The Election of 1860 us history/Napp Name



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The Election of 1860

US History/Napp Name: __________________

John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry was a turning point for the South. The possibility of an African American uprising had long haunted many Southerners, but they were frightened and angered by the idea that Northerners would deliberately try to arm enslaved people and encourage them to rebel. Although the Republican leaders quickly denounced Brown’s raid, many Southerners blamed Republicans. To them, the key point was that both the Republicans and John Brown opposed slavery.


In 1860 the debate over slavery in the western territories tore the Democratic Party apart. Their first presidential nominating convention ended in dispute. Northern delegates wanted to support popular sovereignty, while Southern delegates wanted to uphold the Dred Scott decision and endorse a federal slave code for the territories. In June 1860, the Democrats met again to select their candidate. Supporters of popular sovereignty had organized to ensure Stephen Douglas’s endorsement. The original Southern delegations objected and walked out. The Southern Democrats who had walked out organized their own convention and nominated the current vice president for president, a politician that supported the Dred Scott decision. This split the Democratic Party.
With no possibility of winning electoral votes in the South, the Republicans needed a candidate who could sweep the North. Delegates at the Republicans’ Chicago convention nominated Abraham Lincoln, whose debates with Stephen Douglas had made him very popular in the North. During the campaign, the Republicans tried to persuade voters they were more than just an antislavery party. They denounced John Brown’s raid and reaffirmed the right of the Southern states to preserve slavery within their borders. They also supported higher tariffs, a new homestead law for western settlers, and a transcontinental railroad. The Republican proposals angered many Southerners. Nevertheless, with Democratic votes split, Lincoln won the election without Southern support. For the South, the election of a Republican president represented the victory of the abolitionists. The survival of Southern society and culture seemed to be at stake. For many, there was now no choice but to secede.
The dissolution of the Union began with South Carolina, where anti-Northern secessionist sentiment had long been intense. Shortly after Lincoln’s election, the state legislature called for a convention. Amid a frenzy of fireworks and drills, the convention unanimously voted for the Ordinance of Secession. By February 1, 1861, six more states in the Lower South – Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas –had voted to secede. Many Southerners felt secession was in the Revolutionary tradition and that they were fighting for American rights.” ~ The American Vision


1. The precipitating event of secession was:

(1) Slavery.

(2) John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry.

(3) Abraham Lincoln’s election.

(4) The Dred Scott decision.

(5) The civil war in Kansas.

2. In the election of 1860,

(1) Southerners refused to vote in protest.

(2) The tariff was the most important issue.

(3) The Republicans gained control of the executive branch for the first time.

(4) Southerners voted for Lincoln.

The Causes of the Civil War

Sectionalism

- The greater loyalty many Americans felt towards their region rather than the nation

- The South developed a plantation economy; the North was more industrialized


Slavery:

- Abolitionists wanted to end slavery

- Southern plantations depended on slave labor


Slavery in the New Territories and Compromises:

- Southerners wanted to extend slavery but Northerners opposed its spread
* The Missouri Compromise of 1820:

- Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state

- Congress prohibited slavery in Louisiana Purchase area north of 36°30’ latitude line
* Compromise of 1850:

- California was admitted as a free state

- Fugitive Slave Law required northern states to help return runaway slaves


More Conflict over Slavery:
* Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854:

- Congress repealed the Missouri Compromise

- Introduced popular sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraska Territories

- In Kansas, pro-and anti-slavery forces fought (“Bleeding Kansas”)
* Dred Scott Decision, 1857:

- The Supreme Court ruled that Congress could not prohibit slavery in any U.S. territory

- Since slaves were property, Congress did not have the right to take away property
* John Brown’s Raid (1859):

- John Brown, a Northern abolitionist, sought to start a slave rebellion to free the slaves

- Brown captured a federal arsenal in Virginia, but captured and hanged

- His attempt created alarm and fear among Southerners


States’ Rights:

- Southerners believed states had created the federal government

- Southerners believed that each state had the power to leave the Union if it desired

- Northerners believed that the Constitution was the work of the American people

- Northerners believed that states could not leave the Union


The Election of Lincoln:

- The Southern states seceded (withdrew) from the United States and formed Confederacy

- Lincoln refused to recognize the secession and resolved to preserve the unity of the USA


1. When did differences regarding slavery begin between the North and the South?

(1) 1776 - American Constitution

(2) 1820 - Missouri Compromise

(3) 1850 - Compromise of 1850

(4) 1857 - John Brown’s raids
2. Though the Civil War was going to be a fight about slavery, what was the South’s main reason to secede?

