Return to sound money policy: working harder, spending less
Monroe limited government intervention; gov’t pay was cut, as was overall spending
Bred suspicion of a national bank that had power to manipulate the currency and created intense hostility toward the Second Bank of the United States
How does the election of 1820 map show an increase in nationalism?
Was this actually the case? Explain.
Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820—Henry Clay):In the end, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 allowed Missouri to be admitted as a slave state, while Maine was admitted as a slave state, and no slave states could be admitted above the 36 30’ line. The ____________________________________________ to Missouri Compromise
All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25.
Passed by the House, not in the Senate. (North controlled the House; South blocks it in the Senate)
1. Why was the Tallmadge Amendment controversial? (Hint: What do you think was the major issue after the Compromise?)
The Monroe Doctrine (1823): “America’s Self-Defense Doctrine” As Latin American countries led rebellions & revolutions against their European colonizers in the 1810s, the U.S. wanted to promote democracy. They feared the Holy Alliance of Europe would bring its anti-revolution campaign to the Americas, as it promoted the “divine right of kings” and monarchical rule.
However, Monroe's administration did not recognize new republics in South America until 1822. Monroe wanted to wait until after Spain had ceded Florida to the U.S., trying to downplay the fact that they had an economic interest in the formerly-ruled Spanish colonies, now new republics, as trading partners.
To protect these principles, Monroe delivered a speech (now the “Monroe Doctrine”—a list of his beliefs):
…..the occasion has been judged proper for asserting, as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power……
The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly in favor of the liberty and happiness of their fellowmen on (the European) side of the Atlantic. In the wars of European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our policy so to do. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense……..
With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the government who had declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States….
How is this different than George Washington’s (and earlier presidents’ belief in “neutrality”)? Take a look once again at Washington’s Farewell Address (1796):
……inveterate antipathies against particular nations and passionate attachments for others should be excluded; and that in place of them just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated…….
So likewise a passionate attachment of one Nation for another produces a variety of evils. –Sympathy for a favourite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter, without adequate inducement or justification…….The great role of conduct for us, in regard to foreign Nations is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little Political connection as possible.
On the next page, fill in the chart comparing the foreign policies of early republic-era presidents to the presidents following James Monroe.
United States’ alliances with
Role of United States in
Purpose of diplomacy/
What does it mean to be “neutral” in foreign policy?
Explain how U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives.