previous European balance of power


  1. The Austrian Empire: Toward a Dual Monarchy

  1. after the Hapsburgs, with Russian help, had crushed the revolutions of 1848-1849, they restored centralized, autocratic government to the empire (serfs were freed from compulsory service in Austria in 1848)

  2. in 1851, the revolutionary constitutions were abolished, and a system of centralized autocracy was imposed on the empire

  3. after Austria’s defeat in the Italian war in 1859, the Emperor Francis Joseph (1848-1916) attempted to establish an imperial parliament with a nominated upper house and an elected lower house (complicated system ensured a German-speaking majority which alienated the various ethnic groups within the empire in particular the Hungarians)

  4. another military setback forced the Austrians to deal with the Hungarians once again by setting up the Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary

  5. the two states were linked only by having the same monarch, a common army, foreign policy, and system of finances

  6. the creation of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary allowed the Magyars and German-speaking Austrians to dominate their ethnic minorities

  1. Imperial Russia

  1. the Russian imperial autocracy, based on soldiers, secret police, repression, and censorship, had withstood the revolutionary fervor of 1848 and even served as the “arsenal of autocracy” in crushing revolutions elsewhere in Europe

  2. Czar Alexander II (1855-1881) turned his energies to reforming his beloved Russia

  3. serfdom was the most burdensome problem in czarist Russia

  4. recognizing that it was better to abolish it from above the wait for it to be abolished from below, Czar Alexander II issued an emancipation edict on March 3, 1861 which abolished serfdom in Russia

  1. peasants could now own property

  2. peasants could marry as they chose

  3. peasants could bring suits in the law courts

  4. the government purchased land from the landowners to give to the peasants but the peasants were expected to repay the state in long-term installments for this land

  1. in 1864, the czar instituted a system of zemstvos, or local assemblies, that provided a moderate degree of self-government (the property-based voting system gave the nobles a distinct advantage)

  2. in 1864, the czar also created a regular system of local courts and provincial courts and a judicial code that accepted the principle of equality before the law (pretty successful)

  3. Alexander’s reform efforts unleashed forces in Russia beyond his control

  1. reformers demanded even more rapid change

  2. conservatives opposed what they perceived as the czar’s attempts to undermine basic institutions of Russian society

  3. some radical groups resorted to violent means in an effort to overthrow the czarist system in Russia (People’s Will succeeded in assassinating Alexander II on March 13, 1881)

  1. Alexander III (1881-1894), son of the slain czar, turned against reform and returned to the traditional methods of repression

  1. Great Britain: The Victorian Age

  1. the Reform Act of 1832 had opened the door to political representation for the middle class, and in the 1860s Britain’s liberal parliamentary system demonstrated once more its ability to make both social and political reforms that enabled the country to remain stable and prosperous

  2. the British sense of national pride was well reflected in Queen Victoria (1837-1901), whose self-contentment and sense of moral responsibility mirrored the attitudes of her age (age known for its pious complacency)

  3. Henry John Temple (Lord Palmerston), British prime minister from 1855 to 1865, chauvinistically defended British interests all over the world

  4. Conservative Party (Tories)

  1. led by Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)

  2. under Disraeli’s leadership, passed the Reform Act of 1867 which gave the right to vote to a large number of urban workers (the number of voters increased from 1 million to slightly over 2 million)

  3. new enfranchised industrial workers helped produce a huge victory for the opposition party, the Liberals

  1. Liberal Party

a. led by William Gladstone (1809-1898)

b. passed a series of reforms including:

  1. opening civil service positions to competitive exams rather than patronage

  2. dropping religious requirements for degrees at Oxford and Cambridge

  3. introducing secret ballot voting

  4. abolishing the practice of purchasing military commissions

  5. passing the Education Act of 1870 which attempted to give all children access to an elementary education

  1. The United States: Civil War and Reunion

  1. slavery in the US prior to the Civil War became a major issue of debate with the push of American settlers past the Mississippi River

  2. the American Civil War was a clear precursor of “total war” in the 20th Century because slavery was not only essential to the prosperity of white southerners, but also permeated all aspects of southern society and had to be completely destroyed

  1. The Emergence of a Canadian Nation

  1. in 1867, the British Parliament finally gave in to Canadian demands by creating the Dominion of Canada which made Canada a self-governing country with its own constitution

  2. foreign affairs still remained under the control of the British government


  1. Industrialization on the Continent

  1. the transformation of textile production from hand looms to power looms had largely been completed in Britain by the 1850s for cotton and 1860s for wool