(1) Wanted to protect rural way of life

(2) Believed State’s rights superseded

Federal rights.

(3) Felt the South as a region was losing power in the Senate because of population shifts.

(4) Believed that the Industrial Revolution was a threat to their way of life.



3. Which argument did President Abraham Lincoln use against the secession of the Southern States?

(1) Slavery was not profitable

(2) The government was a union of people and not of states.

(3) The Southern States did not permit their people to vote on secession.

(4) As the Commander in Chief, he had the duty to defend the United States against foreign invasion.
4. Which phrase best completes the title for the partial outline shown below?

I. Reasons for the _________________

A. Increasing sectionalism

B. Disagreements over states’ rights issues

C. Breakdown of compromise

D. Election of 1860
(1) Start of the Revolutionary War

(2) Adoption of the Bill of Rights

(3) Failure of the Whiskey Rebellion

(4) Secession of Southern States from the Union

11. “Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri To Enter Union” (1820)
“California Admitted to Union as Free State” (1850)
“Kansas-Nebraska Act Sets Up Popular Sovereignty” (1854)

Which issue is reflected in these headlines?



(1) enactment of protective tariffs

(2) extension of slavery

(3) voting rights for minorities

(4) universal public education
12. “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.” ~ Abraham Lincoln, 1858
According to this quotation, Abraham Lincoln believed that

(1) slavery was immoral and should be abolished immediately

(2) sectional differences threatened to destroy the Union

(3) the Southern states should be allowed to secede

(4) to save the nation, the North should compromise with the South on slavery


5. Sectional differences developed in the United States largely because

(1) the Federal Government adopted a policy of neutrality

(2) economic conditions and interests in each region varied

(3) only northerners were represented at the Constitutional Convention

(4) early Presidents favored urban areas over rural areas
6. What did the Fugitive Act state?

(1) Runaway slaves could be kept.

(2) Runaway slaves had to be returned to their rightful masters.

(3) Runaway slaves were granted freedom.

(4) Runaway slaves had the right to beat their masters if they came after them.
7. What controversial man was a hero in the North but a villain in the South in 1858?

(1) John Brown (3) Frederick Douglass

(2) Stephen Douglas (4) Abraham Lincoln
8. Early in his Presidency, Abraham Lincoln declared that his primary goal as President was to

(1) enforce the Emancipation Proclamation

(2) preserve the Union

(3) end slavery throughout the entire country

(4) encourage sectionalism
9. Southern states threatened ________ if

Lincoln was elected.
(1) compromise


(2) division

(3) filibustering

(4) secession
10. What state was the first to secede the Union?

(1) Alabama

(2) South Carolina

(3) Virginia

(4) Texas

13. Before the Civil War, slavery expanded in the South rather than in the North because

(1) the Constitution contained a clause that outlawed the importation of slaves into the Northern states

(2) Congress passed a law forbidding slavery in the North

(3) Northern states passed affirmative action legislation

(4) geographic conditions in the South encouraged the development of large plantations
14. The principle of popular sovereignty was an important part of the

(1) Indian Removal Act (3) Homestead Act

(2) Kansas-Nebraska Act (4) Dawes Act
15. Most Southern political leaders praised the Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) because it

(1) granted citizenship to all enslaved persons

(2) upheld the principle of popular sovereignty

(3) supported the right of a state to secede from the Union

(4) protected the property rights of slave owners in the territories

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16. What is the most accurate title for this map?

(1) Closing the Frontier

(2) Results of Reconstruction

(3) A Nation Divided

(4) Compromise of 1850


Critical Thinking Question:

Could the Civil War have been prevented? ___________________________________________________________________________



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