The epistle to the hebrews

Additional Note on Hebrews 1:4. The Divine Names in the Epistle

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Additional Note on Hebrews 1:4. The Divine Names in the Epistle.
The Names by which the Lord is spoken of in the Epistle throw light upon its characteristic teaching. Speaking generally we may say that Jesus directs our thoughts to His human Nature, Christ to His Work as the Fulfiller of the old Dispensation, Son to His divine Nature, Lord itself to His sovereignty over the Church.

1. Of these Names that which is distinctive of the Epistle is the human Name, Jesus. This occurs nine times, and in every case it furnishes the key to the argument of the passage where it is found:

2:9 to;n bracuv ti parj ajggevlou" hjlattwmevnon blevpomen jIhsou'n...Although humanity has not yet attained its end we see that the Son of Man—true man—has fulfilled through suffering the destiny of the race.

3:1 katanohvsate to;n ajpovstolon kai; ajrciereva th'" oJmologiva" hJmw'n jIhsou'n (text. rec. Cristo;n jIhsou'n). In His manhood, our Lawgiver and Priest is seen to rise immeasurably above Moses and Aaron, who occupied severally the same offices under the Old Covenant.

6:20 o{pou provdromo" uJpe;r hJmw'n eijsh'lqen jIhsou'"...Our High-priest, even when He enters into the immediate presence of God, to take His seat at God's right hand, preserves no less a true humanity than the Jewish High-priest who entered into the typical sanctuary.

7:22 kreivttono" diaqhvkh" gevgonen e[gguo" jIhsou'". The eternal priesthood, answering to the better Covenant, is still the priesthood of One who is true man.

10:19 e[conte" parrhsivan eij" th;n ei[sodon tw'n aJgivwn ejn tw'/ ai{mati jIhsou'. The virtue of the offered life of Him Who shares our nature is that wherein we can draw near to God. Contrast 9:14.

12:2 ajforw'nte" eij" to;n th'" pivstew" ajrchgo;n kai; teleiwth;n jIhsou'n. Our strength in Christian effort is to fix our eyes upon Him Who in His Manhood won for us the perfect victory of faith.

12:24 (proselhluvqate) diaqhvkh" neva" mesivth/ jIhsou'. Comp. 7:22.

13:12 jIhsou'"...e[xw th'" puvlh" e[paqen.

13:20 oJ ajnagagw;n ejk nekrw'n...ejn ai{mati diaqhvkh" aijwnivou to;n kuvrion hJmw'n jIhsou'n. This single reference in the Epistle to the Resurrection, combined with the declaration of the twofold office of Christ as Shepherd and Lord, is pointed by the use of His human Name.

It will be noticed that in every case but 13:12, which is a simple historic statement, the name ‘Jesus’ occupies an emphatic position at the end of the clause.

2. The Name of Christ (the Christ) occurs just as many times as Jesus. It is desirable to notice separately the two forms in which it is used. The definite form ‘the Christ’ (oJ cristov") appears always to retain more or less distinctly the idea of the office as the crown of the old Covenant: the anarthrous form ‘Christ’ (Cristov") is rather a proper name.

3:14 mevtocoi tou' cristou' gegovnamen...we have become partakers in Him Who has fulfilled the hope of the fathers.

5:5 oJ cristo;" oujc eJauto;n ejdovxasen genhqh'nai ajrciereva though the High-priesthood might have seemed to be necessarily included in the office to which He was sent.

6:1 to;n th'" ajrch'" tou' cristou' lovgon, the elementary exposition of the Gospel as the true accomplishment of all that was promised to Israel.

9:14 to; ai|ma tou' cristou', the blood of Him to Whom every sacrificial ordinance of the Levitical ritual pointed. Contrast 10:19.

9:28 oJ cristo;" a{pax prosenecqeiv"...ojfqhvsetai. That which seemed to be disappointment in the Death of Him to Whom the people had looked shall hereafter be turned to glory.

11:26 to;n ojneidismo;n tou' cristou'. Each hero of faith realised a little of that which is the part of the Messenger of God.

The anarthrous form is less frequent:

3:6 (Mwush'" mevn)...Cristo;" de; wJ" uiJov"...

9:11 Cristo;" de; paragenovmeno" ajrciereuv"...

9:24 ouj ga;r eij" ceiropoivhta eijsh'lqen a{gia Cristov" (text. rec. oJ cristov").

The force of this Name will be felt if the student substitutes for it the human Name. Throughout ch. 9 the thought is of the typical teaching of the Law.

3. The title Son is with one exception (1:8) always anarthrous. The writer, that is, fixes the attention of his readers upon the nature implied by it:

1:2 ejlavlhsen ejn uiJw'/ as contrasted with ejn toi'" profhvtai".

1:5 uiJov" mou ei\ suv (LXX.). 5:5.

3:6 Cristo;" de; wJ" uiJov" as contrasted with Mwush'"...wJ" qeravpwn.

5:8 kaivper w]n uiJov", and therefore having personally right of access to the Father.

7:28 uiJovn, eij" to;n aijw'na teteleiwmevnon as contrasted with ajnqrwvpou"...e[conta" ajsqevneian.

4. The title Lord is comparatively rare.

2:3 (swthriva) ajrch;n labou'sa lalei'sqai dia; tou' kurivou.

7:14 ejx jIouvda ajnatevtalken oJ kuvrio" hJmw'n. The title here is perhaps suggested by the royal tribe.

Compare also 1:10; 12:14; 13:20.

5. Of compound Names that which is elsewhere most common (more than thirty times in the Epistle to the Romans, eleven times in 1 Peter), Jesus Christ, is comparatively very rare:

10:10 dia; th'" prosfora'" tou' swvmato" jIhsou' Cristou'.

13:8 jIhsou'" Cristo;" ejcqe;" kai; shvmeron oJ aujtov"...

13:21 dia; jIhsou' Cristou', w|/ hJ dovxa eij" tou;" aijw'na" tw'n aijwvnwn.

The force of the full Name, which is an implicit Creed, will be obvious in each place.

The characteristic Pauline Name Christ Jesus does not occur in the Epistle (not 3:1).

6. The title the Son of God speaks for itself in the places where it is used:

6:6 ajnastaurou'nta" eJautoi'" to;n uiJo;n tou' qeou'.

7:3 ajfwmoiwmevno" tw'/ uiJw'/ tou' qeou', not uiJw'/ qeou'. The Incarnate Son was the archetype of Melchizedek.

10:29 povsw/ ceivrono" ajxiwqhvsetai timwriva" oJ to;n uiJo;n tou' qeou' katapathvsa".

7. The complete affirmation of the divine and human natures of our High-priest is found in the phrase which occurs once, Jesus, the Son of God:

4:14 e[conte" ajrciereva... jIhsou'n to;n uiJo;n tou' qeou'.

Compare also the descriptive titles: 2:10; 3:1; 12:2; 13:20.

It may be noticed that the title swthvr does not occur in the Epistle, though swthriva is not uncommon. The idea which it expresses finds a special embodiment in Christ's priestly office.

Sometimes the Lord, though unnamed, is assumed as the subject of the teaching of the prophets: 2:14; 10:5 ff.; 37.
ii. The peril of neglecting the new revelation through the Son (Hebrews 2:1-4)
After establishing the superior dignity of the Son in comparison with that of angels, the writer of the Epistle pauses for a moment to enforce the practical consequences which follow from the truth before he sets forth the work of the Son for humanity. It is obvious that a revelation given through such a Mediator carries with it more solemn obligations on those who receive it and heavier penalties for neglect than a revelation made through angelic ministry.

Similar hortatory passages are introduced in the argument 3:7-19; 5:11 ff.

Contrast Gal. 1:6-9.

The line of thought is direct and simple. There is always in men a tendency to forgetfulness of a past message under the influence of new forces. The authority of the message is a measure of the danger of such neglect (Heb. 2:1, 2); and the Gospel comes to us with the highest possible attestation in regard to its Author and its messengers (3), and the manifold witness of God by which it was confirmed (4).

1 Therefore we must give the more earnest heed to the things that were heard lest haply we drift away from them. 2 For if the word spoken through angels proved stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just requital; 3 how shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation? which, having at the first been spoken through the Lord, was confirmed unto us by them that heard; 4 God bearing witness to it with them by signs and wonders, and by manifold powers, and by various gifts of the Holy Spirit according to His will.

Heb. 2:1. dia; tou'to] For this cause...Therefore..., because of the superiority of the Son over the angels, through whom the Law was given.

dei'] The word marks a logical necessity and not a moral obligation: we must rather than we ought. Compare 11:6, 9:26, and contrast ojfeivlein v. 17, v. 3, 12. See 1 John 2:6 note.

peris". pro".] Vulg. abundantius observare. The adverb expresses, so to speak, an absolute excess (Heb. 13:19, Heb. 6:17, 7:15), and not simply a relative excess (ma'llon 9:14, 10:25, 12:9, 25). The connexion of perissotevrw" with dei' is unnatural. The force of the comparative is ‘more exceedingly than if there had been no such marked preeminence of the Son.’ The form in -w" is not found in the LXX. or Philo.

prosevcein] The full phrase pro". t. nou'n does not occur in the N.T. (but see Job 7:17 LXX.). The word is used of things Acts 8:6; 16:14; 1 Tim. 1:4; Tit. 1:14; 2 Pet. 1:19; and of persons Acts 8:10 f.; 1 Tim. 4:1. The absolute use occurs as early as Demosthenes. Compare Heb. 7:13 n.

hJma'"] we Christians. The obligation is a special one.

toi'" ajkousq.] to the things that were heard, to the message received by the apostles (oiJ ajkouvsante") when ‘God spake in His Son’; or, more simply, to the things we heard (as kathcouvmenoi) when first the Gospel was preached to us (oJ lovgo" th'" ajkoh'" Heb. 4:2; 1 Thess. 2:13. Comp. Rom. 10:17).

It is to be noticed that the writer of the Epistle does not use eujaggevlion (the verb occurs Heb. 4:2, 6). In the writings of St John it is found only in Apoc. 14:6.

mhv pote] lest haply, Vulg. ne forte (O. L. ne casu) and not lest ever. Compare 4:1.

pararuw'men] The word pararrei'n is of considerable interest. It is constantly used of things which slip away, as a ring from the finger (Plut. Amat. p. 754 A), or take a wrong course, as a crumb of food passing into the windpipe (Arist. de part. an. 3.3), or an inopportune subject intruding upon a company (AElian, V. H. 3.30).

It occurs twice in the Greek translations of the Book of Proverbs. It is found in the sense of ‘slipping away’ in Symmachus' rendering of Prov. 4:21 mh; pararruhsavtwsan ejx ojfqalmw'n sou' for the Heb. Úyn–ne recedant ab oculis tuis: E. V. Let them not depart from thine eyes. And again it occurs of the person in Prov. 3:21 (LXX.) uiJe; mh; pararuh'/", thvrhson de; ejmh;n boulh;n kai; e[nnoian, for the similar Hebrew Úyn–Fili mi, ne effluant haec ab oculis tuis: E. V. Let them not depart from thine eyes.

This latter usage is identical with the usage in the present passage: ‘Do not be carried away from my teaching.’

The idea is not that of simple forgetfulness, but of being swept along past the sure anchorage which is within reach. (Compare Hesychius: pararuh'/", metewrisqh'/", parapevsh/".) The image is singularly expressive. We are all continuously exposed to the action of currents of opinion, habit, action, which tend to carry us away insensibly from the position which we ought to maintain.

The versions are very vague. The Syriac gives fall lp,npereffluamus, O. L. labamur (lebemur) or labemus; and in patristic quotations: supereffluamus (Hier.), defluamus (Aug.), effluamus (Sedul.). Primasius was evidently perplexed by the phrase: ne forte pereffluamus; id est, ne forte pereamus et a salute excidamus; vel ne forte evanescamus, transeuntes in perditionem more fluminis currentis in mare...

The Greek Christian writers use the word in the same sense as it has here, and perhaps they derived the usage from the Epistle: e.g., Clem. Alex. Paed. iii. § 58 p. 288 P. dio; kai; sustevllein crh; ta;" gunai'ka" kosmivw" kai; perisfivggein aijdoi' swvfroni, mh; pararruw'si th'" ajlhqeiva" dia; caunovthta.

Orig. c. Cels. 8.23 ‘The great mass of simple believers, who cannot keep every day as a divine festival, need sensible patterns in fixed holy days that they may not wholly drift away (i{na mh; tevleon pararruh'/) under popular influences from the observance of regular religious duties.’

