The following information was provided by AP Coordinator, Carl Shulkin. THE TOP TEN FACTS YOU ABSOLUTELY POSITIVELY HAVE TO KNOW ABOUT THE CHESAPEAKE COLONIES, 1607 – 1754
1. Jamestown was founded by a joint-stock company for the purpose of making a profit.
2. Religion played a minor role in the founding of Virginia.
3. Maryland was founded by Lord Baltimore as a refuge for his fellow Roman Catholics.
4. Maryland’s Act of Toleration (1649) guaranteed toleration to all Christians.
5. The profitable cultivation of tobacco created a demand for a large and inexpensive labor force. Chesapeake
Chesapeake Bay planters initially used indentured servants imported from England.
6. Planters used the HEADRIGHT SYSTEM to attract more settlers to Virginia. Under this system, planters received 50 acres for each person (or head) they brought to the colony.
7. The scarcity of women and the high rate of mortality among the men strengthened the socioeconomic status of women in the Chesapeake colonies.
8. Virginia’s House of Burgesses was the first representative colony in British North America.
9. Bacon’s Rebellion exposed tensions between poor former indentured servants and the wealthy tidewater gentry.
10. Bacon’s Rebellion persuaded planters to replace troublesome indentured servants with slaves imported from Africa.
THE TOP TEN FACTS YOU ABSOLUTELY POSITIVELY HAVE TO KNOW ABOUT THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES, 1620 - 1754
1. The Mayflower Compact set an important precedent for self-government in the British colonies.
2. The Puritans did not settle in New England to make a profit. They were Calvinists who believed in a close relationship between church and state.
3. John Winthrop’s famous “City Upon a Hill” sermon expressed his belief that the Puritan colonists had a special pact with God to build a model Christian society.
4. The Puritans lived in compact villages clustered around a community meeting house where they met to discuss local issues.
5. The Puritans founded Harvard College in 1636 to train ministers.
6. Although the Puritans came to America for religious freedom, they did not tolerate dissent.
7. Both Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams challenged the authority of the Puritan magistrates. Puritan authorities
promptly banished both.
8. Roger Williams fled to Rhode Island where he founded a colony based upon freedom of religion.
9. The HALFWAY COVENENANT was designed to respond to the decline of religious zeal among second generation Puritans.
10. Relations between the Puritans and the Native American tribes quickly deteriorated. By 1675, disease and warfare reduced the Native American population of New England from 65,000 people to just 10,000.
THE TOP TEN COMPARISONS YOU ABSOLUTELY, POSITIVELY HAVE TO KNOW ABOUT COLONIAL VIRGINIA AND COLONIAL MASSACHUSETTS
1. Virginia was founded by a joint-stock company to make a profit. Massachusetts was founded by Pilgrims and Puritans seeking religious freedom.
2. Virginia developed an agricultural economy based upon tobacco as a cash crop. Massachusetts developed a diversified economy based upon shipbuilding, fishing, and participating in the triangular trade.
3. Virginia was settled by single men who experienced a high mortality rate. Massachusetts was settled by families who experienced a high birth rate and a lived to a high average age.
4. Virginia utilized a labor system based upon indentured servants from England and then slaves from Africa.
Massachusetts utilized a labor system based upon independent farmers, craftsmen, and merchants.
5. Virginians lived on widely dispersed plantations and small farms. Puritans lived in tightly knit communities centered around a meeting house.
6. Virginia was dominated by an elite group of tidewater gentry. Massachusetts was dominated by an elite group of Puritan ministers.
7. Sessions of the House of Burgesses gave Virginians experience with self-government. Town meetings gave Puritan settlers experience with self-government.
8. Harvard was founded in 1636. Although never formally affiliated with a church, Harvard primarily trained
young men for the ministry. Harvard was the first college in America. William and Mary was founded in 1693 as an Anglican institution. It was the first college founded in the South.
9. The first settlers in Virginia established cooperative relations with the Native Americans. However, relations soon deteriorated as disease and warfare decimated the Native American population. The first settlers in Massachusetts established cooperative relations with the Native Americans. However, relations soon deteriorated as disease and warfare soon decimated the Native American population.
10. Virginia was founded as England’s first royal colony. Massachusetts was forced to become a royal colony in 1691.
THE TOP TEN BIG PICTURE IDEAS, 1607 – 1789
APUSH multiple-choice questions often focus on secondary topics. In contrast, APUSH free-response questions usually focus on major themes and issues. Here is my list (Shulkin) of the Top Ten Big Picture Ideas from 1607 to 1789:
1. Spain used religion as an effective instrument of control. Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established missions where they imposed Christianity on the Native Americans. In contrast, New France settlements were predominantly male and much smaller than New Spain settlements. The French, unlike the English, established trading posts rather than farms on land claimed by Native Americans.
2. Bacon’s Rebellion (1676), the Pueblo Revolt (1680), and the Stono Rebellion (1739) all reflected tensions in colonial society. Bacon’s Rebellion reflected tensions between former indentured servants and the Tidewater gentry. The Pueblo Revolt reflected tensions between the Spanish and the Pueblo peoples. The Stono Rebellion reflected tensions between slaves and masters.
