The Election of 1808

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  1. James Madison (1809-1817):

Fourth President


V.P.: George Clinton (1809-1812)

Elbridge Gerry (1813-1814)

  1. The Election of 1808:

  1. The main issue was the handling of the U.S. economy under Jefferson during the Embargo Act.

  2. Madison will earn 122 Electoral Votes, while Charles Pinckney earns 47, and George Clinton earns 6

  1. Macon’s Bill No. 2:

  1. Congress allows the Non-Intercourse Act to expire in 1810

  2. Congress replaces the Act with Macon’s Bill No. 2

  3. Macon’s Bill promised either France or England that the United States would begin trade with the first nation that stopped abusing American shipping rights.

  4. This will allow Madison the power to continue shipping with France, and cut all commercial ties with England in 1811.

  1. War Hawks”:

  1. Sentiments for War against England came from land hungry Southerners and Westerners.

  2. These people were called, “War Hawks”.

  3. The leaders of the War Hawks were Henry Clay of KY, and John C. Calhoun of SC.

  4. Clay was so outspoken and charismatic that this fellow Congressmen named him the Speaker of the House at the age of 34.

  5. The War Hawks demand:

  1. That the British abandon their forts in the western frontier

  2. The British end their alliance with the Native American leaders Tenskawatewa “The Prophet” and Tecumseh.

  3. The British must stop impressments of U.S. Sailors

  4. British must end the Orders of Council

  5. The British must allow the United States to have their unlimited fishing rights off the coast of New Foundland

  6. The United States should claim Canada for future expansion

  1. Sectional Differences:

  1. Not all Americans were in favor of a war with England.

  2. Northerners/New Englanders: Opposed the war because they fear that it will create a complete shutdown of trade and prolong the Depression.

  3. Federalists from New England and New York opposed the acquisition of Canada by Southerners, because they believed that it would lead to more agrarian states that would increase the number of votes for the Democrat-Republicans in Congress.

  4. Federalists refer to the war as “Mr. Madison’s War”

  5. Southerners and Westerners support the war because it will lead to the expansion of the U.S. borders.

  1. Tecumseh & Tenskawatewa:

  1. Two Shawnee Brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskawatewa, “The Prophet” believed that the Native Tribes East of the Mississippi must unite to form a United Native American Confederacy.

  2. The two encouraged;

  1. The Natives not sell land to white settlers

  2. Natives should refuse to buy textiles, and make their clothing

  3. Natives should refuse to use alcohol

  4. Natives should refuse to use tobacco

  5. Natives should refuse to use “white” weapons such as guns

  1. Western Settlers believed that Great Britain was aiding the Native American Alliance, and used this as a rallying cry for war.

  2. General William Henry Harrison was sent to the village of Tippecanoe to put down the brothers, and won a major victory there.

  3. Tecumseh and Tenskawatewa were both killed at the Battle of the Thames in 1813, fighting for the British as officers.

  4. The Native American Confederacy will be further damaged when Andrew Jackson wins a victory over the Creek Nation at “Battle of Horseshoe Bend”

  1. The War of 1812 (13,14,15):

  1. The Failed Invasion of Canada:

  1. United States invaded Canada twice, both invasions were unsuccessful.

  2. The First Invasion was a three pronged attack on Detroit, Niagra, and Montreal.

  3. The U.S. were defeated at the “Battle of Michilimackinac” gave control to the Upper Great Lakes of Region to Canada.

  4. The invasion of 1813 also failed with invasions of Toronto and Montreal.

  1. U.S. Naval Victories:

  1. The earliest U.S. victories in the War were on the water

  2. The United States defeated the British and Canadian fleets on Lake Ontario and Lake Erie

  3. The hero of Lake Erie was Admiral Oliver Hazard Perry, who after defeating the British fleet said, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”

  4. Thomas Macdonough wins the Battle of Plattsburgh which saves NY and NYC from British Invasion

  5. The U.S.S. Constitution, “Old Ironsides” defeats the H.M.S. Guerriere which prompts American confidence in the Navy.

  1. The British Invasion:

  1. The British believed that to end the war quickly, they would have to capture the Capital, Washington D.C.

  2. The British attacked and Burned Washington in 1814, destroying the Capital Building and the White House.

  3. Legend has it that the First Lady, Dolly Madison, saved the portrait of George Washington as the British were about to torch the White House.

  4. The British then turned their attention to Baltimore, which was the home of the American privateers.

4. Repelling the British Invasion:

i. As the British advanced towards Baltimore, the Mayor and General of Fort McHenry, order that ships be sunk in the mouth of the harbor to prevent the British from landing an invasion force.

ii. The British begin their assault on Baltimore from the sea.

iii. A hostage on board a British ship was a lawyer, Francis Scott Key, whose eye witness account of the bombardment was captured in his poem, “The Star Spangled Banner.”

iv. Key’s poem will be known as the Nation’s National Anthem.

5. The Treaty of Ghent:

i. As the war began to drag on there was no clear winner, and Czar Alexander I of Russia negotiated a peace conference between England and the U.S. in Ghent, Belgium.

ii. Initially England demanded that they maintain the Upper Great Lakes region and that an independent Native American State be created as a buffer between U.S. and British territories.

iii. U.S. Diplomat John Quincy Adams refuses to negotiate, until both sides agree to recognize the territory and sovereignty of the other.

iv. The Treaty of Ghent was signed on 12/25/1814

  1. Federalist Grievances and the Hartford Convention:

  1. As the war continued, a number of New England Federalists called for secession from the Union.

  2. Those who supported the movement were called “Blue Light Federalists”

  3. Federalists call for a convention in Harford, CT to air grievances. Federalists from every New England state were in attendance.

  4. The Convention members demanded the following:

  1. That the Government provide financial restitution for lost trade

  2. That 2/3rds of Congress be required to pass an embargo

  3. That 2/3rds of Congress be required to declare war

  1. The convention failed in the wake of Jackson’s victory at the Battle of New Orleans and the increase in Nationalism following the war.

  2. The Federalist Party dies

  1. The Battle of New Orleans:

  1. The Battle of New Orleans as fought on 1/8/1815 because neither side had received word that the war was over.

  2. 8,000 British troops attempt to invade the city of New Orleans but are repelled by General Andrew Jackson.

  3. British lose over 2,000 men and it is considered a major American Victory in the war, even though it occurred after the war had concluded.

  4. This victory will catapult Jackson onto the National Stage as a political candidate for President in 1824, 1828, & 1832

  1. The Rush-Bagot Treaty:

  1. With a truce called between the United States and British, the two sides sign the Rush-Bagot Treaty in 1817.

  2. Limits naval armaments on the Great Lakes, and disarms the U.S. and Canadian borders. (Longest undefended border in world: 5,527 miles)

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