Heb. 2:2, 3a. eij gavr...] The necessity of heedful care is grounded on the certainty of retribution. This certainty is proportional to the authority of the revelation. Comp. 1 Clem. 41:4 o{sw/ pleivono" kathxiwvqhmen gnwvsew" tosouvtw/ ma'llon uJpokeivmeqa kinduvnw/.

oJ dij ajgg. lal. lovgo"] the word—the revelation—spoken through angels, as the organs of the Divine communication, that is the Law. Vulg. qui per angelos dictus est sermo. The title lovgo" (not novmo") is given to the Law in order to characterise it as the central part of the Old Revelation round which all later words were gathered. So throughout the Epistle the Law is regarded as a gracious manifestation of the divine will, and not as a code of stern discipline. The connexion of the angels with the giving of the Law is recognised elsewhere in the N. T., Gal. 3:19 diatagei;" dij ajggevlwn; Acts 7:53 (comp. v. 38) eij" diataga;" ajggevlwn. So also Josephus represents Herod as saying that the Jews ‘learnt ta; oJsiwvtata tw'n ejn toi'" novmoi" dij ajggevlwn para; tou' qeou\ (Antt. 15.5, 3). By a natural process of interpretation the attendance of the angels at the revelation on Sinai (Deut. 33:2; Ps. 68:17) was taken to indicate their ministration. The presence of angels is not noticed in Ex. 19, and Philo seems purposely to avoid referring the phenomena at the Lawgiving to their action (de Decal. § 9 (2.185 M.) keleuvsa"...dhmiourghqh'nai...yuch;n logikhvn...).

ejgevn. bevbaio"] proved sure, not only was assured, confirmed (ejbebaiwvqh v. 3) by some external authority; but, as it were, vindicated its own claims. There is in the divine Law a self-executing power. It confirms itself. Compare the significant variation in the construction in Rom. 2:6 ff. ajpodwvsei...toi'" kaqj uJpomonh;n e[rgou ajgaqou' dovxan...toi'" de; ejx ejriqiva"...ojrgh; kai; qumov"...together with Origen's note in Rom. Lib. ii. § 6.

The verb always retains its force in these periphrastic forms Heb. 3:14; 5:5, 12; 6:4; 7:12, 18, 20, 23; 10:33; 11:6 f.; 12:8; 1 Cor. 3:13; 11:19.

paravb. kai; parak.] Vulg. praevaricatio et inobedientia. Paravbasi" describes the actual transgression, a positive offence (the overt act); parakohv describes properly the disobedience which fails to fulfil an injunction, and so includes negative offences(the spirit). Comp. 2 Cor. 10:6; Rom. 5:19 (Matt. 18:17 parakouvein). The word parakohv is not found in the LXX. (parakouvein Esth. 3:3, 8 [4:13]; Is. 65:12). Praevaricatio est vetita facere, inobedientia vero jussa non facere (Herv.).

In Rom. 5 the sin of Adam is described successively as paravbasi" 5:14 (the simple fact); paravptwma 5:17, 18 (contrasted with the dikaiwvma of Christ: the fact in its relation to the divine order); parakohv 5:19 (contrasted with the uJpakohv of Christ: the manifestation of the spiritual character).

paravb....e[laben] The punishment meets the transgression, not the transgressor. There is an absolute correspondence. Compare Col. 3:25 (Eph. 6:8).

e[ndikon] The word occurs again in Rom. 3:8: it is not found in the LXX. As distinguished from divkaio" it describes that which conforms to, and not that which embodies, a rule. The word divkaio" is used almost exclusively of persons as possessing the positive quality of righteousness. It is used also of judgment as being not only right, but righteous: John 5:30; 7:24; Apoc. 16:7; 19:2; 2 Thess. 2:1. Comp. Luke 12:57; and of the ‘commandment’ (Rom. 7:12) and the ‘ways’ of God (Apoc. 15:3).

misqapodosivan] Vulg. mercedis retributionem, O. L. remunerationem, and so Vulg. elsewhere. The word is found again in the Greek Scriptures only in Heb. 10:35, 11:26, and the corresponding personal noun misqapodovth" in Heb. 11:6 for the classical misqodosiva, misqodovth". As compared with the corresponding words ajntapovdosi" (Col. 3:24), ajntapovdoma (Lk. 14:12; Rom. 11:9), the word appears to emphasise the idea of an exact requital of good or evil by a sovereign Judge. The discipline and punishment of the wilderness (Heb. 3:16 ff.; 1 Cor. 10:6 ff.) furnished the typical illustration of this teaching which extends to the whole Jewish life: Heb. 12:25, 10:28 f.