3. Paradoxically, the Puritans came to America for religious freedom, but then did not tolerate dissent.
4. John Winthrop’s City Upon a Hill Sermon and the 19th century concept of Manifest Destiny both assumed
that America had a divinely sanctioned mission to create a model society.
5. First Great Awakening ministers such as George Whitefield stressed a more egalitarian approach to religion. It was just a short step from the right of all people to actively participate in their religion to the right of all people to actively participate in their government.
6. The British policy of salutary neglect enabled colonial merchants to evade most mercantilist regulations. As a result, the colonists developed a spirit of economic independence that expressed itself when Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765.
7. The French and Indian War set in motion a series of changes that fundamentally altered the political, economic, and ideological relationship between Britain and the American colonies.
8. Few 17th and early 18th century white colonists questioned human bondage as morally unacceptable. Although the majority of white families in the South did not own slaves, they did aspire to become slave owners. Impoverished whites felt superior to black slaves thus providing key support for white supremacy and the slave system.
9. During the period from 1763 to 1776, British imperial policies intensified colonials’ resistance to British rule and their commitment to republican values.
10. The Constitution was a political victory for the commercial and propertied elite. The electoral college and the selection of senators by state legislatures insulated the presidency and the Senate from excess democracy.
THE TOP TEN SECONDARY TOPICS, 1492 – 1776
Here is my list (Shulkin) of the Top Ten Secondary Topics, 1492 – 1776.
1. Everybody knows that Columbus discovered the New World because he was searching for a new route to Asia. It is important to remember that the Portuguese, led by Henry the Navigator, were the first to conduct regular maritime expeditions in the South Atlantic.
2. Everybody knows that the Chesapeake colonies were valuable because they produced tobacco. It is important to remember that the New England colonies were valuable because they produced fish and lumber.
3. Everybody knows that a large labor force was needed to plant and harvest tobacco and rice. It is important to remember that indigo did not require a large labor force to grow and harvest.
4. Everybody knows that Bacon’s Rebellion exposed tensions between former indentured servants and Tidewater planters. It is to remember that Bacon’s Rebellion actually began as a dispute over how to deal with Native American tribes.
5. Everybody knows that Benjamin Franklin wrote Poor Richard's Almanack and an Autobiography. It is important to remember that Anne Bradstreet was the first published American female poet and that Phillis Wheatly was the first notable African American poet.
6. Everybody knows that the Puritans hoped to establish a model Christian society. It is important to remember
that the Puritans enforced a strict code of moral conduct. For example, they banned the theatre.
7. Everybody knows that mercantilism was an economic policy designed to help the Mother Country achieve a balance of trade. It is important to remember that the Navigation Acts were designed to implement Britain’s mercantile policies. (BTW, there were actually around 30 Navigation Acts).
8. Everybody knows the famous slogan “No taxation without representation.” It is important to remember, that this slogan was actually a protest against Parliament's system of virtual representation.
9. Everybody knows that the Stamp Act was designed to raise revenue. It is important to remember that the Coercive Acts were designed to limit the autonomy of Massachusetts.
10. Everybody knows that Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. It is important to remember that Jefferson was primarily influenced by John Locke's theory of natural rights and the right to rebellion.
THE TOP TEN EVENTS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY: 1607 – 1789
It is important to note that African American history is the single most important and predictable topic on the APUSH exam.
1. THE PROFITABLE CULTIVATION OF TOBACCO
The profitable cultivation of tobacco created a demand for a large and inexperienced labor force.
2. BACON’S REBELLION
Bacon’s Rebellion persuaded planters to replace troublesome indentured servants with slaves imported imported from Africa. Slavery spread rapidly in the late 17th century as Blacks replaced White indentured servants in the tobacco fields.
3. SOCIAL FACTORS AND THE GROWTH OF SLAVERY
Although the majority of white families in the South did not own slaves, they did aspire to become slave owners. Impoverished whites felt superior to black slaves thus providing support for the slave system.
4. THE STONO REBELLION, 1739
The rebellion highlighted the growing tensions in colonial society between slaves and their owners. The South Carolina legislature enacted strict laws prohibiting slaves from assembling in groups, earning money, and learning to read. This was part of a pattern in which slave owners exercised increasing legal power over their slaves.
5. QUAKERS AND SLAVERY
Slavery was legally established in all 13 colonies by the early 1700s. The Quakers were the first corporate body in Britain and North America to condemn slavery as both ethically and religiously wrong in all circumstances.
6. THE GREAT AWAKENING AND SLAVERY
The Great Awakening encouraged missionary work among African slaves.
7. PHILLIS WHEATLY (1753 – 1784)
The first notable African American poet. Wheatly was the first African American woman whose writing was published.
8. THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE AND SLAVERY
The Declaration of Independence did not call for the abolition of the slave trade.
9. THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE OF 1787
Banned slavery from the Northwest Territory thus becoming the first national law to prohibit the expansion of slavery.
10. THE THREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISE
Resolved the dispute between the slave states and the free states. Each slave counted as three-fifths of a person for determining a state's level of taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
TOP TEN EVENTS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY, 1836 – 1863
This is the third in a series of Top Ten lists on African American history. Remember, African American history is an essential component in the coalition of points you will need to score a 5!
