The dutch republic and britain: the making of modern society and a european world-economy

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Dr. Gerard M. Koot

History Department

University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

285 Old Westport Road

Dartmouth, MA 02747

Tel: 508 994-3145

Fax: 508 999-8809

September 24, 2012



London, England, and Leiden, The Netherlands

Gerard M. Koot, History Department, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
Dear Colleague:
Thank you for your interest in my five-week seminar on the Dutch Republic and Britain, sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, which I will direct at the Institute for Historical Research at the University of London and in Leiden, The Netherlands, from June 30 to August 2, 2013. The purpose of this seminar is to investigate how a region of northwest Europe, centered on the North Sea, acquired the characteristics that historians have labeled modern. We will study how the economy of the Dutch Republic rose to dominance in the new European world-economy of the seventeenth century, how Britain acquired this supremacy in the eighteenth century, and how it transformed itself to become the first industrial nation. Holding the seminar in London and Leiden will allow us to visit some of the key places and museum collections in London, the Netherlands and Belgium that illustrate the story of Northwest European economic expansion. The art and architecture of the period will help us to understand two societies that produced a remarkable level of toleration, representative government, intellectual freedom and artistic innovation. Since our approach will be interdisciplinary, I hope to attract 16 NEH Summer Scholars with a wide variety of backgrounds and interests, including those interested in history, art history, philosophy, religion, literature, economics, political science, geography and the history of science. In addition to full-time K-12 teachers and librarians, administrators who also teach are welcome to apply. I have a good deal of experience working with teachers in previous NEH Seminars. Indeed, these seminars have been the most satisfying educational experience of my career. If you share my enthusiasm for this opportunity, I hope you will consider applying to the seminar.
The Context of the Topic and the Questions Raised

The broader context of our topic lies in current debates about the history and nature of globalization. World history narratives by such important authors as Fernand Braudel, Immanuel Wallerstein David Landes, Andre Gunder Frank, and Kenneth Pomeranz, among others, have suggested very bold and crucial questions about the ‘rise of the west.’ This seminar will look at the European side of the debate and focus on the region around the North Sea. What were the factors that allowed the Dutch Republic and Britain to become the chief organizers of an integrated European and then a European led world-economy? How did this region develop a commercial and an industrial society? Was it essential that they did so within a relatively religiously tolerant, politically free and ‘bourgeois’ society, as most liberal Anglo-American economic historians have argued? Or was their success primarily achieved by the state’s pursuit of power, mercantilist regulations, war, and exploitation, as others have insisted? Should we agree with a common interpretation that the Dutch Republic attained its leadership primarily through the pursuit of commercial profit, while Britain especially reached its pre-eminence through state power? What should we think of the argument that, once Britain had vanquished its rivals in the Napoleonic Wars, and had become not only the world’s financial center but also the ‘workshop of the world,’ it sought to perpetuate its dominance through a mid-Victorian ‘empire of free trade’? Historians of early modern Europe have long challenged the view that the decisive break between ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ society came with the French and Industrial Revolutions. Instead they argued that the process of modernization was much more gradual and rooted in the earlier creation of a market society and world-economy. Taking their cue from the impact of globalization on regional and national economies, as well as from new interpretations of the British Industrial Revolution and the economy of the Dutch Republic, some have argued that the “first modern economy” was not Britain’s but that of the United Provinces. In the process, they have challenged the view that an economy cannot be modern without going through an Industrial Revolution akin to what Britain experienced. The seminar will not provide set answers to these questions, but it will discuss these, and other questions, by studying major modern historical works so that we can attempt answers rooted in specific historical knowledge rather than those based on abstract theories or ideological beliefs.

While Asia, and especially China, developed large scale industry a half millennium before the West, and a widespread Asian trade system operated in Asian waters, it was the Europeans who first knit the Asian, African, European and New World economies into an integrated world-economy. The Portuguese and the Spanish were the pioneers in this endeavor, but it was the Dutch and the British who reaped its greatest profit. Whether one interprets northwest Europe’s leadership as a tribute to the genius of free human beings, or as the enslavement of the human spirit by Western materialism and imperialism, or as something in between, it remains one of the crucial contributions of the West to the world's historical development. Further, the commerce and industry that propelled European goods and guns around the globe also brought in its wake the values of a ‘bourgeois’ civilization, such as constitutional government, religious toleration, and economic and social individualism that challenged cultural, social and political values around the world. Finally, although current state curriculum guidelines commonly feature the building of the British Empire and emphasize Britain’s Industrial Revolution as an important subject to be studied in the schools, they pay little attention to the regional context that was essential to Britain’s world-wide success, or to the earlier primacy of the Dutch Republic.