  2. on the continent, the period from 1850 to 1870 witnessed increased mechanization of the cotton and textile industries, although continental countries still remained behind Britain

  3. between 1850 and 1870, continental iron industries made the transition from charcoal iron smelting to coke-blast smelting

  4. although policies varied from country to country, continental governments took a more or less active role in passing laws and initiating actions that were favorable to the expansion of commerce and industry

  5. the continental governments played a crucial role in European industrialization between 1850 and 1870 by eliminating barriers to international trade

  6. governments also played a role in first allowing and then encouraging the formation of joint-stock investment banks

  7. during this ongoing process of industrialization between 1850 and 1870, capitalist factory owners remained largely free to hire labor on their own terms based on market forces

  1. Marx and Marxism

  1. the beginnings of Marxism can be found in 1848 with the publication of a short treatise entitled The Communist Manifesto, written by two Germans, Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)

  2. The Communist Manifesto based all historical development on class struggle

  3. Karl Marx

  1. born into a relatively prosperous middle-class family in western Germany

  2. he descended from a long line of Jewish rabbis although his father, a lawyer, became a Protestant to keep his job

  3. received a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Berlin

  4. after not getting hired by a university because he was a self-avowed atheist, Marx took a job as a journalist and eventually became the editor of the liberal bourgeois newspaper in Cologne in 1842

  5. after his paper was suppressed for being too radical, he moved to Paris where he met his soon-to-be financial patron and lifelong friend, Friedrich Engels

  6. Marx embraced the German philosopher Hegel’s idea of the dialectic, meaning all change in history is the result of clashes between directly antagonistic elements

  7. Marx was also influenced by British classical economics and the political and social theories growing out of the French Revolution

  8. Marx believed that political power and class antagonisms will disappear with the victory of the proletariat

  9. Marx believed the final product of the struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat would be a classless society

  10. forced to live in political exile from 1849 on in England

  11. finished one volume of his famous Das Kapital before his death (remaining volumes were edited by Engels)

  1. Friedrich Engels

  1. son of a wealthy German cotton manufacturer

  2. worked in one of his father’s factories in Manchester, England where he encountered first-hand knowledge of what he called “wage slavery” of the British working class

  3. wrote damning indictment of industrial life in England with his work, The Conditions of the Working Class in England (1844)

  1. the First International of 1864, formed by British and French trade unionists, served as a type of umbrella organization for all European labor interests (eventually failed but would be revived in 1889)


  1. A New Age of Science

  1. by the mid 19th Century, science was having greater and greater impact on European life

  2. the theoretical discoveries in science in the 19th Century led to all of the following:

  1. technological improvements that affected all Europeans

  2. great advances in mathematics and thermodynamics

  3. a belief in material reality as the only reality

  4. an undermining of spiritual beliefs

  1. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Organic Evolution

  1. the concept of evolution was not new when Darwin first postulated his theory in 1859

  2. in 1809, the Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Lamarck presented a theory of evolution that argued that various types of plants and animals exist because of their efforts to adjust to different environments (largely discredited by his peers)

  3. Geologists argued that the earth evolved over millions of years rather than the thousands of years postulated by theological analysis of the biblical account of creation

  4. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

  1. raised in an upper-middle-class English family

  2. studied theology at Cambridge while pursuing an intense side interest in geology and biology

  3. in 1831, accepted an appointment as a naturalist to study animals and plants on an official British Royal Navy scientific expedition aboard the H.M.S. Beagle

  4. as a result of his research done on this expedition, Darwin discarded the notion of a special creation and began to believe that animals evolved over time and in response to their environment

  5. his 1859 work, On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection, formulated his explanation for evolution in the principle of natural selection

  6. the basic idea of the book was that all plants and animals had evolved over a long period of time from earlier simpler forms of life, a principle known as organic evolution

  7. the ideas for his work were inspired by:

  1. his observations of plant and animal life in the South Pacific

  2. Thomas Malthus’ theory of population

  3. the theory of natural selection

  1. Darwin’s 1871 work, The Descent of Man was even more controversial than the widely challenged On the Origins of Species

  2. in Descent, he argued for the animal origins of human beings and emphasized their survival through a myriad of adaptations to their environment over time

  3. ideas were met with a firestorm of criticism, especially from the clergy

  1. A Revolution in Health Care

  1. the application of natural science to the field of medicine in the 19th Century led to revolutionary breakthroughs in health care

  2. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

  1. French scientist largely responsible for the discovery that microorganisms, or germs, were the agents causing disease

  2. through his experiments on fermentation, he proved that various microorganisms were responsible for the process of fermentation, thus launching the science of bacteriology