1. THE TEXAS ANNEXATION ISSUE, 1836
The Texas constitution allowed slavery. President Jackson admitted Texas into the Union. He feared that a prolonged debate over the admission of a slave state would ignite a divisive campaign issue that could cost the Democrats the presidential election. As a result, Jackson postponed annexation and Texas remained an independent "Lone Star Republic” until 1845.
2. THE WILMOT PROVISO, 1846
The Wilmot Proviso prohibited slavery in lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War. It was defeated in the
Senate where the South remained strong. The Wilmot Proviso did not support popular sovereignty.
3. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850
Uncle Tom’s Cabin provided a vivid description of the cruelty of the slave system. It became a best seller that
intensified antislavery sentiment in the North while arousing resentment in the South.
5. THE KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT, 1854
Permitted the Kansas and Nebraska territories to use popular sovereignty to determine whether or not slavery would be permitted within their boundaries. The act heightened tensions by repealing the Missouri Compromise and helping to spark the formation of the Republican Party.
6. THE REPUBLICAN PARTY POSITION ON SLAVERY
The Republican Party accepted slavery where it existed. However, the party opposed the extension of slavery into the new territories.
7. THE DRED SCOTT DECISION, 1858
The Court ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen and thus not entitled to sue in a federal court. The Supreme Court ruled that Scott did not become free by living in a free state or free territory. The Dred Scott decision struck down the Missouri Compromise as unconstitutional.
Contraband was the official term used to describe fugitive slaves who sought protection behind the Union lines.
9. BATTLE OF ANTIETAM, 1863
The Union victory at Antietam persuaded Great Britain and France to remain neutral. It enabled Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
10. THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION, 1863
Freed slaves living in states that had rebelled against the Union. It therefore did not free slaves in the Border States. The Emancipation Proclamation did strengthen the Union’s moral case.
TOP TEN EVENTS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY: 1865 – 1896
1. THE THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT, 1865
Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude.
2. BLACK CODES, 1866
Intended to place limits on the socieoeconomic opportunities and freedoms open to black people. The Black Codes forced African Americans to work under conditions that closely resembled slavery. The Black Codes underscored the difficulty of assimilating four million former former slaves into Southern society.
3. THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT, 1868
Made the former slaves citizens, thus overturning the Dred Scott decision. The amendment was intended to protect congressional legislation guaranteeing civil rights to former slaves. The Fourteenth Amendment prohibited states from depriving “any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction equalprotection of the laws.” It is important to remember that the Supreme Court later used the Equal Protection Clause to support its decision in Brown v. Board of Education.
4. THE FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT, 1870
Provided suffrage for black males. However, the amendment outraged many women’s rights activists who felt abandoned by the federal government. by the federal government.
Under this system, black (and sometimes white) families exchanged their labor for the use of land, tools, and seed. Sharecropping did not lead to economic independence. The system trapped sharecroppers in an endless cycle of debt
6. THE KU KLUX KLAN
The years following the Civil War witnessed the proliferation of white supremacist organizations. The KKK began in Tennessee in 1866 and then quickly spread across the South. The Klan used whippings, house-burnings, kidnappings, and lynchings to keep blacks “in their place.”
7. THE COMPROMISE OF 1877
The Democrats agreed to support Hayes. In return, Hayes and the Republicans agreed to withdraw all federal troops from the South. The Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction.
8. THE DISFRANCHISEMENT OF BLACK VOTERS
Redeemer state governments used poll taxes, literacy tests, and the grandfather clause to disfranchise black voters in the South.
9. BOOKER T. WASHINGTON’S ATLANTA COMPROMISE SPEECH, 1895
Washington called upon blacks to seek economic opportunity rather than political rights. Washington stressed the importance of avoiding political agitation while pursuing economic self-help.
10. PLESSY v. FERGUSON, 1896
The Supreme Court upheld segregated railroad facilities. The Court’s decision in Plessy v. Ferguson sanctioned a system of "separate but equal" public facilities that lasted until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
THE TOP TEN EVENTS IN WOMEN’S HISTORY: 1607 – 1848
1. SCARCITY OF WOMEN IN THE CHESAPEAKE COLONIES
The scarcity of women and the high rate of men’s mortality strengthened the socioeconomic status of women in the Chesapeake colonies.
2. ANNE HUTCHINSON
Banished from the Massachusetts Bay colony for advocating unorthodox religious views that challenged the authority of the Puritan magistrates.
3. WOMEN AND THE GREAT AWAKENING
The Great Awakening led to an increase in the numberof women in church congregations. Women comprised
a majority in many New England church congregations.
4. WOMEN IN COLONIAL AMERICA
A married woman had no legal identity apart from her husband. A woman generally lost control of her property when she married. Women could not vote, hold political office, serve on juries, or become ministers.
5. ABIGAIL ADAMS AND “REMEMBER THE LADIES”
In a letter to her husband, John Adams, Abigail Adams urged him to “remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors.” The quote shows that there were colonial women who sought to benefit from republican ideal of equality and individual rights by asking for a greater political voice.
6. REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD
The concept of Republican Motherhood began to emerge after the Revolutionary War. Its advocates stressed that the new American republic offered women the important role of raising their children to be virtuous and responsible citizens. Women would therefore play a key role in shaping America’s moral and political character.
