“John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry was a turning point for the South. The possibility of an African American uprising had long haunted many Southerners, but they were frightened and angered by the idea that Northerners would deliberately try to arm enslaved people and encourage them to rebel.Although the Republican leaders quickly denounced Brown’s raid, many Southerners blamed Republicans. To them, the key point was that both the Republicans and John Brown opposed slavery.
In 1860 the debate over slavery in the western territories tore the Democratic Party apart. Their first presidential nominating convention ended in dispute. Northern delegates wanted to support popular sovereignty, while Southern delegates wanted to uphold the Dred Scott decision and endorse a federal slave code for the territories. In June 1860, the Democrats met again to select their candidate. Supporters of popular sovereignty had organized to ensure Stephen Douglas’s endorsement. The original Southern delegations objected and walked out. The Southern Democrats who had walked out organized their own convention and nominated the current vice president for president, a politician that supported the Dred Scott decision. This split the Democratic Party. With no possibility of winning electoral votes in the South, the Republicans needed a candidate who could sweep the North. Delegates at the Republicans’ Chicago convention nominated Abraham Lincoln, whose debates with Stephen Douglas had made him very popular in the North.During the campaign, the Republicans tried to persuade voters they were more than just an antislavery party. They denounced John Brown’s raid and reaffirmed the right of the Southern states to preserve slavery within their borders. They also supported higher tariffs, a new homestead law for western settlers, and a transcontinental railroad. The Republican proposals angered many Southerners. Nevertheless, with Democratic votes split, Lincoln won the election without Southern support. For the South, the election of a Republican president represented the victory of the abolitionists. The survival of Southern society and culture seemed to be at stake. For many, there was now no choice but to secede. The dissolution of the Union began with South Carolina, where anti-Northern secessionist sentiment had long been intense. Shortly after Lincoln’s election, the state legislature called for a convention. Amid a frenzy of fireworks and drills, the convention unanimously voted for the Ordinance of Secession. By February 1, 1861, six more states in the Lower South – Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas –had voted to secede. Many Southerners felt secession was in the Revolutionary tradition and that they were fighting for American rights.” ~ The American Vision
1. The precipitating event of secession was:
(2) John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry.
(3) Abraham Lincoln’s election.
(4) The Dred Scott decision.
(5) The civil war in Kansas.
2. In the election of 1860,
(1) Southerners refused to vote in protest.
(2) The tariff was the most important issue.
(3) The Republicans gained control of the executive branch for the first time.
(4) Southerners voted for Lincoln.
The Causes of the Civil War
- The greater loyalty many Americans felt towards their region rather than the nation
- The South developed a plantation economy; the North was more industrialized
D. Election of 1860 (1) Start of the Revolutionary War
(2) Adoption of the Bill of Rights
(3) Failure of the Whiskey Rebellion
(4) Secession of Southern States from the Union
11. “Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri To Enter Union” (1820)
“California Admitted to Union as Free State” (1850)
“Kansas-Nebraska Act Sets Up Popular Sovereignty” (1854)
Which issue is reflected in these headlines?
(1) enactment of protective tariffs
(2) extension of slavery
(3) voting rights for minorities
(4) universal public education 12. “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.” ~ Abraham Lincoln, 1858 According to this quotation, Abraham Lincoln believed that
(1) slavery was immoral and should be abolished immediately
(2) sectional differences threatened to destroy the Union
(3) the Southern states should be allowed to secede
(4) to save the nation, the North should compromise with the South on slavery
5. Sectional differences developed in the United States largely because
(1) the Federal Government adopted a policy of neutrality
(2) economic conditions and interests in each region varied
(3) only northerners were represented at the Constitutional Convention
(4) early Presidents favored urban areas over rural areas 6. What did the Fugitive Act state?
(1) Runaway slaves could be kept.
(2) Runaway slaves had to be returned to their rightful masters.
(3) Runaway slaves were granted freedom.
(4) Runaway slaves had the right to beat their masters if they came after them. 7. What controversial man was a hero in the North but a villain in the South in 1858?