After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D., the Roman Catholic Church unified Europe.
2. How did invasions trigger changes in Western Europe?
The power and importance of the Roman Catholic Church increased during the Middle Ages because the Roman Empire fell (leaving no central power), missionaries were spreading Christianity across Europe, church monasteries were preserving Greco-Roman culture (as centers of learning), and the church became involved in politics (Pope crowned kings/emperor, like Pope Leo III crowning Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor in 800 A.D.).
3. Which Germanic tribe founded a large empire in Western Europe in the 8th century?
The Franks founded a large empire in Western Europe in the 8th century (700’s).
4. What is the significance of Charlemagne’s crowning by Pope Leo III?
Pope Leo III’s crowning of Charlemagne in 800 A.D. increased the political power and role of the Catholic Church.
5. Who was crowned the first Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 A.D.?
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne (of the Carolingian dynasty) of the Franks the first Holy Roman.
6. What was the effect of the creation of the Holy Roman Empire?
The Holy Roman Empire’s creation sparked a cultural revival of Greco-Roman achievements in Western Europe.
7. Who were the Magyars, and where did they come from?
The Magyars came from Central Asia and migrated to and settled in Hungary.
The Vikings came from Scandinavia and migrated all across Europe, and eventually started to settle in Russia.
9. Describe the feudal system as seen in Europe during the Middle Ages.
The feudal system is the landholding and social system of Europe during the Middle Ages. The King was at the top, then came lords (nobles and clergy), then the knights, and finally the peasants and serfs.
The lord is the landowner who gives land (called a fief) to vassals in exchange for their service, and he gives the serfs land and protection in exchange for crops, taxes, and labor.
10. Draw the feudal pyramid (the social order of the Middle Ages).
Nobles & Clergy
Vassals (aka Knights)
Peasants (commoners and serfs) 11. Who held the lowest social position on an estate in medieval Europe?
Serfs held the lowest position on an estate in medieval Europe. Serfs are the lowest peasant who can’t legally leave the land of the lord.
12. What is the manorial system? (Use vocab terns)
The manorial system is the economic and social system of the lord’s estate. The manor was a completely self-sufficient community surrounded by a castle and walls used for protection. Serfs worked the land of the lord while knights protected the community.
13. What were the Crusades? Who were the important people?
In 1093, Pope Urban II issued a call for a “holy war” to recover the control of the Holy Land of Jerusalem. Important People: Pope Urban II, Saladin, Richard- The Lion Harted
14. What were the effects of the Crusades?
1) Expansion of Trade- Trade between Europe and Southwest Asia expanded. Discovery of new goods
3) The intolerance and prejudice displayed by Christians in the Holy Land left behind a legacy of bitterness and hatred.
15. How did the plague begin? Wat were some economic effects of the plague?
Started in Asia, with Mongols spreading through fleas on ticks in food supplies. Effects- 1/3 of European Population died, town population fell, trade declined, prices rose, Serfs left manor, farmland abandoned, Churches lost prestige.
16. Who fought in The Hundred Years’ War? What were the outcomes?
It was fought between the French & English. Outcomes= French Monarch power raised, gave rise to nationalism, English suffered period of internal turmoil.