7. THE CULT OF DOMESTICITY
Idealized women in their roles as wives and mothers. As a nurturing mother and faithful spouse the wife
created a home that was a “haven in a heartless world.”
8. WOMEN AND THE LOWELL EXPERIMENT
Francis Lowell built a model factory town at Lowell, Massachusetts 27 miles from Boston. He hired youngNew England women to work in his mill. The women lived together in boarding houses under the watchful eyes of older women who enforced mandatory church attendance and strict curfews. Factory owners later turned to more compliant Irish immigrants.
9. THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION, 1848
Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott to support women’s rights.
10. THE DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS, 1848
Written by primarily by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Declared that “all men and women are created equal.” Called for greater divorce and child custody rights, equal opportunities in education, the right to retain property after marriage, and the extension of suffrage to women. These demands formed the agenda of the women’s rights movement into the twentieth century.
THE TOP TEN EVENTS IN WOMEN’S HISTORY: 1848 – 1920
1. THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING
Middle class women played an especially important role in the Second Great Awakening. They boosed church membership and also spearheaded a number of reform movements.
2. DOROTHEA DIX
Launched a crusade to create special hospitals for the mentally ill. It is important to remember that Dorothea Dix was NOT actively involved with feminist issues.
3. HARRIET BEECHER STOWE
Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Stowe’s novel intensified Northern opposition to slavery.
4. THE FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT, 1870
Extended the suffrage to black males. Leading women’s rights activists felt outraged and abandoned. Julia Ward Howe and other leaders of the women’s suffrage movement finally accepted that this was “the Negro’s hour.” However,
both Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton actively opposed passage of the amendment.
5. IDA B. WELLS
Early African American civil rights activist. Best-known for her opposition to lynching.
6. HELEN HUNT JACKSON
Outspoken writer who championed reforms for Native Americans. Her book, A Century of Dishonor, played a key role in the passage of the Dawes Act.
7. JANE ADDAMS
Founder of Hull House and a leader in the settlement house movement.
8. MARY ELLEN LEASE
Militant Populist leader who advised farmers “to raise less corn and more hell.”
9. MULLER v. OREGON, 1908
The Supreme Court upheld an Oregon law barring women in factories and laundries from working more than ten hours a day.
10. NINETEENTH AMENDMENT, 1920
Extended the suffrage to women.
THE TOP TEN EVENTS IN WOMEN’S HISTORY: 1921 – 2000
Young women called flappers provided the Most visible and shocking model of the new American woman. Flappers favored short bobbed hair, smoked cigarettes, and wore the new one-piece bathing suits. It is important to remember that few women actually lived the flapper lifestyle.
2. WOMEN AND THE WORKPLACE BETWEEN THE WARS
Although new jobs became available in offices and stores the percentage of single women in the labor force actually declined. Women did not receive equal pay for equal work.
3. MARGARET SANGER
Margaret Sanger was an outspoken reformer who openly championed birth control for women.
4. ELEANOR ROOSEVELT
Eleanor Roosevelt was a strong supporter of women’s rights during the period of the New Deal.
5. ROSIE THE RIVETER
Nickname given to women who worked in America’s factories during World War II.
6. THE NEW CULT OF DOMESTICITY
By 1960 nearly three-fourths of all women between the ages of 20 and 24 were married. The soaring marriage and birth rates encouraged a return to traditional gender roles in which men were breadwinner and women were housewives.
7. RACHEL CARSON
Wrote Silent Spring to warn the public about the effects of pesticides on human and animal life. Silent Spring helped launch the environmental movement in the United States.
8. BETTY FRIEDAN
Betty Friedan was the first to express the sense of boredom and injustice felt by many women. Her book, The Feminist Mystique (1963) challenged the cult of domesticity that prevailed during the 1950s.
9. THE NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR WOMEN (NOW)
Formed by Betty Friedan and other activists in 1966 to work for equal rights and challenge sex discrimination in the workplace.
10. THE EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT (ERA)
The Equal Rights Amendment stated that, Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” Opponents led by Phyllis Schlafly mounted a successful campaign to block the ERA.
MAKING COMPARISONS: THE 1920s and 1980s
AP test writers have asked students to compare the 1920s and the 1950s. So why not the 1920s and the 1980s?
1. Led by Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover, the Republicans controlled the White House during the 1920s. Led by Reagan and Bush, the Republicans controlled the White House during the 1980s.
2. During the 1920s conservative Republicans sought to reverse the Progressive emphasis upon using government as an institution of change. In the 1980s, conservative Republicans were also suspicious of federal power. “Government is not
the solution to our problem,” Reagan declared. “Government is the problem.”
1. Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover reaffirmed the partnership between business and government. The business of America is business,” proclaimed Coolidge. Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon reduced taxes for the wealthy, raised tariffs on imports and ignored antitrust regulations. President Reagan also reaffirmed the partnership between business and government. Reagan and his advisors championed free-market capitalism liberated from government restrictions. Reagan promoted a supply-side economic theory (Reaganomics) that promoted growth by cutting taxes rates (especially
for the wealthy) and deregulating businesses and financial institutions.
2. The rapid growth of radio, telephones, electricity, automobiles, and consumer debt (buy now and pay later) fueled economic growth during the 1920s. The rapid growth of personal computers, videogame consoles,cable television, mobile phones and consumer debt (credit cards) fueled economic growth in the 1980s.