  3. developed a method called pasteurization which was the heating of a product to destroy the organisms causing disease

  4. developed a preventative vaccination for rabies in 1885

  1. Joseph Lister (1827-1912)

  1. popularized the germ theory of surgery

  2. discovered a new disinfectant (carbolic acid) to eliminate infections during surgery

  3. transformed surgery wards as patients no longer fell victim to what was called “hospital gangrene”

  1. the new scientific developments also had an important impact on the training of doctors for professional careers in health care

  1. in the course of the 19th Century, virtually every Western country founded new medical schools

  2. attempts to impose uniformed standards on them through certifying bodies met with considerable resistance

  3. the establishment of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1893 provided a new model for medical training that finally became standard practice in the 20th Century by:

  1. four-year graded curriculum

  2. clinical training for advanced students

  3. the use of laboratories for teaching purposes

  1. during most of the 19th Century, medical schools in Europe and the US were closed to female students

  1. Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) became one of the first women in the US to receive an MD degree in 1849 (eventually opened a clinic in NYC)

  2. by the 1890s, universities in Great Britain, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Russia, and Belgium were admitting women to medical training practice (Germany and Austria did not do so until after 1900)

  3. women were not given full membership in the American Medical Association until 1915

5. Science and the Study of Society

  1. the importance of science in the 19th Century perhaps made it inevitable that a scientific approach would be applied to the realm of human activity

  2. Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

  1. Frenchman, considered the founder of sociology, who created a system of “positive knowledge” based upon the hierarchy of all the sciences

  2. believed that the science of human society was the most important

  3. thought that the discovery of general laws of society would have to be based upon the collection and analysis of data on humans and their social environment

6. Realism in Literature and Art

  1. the belief that the world should be viewed realistically was closely related to the materialistic outlook of the mid 1800s

  2. this was evident in the “politics of reality” of both Bismarck and Cavour

  3. the word Realism was first used in 1850 to describe a new style of painting and soon spread to literature

  4. Realism was the dominant literary and artistic movement in the 1850s and 1860s

  5. the Realistic novel

  1. literary realists wanted to deal with ordinary characters from actual life rather than Romantic heroes in unusual settings

  2. realists also sought to avoid flowery and sentimental language by using careful observation and accurate description

  3. realists allowed their characters to speak for themselves

  4. Frenchman Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) was the leading realist writer of the 19th Century with his Madame Bovary (1857) being a straightforward description of barren and sordid provincial life in France

  5. William Thackeray (1811-1863), author of Vanity Fair (1848), was another was another leading realists of the time

  6. Charles Dickens (1812-1870) was perhaps the best known Victorian writer renowned for his vividly realistic descriptions of the urban poor and the brutalization of human life

  1. Realism in art

  1. in art, realism became dominant after 1850, although Romanticism was by no means dead

  2. characteristics of artistic Realism are:

  1. a desire depict the everyday life of ordinary people

  2. an attempt at photographic reality

  3. an interest in the natural environment

  1. the French were leaders in this movement

  2. Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)

  1. was the most famous of the Realist school

  2. his subjects were factory workers, peasants, and the wives of saloon keepers

  3. The Stonebreakers (1849) was one of his most famous works which depicted road workers engaged in the deadening work of breaking stones to build a road

  1. Jean-Francois Millet (1814-1875)

  1. artist who was preoccupied with scenes from rural life, especially peasants laboring in the fields

  2. work did contain a hint of Romantic sentimentality

  3. The Gleaners was a famous painting by him of three women engaged in the backbreaking work of gathering grain left after the harvest

  1. music: the twilight of Romanticism

  1. the mid-19th Century witnessed the development of a new group of musicians known as the New German School

  2. this school emphasized emotional content rather than abstract form and championed new methods of using music to express literary or pictorial ideas

  3. Franz Liszt (1811-1886)

  1. Hungarian born composer who was considered by many to be the greatest piano virtuoso of latter 19th Century

  2. Liszt’s compositions mainly consisted of piano pieces but he did produce sacred music as well

  3. he invented the term symphonic poem to refer his orchestral works, which did not strictly obey traditional forms and were generally based on literary or pictorial ideas

  4. father-in-law of Richard Wagner

  1. Richard Wagner (1813-1883)

  1. built on the advances made by Liszt at the New German School

  2. realized the German desire for a truly national opera

  3. looked to myth and tales from the past for inspiration

  4. was not only a composer, but also a propagandist and writer in support of his unique conception of dramatic music

  5. his music later became associated with Hitler’s National Socialist Party due to Hitler’s affinity for the composer’s music

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