The role of northwest Europeans in the building of a world-economy and industrial society is not only intrinsically interesting but also of considerable relevance to contemporary arguments about globalization. Modern debates about the role of the state in the economy and the benefits to be derived, as well as the costs to be borne by different groups, regions and nations from economic growth are often rooted in cultural values and economic arguments that can be directly traced to those first voiced in Northwest Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Modern debates about globalization could benefit from more knowledge about the societies who were the leaders in the forging of global economic links. Unfortunately, the increasing specialization of much of modern historical writing, and especially of modern economic history and historical demography, has managed to obscure these broad historical issues with a host of very narrow, technical and theoretical publications which discourage the non specialist. Added to this may be reluctance among many humanists to study economic issues. By contrast, those interested in economics see it as an increasingly scientific and mathematical study and tend to neglect historical and humanistic approaches. The systematic study of some of the most influential modern interpretations of the economic success of the Dutch Republic and Britain offers an excellent opportunity for humanists to deal with some of the central concerns of economic historians.

The specific works to be studied

The core texts for the seminar will consist of important historical works and several recent scholarly articles. Throughout the seminar we will also use contemporary documents to listen to the voices of actual historical participants. We will begin by analyzing a general survey of the early modern European economy, The Economy of Europe in an Age of Crisis, 1600-1750 (1976), by the leading economic historian of the Dutch Republic, Jan de Vries. He argues that after the economic expansion of the sixteenth century, the restructuring of the European economy during the seventeenth century crisis saw northwest Europe replace the Mediterranean as the dominant and most dynamic European economy.

Next we will turn to the creation of a ‘market society’ in Britain before the industrial revolution. Keith Wrightson argues in his brilliant combination of social and economic history, Earthly Necessities: Economic Lives in Early Modern Britain (2000), that between the sixteenth and early eighteenth centuries an integrated national economy was created in which market forces “became not just a means of exchanging goods, but a mechanism for sustaining and maintaining an entire society.” This society was closely linked to the emerging world-economy and saw the extension and ‘ideological sanctification’ of private property rights, a vast expansion in the market for labor power as a ‘commodity to be bought and sold,’ and a redistribution of power in the hands of those who were able to profit from increased productivity. Wrightson also traces the transformation of economic and social thought during the period. We will study selections from those who lamented economic changes in England, such as Sir Thomas More, as well as selections from Scottish Enlightenment thinkers who created a discipline of political economy whose principles reflected the market society in which they lived. We will complete this section on England with a discussion of the origin of its empire during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and its growing trade with Europe and the rest of the world that had already linked its ‘market society’ to a world–economy before the industrial revolution through several essays from The Oxford History of the British Empire (1998).

Turning to the Dutch Republic, we will use Jonathan Israel’s standard work in the field, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477-1806 (1995). Since this is a substantial book, we will emphasize the broad outline of the story while its very comprehensiveness will allow each of us to concentrate on our particular interests. Israel’s synthesis begins with a brief account of the Low Countries under the late Burgundians and the Habsburg Empire. He emphasizes the rise of Antwerp as a European entrepôt, the culture of Renaissance tolerance exemplified by Erasmus, and the Dutch revolt against the Spanish attempt to impose Catholic orthodoxy and a more centralized imperial government upon the provinces of the Netherlands.

Central to Israel’s work is the wider European context of the Republic’s economic success. He argues that, instead of Europe’s economic leadership having moved from the Mediterranean to Northern Europe as a whole, as Braudel and many others have argued, it migrated to a small fringe of northwestern Europe, southern England and the Dutch maritime provinces. Combining the ‘bulk trades’—such as fish, grain, timber and salt—with the ‘rich trades’—such as spices, textiles, and later sugar—allowed the Dutch to integrate European markets and to tie them to New World silver and luxury goods from around the world. The Republic developed the world’s largest and most efficient merchant fleet, the most productive agricultural and fishing industries, and it became a leader in many new and technologically advanced industries while pioneering new forms of business organization. Throughout his work Israel raises larger questions. How great was the impact of the seventeenth century Dutch dominated world trading system on European and non-European economic and social life? How much of Dutch success in overseas markets was due to business efficiency and how much to military force, exploitation and mercantilist manipulation?