3. The 1920s witnessed a Big Bull Market led by
“technology” stocks (radio) and buying with borrowed money (margin). The 1980s witness a Big Bull Market led by technology stocks (personal computers) and the buying power of giant funds and futures markets.
1. On the surface, the 1920s were a period of prosperity, materialism, and frivolous fun. The Roaring Twenties
are remembered for flappers, speakeasies, Rudolph Valentino, Clara Bow, Charles Lindbergh, and Babe Ruth. On the surface the Disco 80’s were a period of prosperity, materialism, and frivolous fun. The 1980s are remembered for yuppies, MTV videos, Madonna, Michael Jackson, Run DMC, Magic Johnson and Larry Bird.
2. The 1920s were a time when African Americans, intellectuals, and unemployed workers felt alienated from American society. The 1980s were also a time when African Americans, intellectuals, and unemployed workers felt alienated from American society.
3. The 1920s witnessed a decline in immigration because of the quota systems imposed by the Immigration
Acts of 1921 and 1924. In contrast, the 1980s witnessed a rise in immigration because of the new regulations instituted by the Immigration Act of 1965. Immigration from Asia and Latin America steadily increased during the 1980s.
4. The 1920s witnessed a rise in nativism and intolerance as seen in the Red Scare, Scopes Trial, reemergence of
the KKK, and immigration quotas. The 1980s witnessed a resurgence of fundamentalist groups such as the Moral Majority. These groups denounced abortion, homosexuality, and feminism.
5. The 1920s witnessed a continued increase in the population of urban areas. The Great Migration of African Americans from the rural South to cities in the North continued at an accelerated rate. The 1980s witnessed a population movement from the North to the Sunbelt states. African Americans began to leave the North and West and return to
1. The 1920s witnessed a retreat from Wilsonian idealism and international responsibility. The US did not join the League of Nations. However, the US did initiate and fund the Dawes Plan to aid Germany. The 1980s witnessed a retreat from Carter’s policy of human rights. Tensions between the US and the USSR escalated during Reagan’s first term. President Reagan charged the Soviet Union with being “the focus of evil in the modern world.”
2. The US hosted the Washington Naval Conference as part of an effort to curb the naval arms race. During his second term, President Reagan and Soviet Premier Gorbachev held meetings to curb the nuclear arms race.
MAKING COMPARISONS: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE 1840 - 1860 WOMEN’S RIGHTS MOVEMENT
AND THE 1960 – 1980 WOMEN RIGHTS MOVEMENT
Comparing the similarities and differences between the women’s rights movements between 1840 – 1860 and 1960 – 1980.
1. The movement for African American civil rights was a key catalyst for women’s rights activists in both eras. For the mid-19th century women it was abolitionism. For the later twentieth century women it was the civil rights movement. In both cases the struggle for African American civil rights raised the consciousness of American women.
2. Middle-class women formed the core leaders for both movements. In both eras poor women laced the time or resources to participate.
3. Both movements achieved great success in achieving their goals.
1. Mid-nineteenth century women focused on voting and property rights. Late twentieth century women focused on equal job opportunities and equal pay for equal work.
2. Mid-nineteenth century women accepted the idea that men and women should have separate spheres. Mid-nineteenth century reformers did not challenge the cult of domesticity. Late twentieth century reformers rejected the idea of separate spheres for men and women.They believed that the concept of separate spheres prevented women from making progress.
3. Abortion was legal and widely used during the 1840s and early 1850s. However, it was banned in most states by 1860. Abortion was illegal during the 1960s. However, the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 made made abortion a legal practice.
THE TOP TEN PEOPLE WHO HAVE GENERATED THE MOST MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS: PART I – For the OLD AP Test.
1. GEORGE KENNAN – APUSH and SAT II test writers really (and I mean REALLY) expect you to know that George F. Kennan was a diplomat who wrote an influential 1947 article advocating a policy to contain the spread of communism.
2. MARCUS GARVEY – Believe it or not, Marcus Garvey has generated more multiple-choice questions than Dr. King. Garvey rose to prominence in the 1920s. He was the head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. He promoted Pan Africanism and black pride.
3. WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON – Garrison is a favorite essay topic for my SAT students because he displayed courage and conviction. He is a favorite topic for APUSH and SAT II test writers because he published The Liberator and demanded
the immediate and uncompensated emancipation of all slaves. Garrison also advocated women’s rights. This “extreme” view caused a split in the ranks of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
4. JACOB RIIS – Riis was a journalist, photographer,
and early muckraker. His book, How the Other Half Lives, publicized the squalid housing conditions in immigrant tenements in New York’s Lower East Side.
5. BETTY FRIEDAN – Friedan ranks as the single most tested woman on the APUSH exam and SAT II tests. Really, I am not kidding. Friedan is best known for writing The Feminist Mystique and founding the National Organization for Women (NOW). The Feminist Mystique challenged the existing role of women as housewives and mothers. The opening page
contains Friedan’s famous “Is this all?” question. NOW challenged sex discrimination in the workplace.