3. pw'"...;] The interrogative form is characteristic of the style of the Epistle (Heb. 1:5 note). Compare 1 Tim. 3:5; 1 John 3:17. How shall we escape after neglecting...? The neglect is assumed.

ejkfeuxovmeqa] The word is again used absolutely Acts 16:27; 1 Thess. 5:3.

thlik.] so great as has been seen from the nature of the Mediator. Comp. 2 Cor. 1:10. jAmel. Matt. 22:5.

swthriva"] The character of the new dispensation is placed in contrast with the Law: ‘salvation’ (1:14 note) with ‘the word.’ Comp. Jude 3; Acts 13:26. So Theodoret: oJ me;n novmo" lovgo" h\n to; praktevon uJpodeiknuv", hJ de; tou' kurivou didaskaliva th'" aijwnivou provxeno" swthriva". And Primasius: Lex promittebat terram...Evangelium regnum caelorum...Illa praestabat vindictam de terrenis hostibus: istud praestat de spiritualibus...Illa promittebat longaevam vitam temporalem; Evangelium concedit vitam sine fine mansuram.

Heb. 2:3 b, 4. The superior authority of the Gospel is shewn in three points, in its original announcement, in its convincing proclamation, and in the manifold divine attestation to its truth.

h{ti"] The pronoun preserves its full force: Seeing that it...was confirmed... {Osti" as distinguished from o{" is rightly described as ‘qualitative and generic,’ a man (a thing) such as..., a class who..., hence very commonly whoever (whatever)...Compare Heb. 8:56; 9:2, 9; 10:35, 8, 11; 12:5; 13:7, and Moulton on Winer, p. 209 n.

ajrch;n labou'sa lal.] Vulg. cum initium accepisset enarrari. This singular mode of expression suggests somewhat more than the simple fact having first been spoken, and implies that the teaching of the Lord was the true origin of the Gospel. The phrase is not found elsewhere in the N. T. or in the LXX. but is frequent in late Greek writers (th;n ajrch;n l.): e.g., Philo, de vita Mos. i. § 14; (2:93 M.) [shmei'on] th;n ajrch;n tou' genevsqai labo;n ejn Aijguvptw/.

lalei'sqai] 1:1 f.; 3:5; 12:25.

The addition of the verb calls attention to the present preaching, and to the fact that this is based on the original preaching of Christ.

dia; tou' k.] through the Lord as the Messenger of the Father (Heb. 1:2). Vulg. per dominum. Comp. 5:2 oJ dij ajgg. lal. l. Contrast lalei'sqai uJpov Luke 2:18; Acts 13:45; 16:14; 17:19; and lalei'sqai parav Luke 1:45.

tou' kurivou] not tou' kurivou hJmw'n. Compare Heb. 12:14. The idea is of the Sovereign Majesty of Christ in Himself. Contrast 7:14, 13:20, 8:2.

uJpo; tw'n ajk.] by the immediate hearers: Luke 1:2. Contrast 1 John 1:1.

Though St Paul was not a hearer of Christ in the flesh, yet it is scarcely conceivable that he should have placed himself thus in contrast with those who were: Gal. 1:12; and if the writer was a disciple of St Paul he must refer to other teachers also.

eij" hJm. ejbeb.] was brought unto us—into our midst—and confirmed to us. Vulg. in nos confirmata est. The use of the preposition suggests an interval between the first preaching and the writer's reception of the message. It is to be noticed that the ‘salvation’ and not merely the message of it (Acts 13:26) was ‘confirmed’: the ‘salvation’ was shewn to be real in the experience of those who received it.

eij" hJma'"] Gal. 3:14; John 8:26; Rom. 8:18; Acts 2:22; 1 Pet. 1:4, 25. Compare Moulton's Winer, p. 776.

ejbebaiwvqh] Compare (Mk.) 16:20; Rom. 15:8.

Heb. 2:4. The divine witness to the ‘salvation’ of the Gospel is both continuous and manifold. The writer appeals to a succession of forms in which it was manifested in his experience and in that of those whom he addressed.

. Miracles (shmei'a, tevrata).

. Powers, outwardly shewn in action (poikivlai dunavmei").

. Endowments, which might be purely personal and unobserved (pn. aJg. merismoi'").