6. W.E.B. DUBOIS – Rahul was right! DuBois merits a spot in the Top Ten because of his impressive list of achievements. He opposed the accomodationist philosophy of Booker T. Washington and called for full political, economic, and social equality for African Americans. Du Bois urged a “talented tenth” of educated blacks to spearhead the fight for equal
rights. Du Bois and a small group of black activists founded the Niagara movement to oppose Jim Crow laws. When the Niagara movement failed to generate public support, Du Bois helped found the NAACP. The NAACP was committed to a strategy of using lawsuits in federal courts to fight segregation.
7. ANNE HUTCHINSON – Hutchinson challenged gender roles and orthodox Puritan beliefs. The authorities promptly banished her from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1637. They privately rejoiced when Indians massacred Hutchinson and most of her family. (Personally, I believe that Hutchinson does not merit so much attention on multiple-choice questions. But the APUSH Development Committee disagrees and keeps churning out questions about her).
8. UPTON SINCLAIR – Most APUSH students know that Upton Sinclair was a muckraker who wrote The Jungle. APUSH questions will ask you to go one step further and recognize the link between The Jungle and the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act. This illustrates the connection between muckraking and Progressive reform.
9. RACHEL CARSON – Carson wrote the groundbreaking book Silent Spring to warn the public that chemical pesticides were killing America’s birds and other wildlife. Silent Spring helped launch the national environmental movement.
10. JANE ADDAMS – APUSH test writers want you to remember Jane Addams as the founder of Hull House and a leader in the settlement house movement in America. It is important to know that Addams did NOT attempt to organize workers into labor unions and did NOT support abolitionism. Remember, the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in 1865 when Addams was just 5 years old.
THE TOP TEN EVENTS THAT HAVE GENERATED THE MOST MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS: PART I For the OLD AP Test.
Please note that my list does not include people (already posted) or Supreme Courtcases (soon to be posted).
1. THE FIRST GREAT AWAKENING – a religious revival that swept the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s. Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were the two most prominent ministers. Led to divisions within both the Congregational and Presbyterian churches.
2. MONROE DOCTRINE - a unilateral declaration of American foreign policy principles. Announced that the Western Hemisphere was closed to future European colonization. Stressed that Europe and America had very different political system. European monarchical governments were antithetical to American republican principles.
3. DAWES ACT – sometimes called the Dawes Severalty Act. Inspired in part by Helen Hunt Jackson’s A Century of Dishonor. Eliminated tribal ownership of land in favor of individual holdings. Goal was to assimilate Indians into American culture.
4. HENRY CLAY’S AMERICAN SYSTEM – proposed to develop a national economy by building a system of roads and canals known as internal improvements. It is interesting to note that Clay’s American system was similar to Hamilton’s economic program. For example, both endorsed tariffs to protect American industries.
5. OPEN DOOR POLICY – goal was to protect American economic interests in China. Demanded equal commercial access by all nations to existing spheres of influence in China.
6. CULT OF DOMESTICITY/REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD –
Definitely not a surprise. Republican motherhood is the belief that women would be responsible for raising their children (especially their sons) to be virtuous citizens. As the nation began to industrialize, the concept of separate spheres also became very influential. The cult of domesticity idealized women in their roles as wives and mothers.
7. HARLEM RENAISSANCE – an outpouring of black literary and artistic creativity. James Weldon Johnson, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and Josephine Baker were all associated with the Harlem Renaissance. A. Philip Randolph was a black labor leader who not not associated with the Harlem Renaissance.
8. PROCLAMATION OF 1763 – A classic example of a secondary topic that is often overlooked and yet generates a significant number of questions. The Proclamation Act of 1763 set a boundary along the crest of the Appalachian beyond which English colonists were forbidden to settle. The purpose was to avoid conflict with the Indians.
9. GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION – triggered by an alleged attack by North Vietnamese PT boats on two American destroyers. The Resolution gave President Johnson a blank check to escalate the war in Vietnam.
10. JAPANESE INTERNMENT – During WWII the government relocated Japanese Americans because of fear of possible subversive activity against the war effort on the West Coast. In Korematsu v. US the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the internment as a wartime necessity.
KEY FACTS YOU ABSOLUTELY, POSITIVELY
1. The Iroquois lived in permanent settlements and formed an alliance that ended long-standing tribal warfare.
2. The Portuguese were the first to conduct systematic maritime expeditions down the west coast of Africa. The Spanish were the first to systematically explore the New World.
3. Florida was the first part of what is today the United States to be settled by Europeans. St. Augustine was the first permanent settlement in what is today the United States.
4. The Spanish were motivated by a desire to find gold and silver. Spain was not an industrial country and thus not motivated by a desire to trade manufactured goods.
5. The failure of Sir Walter Raleigh’s “Lost Colony” prompted British investors to form joint-stock companies. Jamestown was founded by a joint-stock company committed to making a profit for its investors.
6. The early Jamestown settlers confronted a Native American alliance known as the Powhatan Confederacy.
7. The labor of indentured servants was a key factor in the growth of the early tobacco industry in Virginia. White indentured servants actually formed the majority of workers prior to 1675.
8. Maryland was founded as a religious refuge for Roman Catholics. The Maryland Toleration Act protected the religious rights of Catholics.
9. Led by John Winthrop (“A City on a Hill”) the Puritans founded the Massachusetts Colony to build a model Christian community.
10. Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams were both religious dissenters who were expelled by the Puritan authorities.
11. Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn to promote religious toleration and pacifism. Pennsylvania became a prosperous and ethnically diverse colony.
12. The Navigation Acts were intended to implement Britain’s official policy of mercantilism. However, the British actually followed a policy of “salutary neglect” and did not rigorously enforce the Navigation Acts.
13. The First Great Awakening was a wave of religious revivals that swept across the colonies in the early 1700s. It weakened the authority of established “Old Light” Puritan ministers.
14. Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were both Enlightened thinkers who were Deists. Their goal was to use reason to discover natural laws and improve human society.
15. The Albany Plan failed because the colonies did NOT want to give up their autonomy. Franklin’s famous “Join, or Die” cartoon dramatically illustrated the need for greater colonial unity.
16. The Proclamation Line of 1763 was a response to a Native American uprising known as Pontiac’s Rebellion. The line was intended to prevent conflict between the colonists and the Indians.
17. Admiralty Courts – Colonists resented the Admiralty Courts. Smugglers were tried in Admiralty Courts with no trial by jury.
18. Stamp Act – purpose was to raise revenue. Instead, it raised questions about the relationship between the colonies and Parliament.
19. Common Sense by Thomas Paine – denounced monarchy as a form of government. Called for the colonists to sever ties with the crown.
20. Battle of Saratoga – Crucial turning point in the Revolutionary War. Persuaded the French to openly support the Colonial cause.
21. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – Major achievement of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for an orderly procedure for territories to become states. First national law to prohibit the extension of slavery.
22. Constitution – As adopted in 1787 did NOT include universal manhood suffrage, political parties, a Bill of Rights, and the right to a speedy trial.
23. Hamilton and Jefferson – they disagreed on how to interpret the Constitution. Hamilton favored a loose interpretation arguing that what the Constitution does not forbid it permits. Jefferson favored a strict interpretation arguing that what the Constitution does not permit it Forbids. Both Jefferson and Hamilton agreed that American should be governed by an aristocracy of talent.
24. Washington’s Farewell Address – America should avoid permanent entangling alliances. Opponents of the League of Nations used GW’s argument to justify their opposition to the Versailles Treaty.
25. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions – Written by Jefferson and Madison as a response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Resolutions advanced a states’ rights argument that would later be used by
26. The Louisiana Purchase – Although Jefferson was a strict constructionist, he used broad presidential powers to acquire the Louisiana Territory. The purchase added more territory to the US than any other territorial acquisition.
27. Marbury v Madison – Established the principle of judicial review. Remember, the Marshall Court promoted a strong central Government.
28. The War of 1812 – promoted nationalism and industrial growth. It led to the final demise of the Federalist Party.
29. Monroe Doctrine – motivated by fear that France and other European powers would intervene in the Western Hemisphere. A unilateral declaration in which President Monroe opposed further European colonization in the New World.
30. Missouri Compromise – Maine entered the Union as a free state while Missouri entered as a slave state thus main-taining the balance of free and slave states in the Senate. In addition, the Compromise banned slavery north of 36 30’.
31. American System – program of internal improvements and protective tariffs advocated by Henry Clay.
32. Jackson and the Bank War – Jackson opposed the special financial privileges enjoyed by Eastern financial interests. The Bank War played a key role in creating a new two-party system. Jackson and the Democrats opposed the Bank while the Clay and the Whigs supported the Bank.
33. Trail of Tears – began in western North Carolina and western Georgia and ended in Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About one-fourth of the Cherokee died on the Trail of Tears.
34. Slavery in the Old South – The cotton gin made short-staple agriculture profitable. A small minority of slave holders dominated Southern society. Remember, a majority of white adult males were small farmers who did NOT own slaves.
35. Erie Canal – revolutionized trade between the Great Lakes and New York City. Reduced shipping costs between Buffalo and New York City by 90 percent.
36. The Second Great Awakening – a wave of religious revivals that swept across America in the early 1800s. Inspired many women to promote social reform. Women played prominent roles in fighting abolition, temperance, and women’s suffrage.
37. Cult of Domesticity – women should focus on family and religious affairs. Women have an important role to raise virtuous sons for public service.
38. The Lowell Textile Factory – The Lowell textile mills employed a large number of women. They were later replaced by Irish workers.
39. Seneca Falls Convention – Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott to work for women’s rights. Marked the beginning of the women’s rights movement. Issued a Declaration of Sentiments calling for greater property rights and the suffrage.
40. William Lloyd Garrison – famed abolitionist who published the Liberator. Garrison called for the immediate and uncompensated abolition of slavery.
41. Transcendentalism – Led by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller. Looked to nature and to personal intuition for knowledge.
42. Hudson River School – 19th century artists who painted romanticized portraits of American landscapes.
43. The Know-Nothing Party – America’s first nativist party. Directed their hostility against Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Germany.
44. Manifest Destiny – belief that America should extend its civilization westward across the continent. Used to justify annexing Texas, displacing Native Americans, settling Oregon, and taking control of California.
45. Mexican War – Caused by Mexican incursions into land claimed by the US. Opposed by the Whigs and abolitionists.
46. Wilmot Proviso – called for the prohibition of slavery in lands acquired in the Mexican War. The Wilmot Proviso did NOT become law.
47. Compromise of 1850 – Admitted California as a free state, abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and enacted a stringent Fugitive Slave Law.
48. Kansas- Nebraska Act – Effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise, led to the demise of the Whig Party, and the rise of the Republican Party.
49. Uncle Tom’s Cabin – Sold more copies than any book except the Bible. Intensified Northern opposition to slavery.
50. Dred Scott decision – The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was NOT a citizen. Further ruled that Congress had no right to prohibit slavery in the territories. Nullified the Northwest Ordinance and the Missouri Compromise.
51. John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry – a military failure. But, the raid intensified sectional bitterness. Brown became a martyr for the antislavery cause. On the morning of his execution, Brown predicted “that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.
52. Republican Position on Slavery – The Republicans accepted slavery where it existed. However, they opposed the further extension of slavery into any of the western territories.
53. Border States – Maryland and Kentucky were Border States that did NOT secede.
54. The Battle of Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation – The Union victory at Antietam persuaded England and France to remain neutral. The Union victory enabled Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. The Emancipation Proclamation only freed the slaves in Confederate states that were still in rebellion.
55. New York City Draft Riots – touched off by poor Irish Americans who opposed Lincoln. the draft, and blacks.
56. Reconstruction Amendments – the 13th Amendment abolished slavery; the 14th Amendment made African Americans citizens thus invalidating the Dred Scott decision; and the 15th Amendment gave voting rights to African American males.
57. Carpetbaggers, Scalawags, and Redeemers –Carpetbaggers were Northerners who headed South to seek power and profit; Scalawags were Southerners who “betrayed” the South by supporting the Radical Republicans, and Redeemers were Southern Democrats who took power after Reconstruction. The Redeemer governments supported a more
diversified Southern economy and white supremacy.
58. Disfranchisement of black voters – The poll tax literacy test, and grandfather clause were all designed to prevent African Americans from voting. Loyalty oaths were NOT used to disfranchise African Americans.
59. Booker T. Washington – Advocated a “compromise” that called upon blacks to avoid political agitation and instead concentrate upon vocational education.
60. W.E.B. Du Bois – Called for full economic, political, and social integration. Looked to a “talented tenth” of African Americans to be a vanguard of influential leaders who would fight for social change and civil rights.
61. Century of Dishonor – by Helen Hunt Jackson; chronicled America’s record of mistreatment of Native Americans; helped rally public opinion to support the Dawes Act.
62. Dawes Act – ethnocentric reform that forced Native Americans to give up their tribal lands and become farmers.
63. Chisholm Trail – trail used to drive cattle from ranches in Texas to railheads in Kansas.
64. Chemical Fertilizers – did NOT contribute to the development of agriculture on the Great Plains in the late 19th Century.
65. Turner Thesis – the western frontier promoted individualism and democratic institutions
66. Vertical Integration – a single company owns and controls the entire production process from the unearthing of raw materials to the sale of finished products.
67. Horizontal Integration – a single company gains control over a step in the production of a product. For example, Standard Oil gained control over almost all of the refineries.
68. Frederick Taylor – known as the “Father of Scientific Management.” The following is an illustration of Taylorism: “I hear the whistle. I must hurry. It is time to go into the shop.”
69. Eugene Debs – a socialist labor leader who advocated government ownership of key industries and natural resources.
70. AFL – led by Samuel Gompers; organized into craft unions; focused on bread and butter issues
71. Great Railroad Strike of 1877 – first national strike; triggered when the B&O Railroad cut wages by 10 percent.
72. Haymarket Square Riot – labor unions organized a strike at the McCormick reaper factory in Chicago to demand an 8-hour day. The demonstration in Haymarket Square was called to protest police actions at the McCormick reaper factory. An unknown bomber ignited a riot that was blamed on the Knights of Labor. The association with radicals hastened the decline of the Knights.
73. Chinese Exclusion Act – first law targeting and excluding a specific immigrant group. Supported by both parties and especially workers in California.
74. New Immigrants – immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe ie Italy, Poland, Austria, Hungary, and Russia.
75. Social Darwinism – survival of the fittest; used to justify the wealth and success of the Robber Barrons.
76. Gospel of Wealth – Protestant churches have a moral responsibility to confront social problems and help the poor.
77. Horatio Alger – wrote a series of popular novels describing how young boys succeeded through hard work, honesty, and good luck.
78. Interstate Commerce Act – first federal regulation of business and industry; regulated the railroads; established a precedent for federal regulation of business and industry
79. Mail Order Catalogues – helped standardize popular tastes but hurt merchants in small towns
80. Big City Machines – exchanged small-scale social welfare for votes; associated with the spoils system (ie patronage)
81. Stephen Crane and Theodore Dreiser – leading realist authors who wrote graphic novels describing people caught in a web is social problems in American cities.
82. Ash Can School of Art – focused on urban scenes such as crowded tenements, boisterous barrooms, and city cafes.
83. Populists – Midwestern farmers who opposed the railroads and supported free silver
84. Progressives – primarily middle-class reformers who wanted to use government as a tool to promote social change;
the Progressives did NOT work for civil rights legislation
85. Progressive Amendments
. 16th Amendment – federal income tax
. 17th Amendment – US Senators elected by popular vote