There is a progress from that which is most striking outwardly to that which is most decisive inwardly. The outward phenomenon and the inward experience are both in different ways capable of various interpretations; but they are complementary. The one supplies that element of conviction which the other wants.

The passage is of deep interest as shewing the unquestioned reality of miraculous gifts in the early Church: and the way in which they were regarded as coordinate with other exhibitions of divine power.

Compare 2 Cor. 12:12; Gal. 3:5; Rom. 15:19; Heb. 6:4 f.

sunepimarturou'nto"] God also bearing witness with them to the truth of the word. This witness is present and not past. Vulg. contestante [O. L. adseverante] Deo. The word is found here only in the Greek Scriptures. ejpimarturei'n occurs 1 Pet. 5:12; summarturei'n Rom. 2:15; 8:16; 9:1. The word is not uncommon in late writers: Clem. R. 1 Cor. 23, 43.

shm. te kai; tevr....] The te, which is not used in the common phrase shm. kai; tevr., shews that all the forms of witness are probably regarded singly, Acts 13:1; 1 Cor. 1:30; Heb. 9:2; 11:32. Comp. Acts 2:22; 2 Thess. 2:9.

shmei'a kai; tevrata] The combination is found in the Synoptic Gospels (Matt. 24:24; Mark 13:22), St John (4:48), in St Paul's Epistles (Rom. 15:9; 2 Cor. 12:12; 2 Thess. 2:9), and most frequently in the Acts (8 times chs. 1-15). It is not found in the Catholic Epistles or the Apocalypse. In the Synoptic passages and 2 Thess. 2:9 the phrase is used of the manifestation of evil powers.

Tevra" is nowhere used by itself in the N. T., though it is so used in the LXX. (comp. Acts 2:19; Joel 3:3). Shmei'on and shmei'a are common alone, and especially in St John in reference to Christ's works.

poik. dun.] by manifold powers (Lat. variis virtutibus) shewing themselves in their characteristic results. Duvnami" expresses here the power itself and not the manifestation of the power. See Mark 6:14; 1 Cor. 12:10; Matt. 11:20 ff.; Heb. 6:4 ff.

pn. aJg. merismoi'"] Vulg. sp. s. distributionibus (O. L. divisionibus). Comp. 1 Cor. 12:4, 11 (Acts 2:3 diamerizovmenai). The Holy Spirit is in one sense the gift and in another the Giver. Here there can be no doubt that the thought is of the divine gift (pn. a{g. not to; pn. to; a{g.) as imparted in several measures by God. Compare John 3:34; 2 Cor. 10:13.

kata; th;n aujt. q.] according to His, God's, not the Spirit's, will [willing]. Vulg. secundum suam [O. L. ipsius] voluntatem. The clause refers to all that has gone before. Comp. Eph. 4:7.

qevlhsi"] The word, which occurs several times in the LXX. is found here only in the N.T. As distinguished from qevlhma (Heb. 10:7, 9, 36; 13:21), the definite expression of will, it describes the active exercise of will.

The use of these active verbal nouns is characteristic of the style of the Epistle. Among many others which occur the following are found in the N. T. only in this Book: metavqesi" (Heb. 7:12; 11:5; 12:27); ajqevthsi" (7:18; 9:26); a[qlhsi" (10:32); provscusi" (11:28); ai[nesi" (13:15).
iii. The fulfilment of the divine desting of man in the Son of man through suffering (Hebrews 2:5-18)
Two main thoughts are brought out in this section.

(1) The promise of sovereignty to man was fulfilled in Jesus (‘the Son of man’): 2:5-9.

(2) The fulfilment of man's destiny, owing to the intrusion of sin, could only be brought about through suffering, made possible for Christ and effective for man through the Incarnation (2:10-18).

Throughout the section there is a tacit reference to the objections which were raised against the Lord's claims to Messiahship on the ground of the actual facts of His life and sufferings.

(1) The promise of man's sovereignty andits potential fulfilment (Hebrews 2:5-9)
The writer of the Epistle has already assumed the establishment of a new order corresponding with the fulfilment of the purpose of creation. The sovereignty of this order was not prepared for angels (2:5). It was promised to man (2:6-8 a); and the promise was fulfilled in ‘Jesus’ (2:8 b—9).

5 For not unto angels did He subject the world to come, whereof we speak.

6 But one testified as we know (somewhere) saying

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