While Israel provides a detailed account of the economic, political, constitutional and military story of the Republic, he also devotes much space to its social and cultural history. We will pay special attention to the nature of the Republic’s remarkable freedom of expression during the period, its development of religious toleration, the central role of merchants in its governance, and the explosion of artistic expression. The visual arts of the Republic placed a particular emphasis on depicting the lives and values of a ‘burger’ society, or what Simon Schama has called a culture of ‘the embarrassment of riches.’ We will use Mariet Westerman’s influential short survey, A Worldly Art: The Dutch Republic 1585-1718 (1996), and museum visits to discuss the nature of Dutch art during the period and its connection to the development of capitalist society in the Republic.

During the last third of the 20th century, the ‘new economic history,’ which uses sophisticated tools of economic and statistical analysis, challenged many of the long held assumptions about the nature of the first Industrial Revolution. We will use Robert C. Allen’s new and well received, The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective (2009). Allen has created a mathematical and statistical model based on data collected by generations of historians of the early modern European economies. His book is an excellent example of the persuasiveness of the new economic history when its conclusions are presented in plain English. He argues that the first industrial revolution occurred in northwestern Europe because its high wages during the early modern period encouraged technological innovation. Although high wages were initially a consequence of the demographic disaster of the Black Death, they were reinforced during the early modern period by the economic success of the region around the North Sea, first, in European trade and manufacturing, especially in wresting the textile industry from the Italians, and then in world trade. According to Allen, the first industrial revolution took place in Britain instead of the Low Countries primarily because of Britain’s abundant and cheap coal resources, combined with the central government’s ability to use mercantilist policies and naval power to reap the greatest benefits from an expanding European and world trade. Once it had taken the lead from the Dutch, and defeated the French, Britain used its comparative advantage to consolidate its dominant position through free trade until the late Victorian period when its technological innovations spread to its competitors. While he agrees that the political, cultural and scientific context of British industrialization was important to its primacy, his approach does not claim, as many interpretations have, that British, and later European and American, industrialization was a consequences of its supposed cultural and political superiority. Instead, he offers an economic explanation, which argues that the abundance of labor at low wages in Asia meant that there was little incentive to translate scientific discoveries into modern technologies that might have led to early industrialization in Asia.

Another important aspect of recent interpretations of the origin of industrialization is their emphasis upon demand as well as supply. It was the high wage European economy, as well as the relatively broad distribution of wealth in its bourgeois societies that produced a ‘consumer revolution’ that made demand effective. For this topic we will use Maxine Berg’s influential 2004 essay, “In Pursuit of Luxury: Global History and British Consumer Goods in the Eighteenth Century,” which argues that Britain’s success in replacing the Dutch Republic at the center of the world-economy in the 18th century stimulated British industries that processed and re-exported a significant proportion of overseas goods. Moreover, Europe and North America’s growing population and prosperity greatly stimulated demand for British manufactured goods.

We will conclude the seminar with a discussion of several key issues raised by our reading. First, should we continue to hold up British industrialization as a paradigmatic model for the achievement of modern and sustained rates of economic growth? We will read a stimulating comparative essay by de Vries, which argues that the high living standards of Dutch ‘burgers’ and the high wages of skilled workers during the Golden Age had already encouraged an ‘industrious revolution’ in the 17th century that produced sustained economic growth without a classic industrial revolution of coal, steam, and mechanical spinning. Moreover, de Vries insists, that the British industrial revolution must be understood in a broader process of modernization, which “involved more than industrial production, unfolded in a European zone larger than England, and began well before the 18th century.” Secondly, we will assess the role of mercantilism and free trade in Dutch and British economic growth through a comparative essay by Patrick O’Brien and seek to reconcile his argument with Allen’s emphasis on the role of high wages as a key explanation of the first industrial revolution. These essays will help us reflect on the penultimate debate: Did the Dutch Republic’s promotion of relatively free trade in Europe and the Atlantic World in the early modern period, and Britain’s adoption and promotion of free trade in the 19th century, constitute a species of ‘free trade imperialism,’ which was not fundamentally different in purpose than the mercantilist measures and use of naval power, as many socialists and historical economists have suggested? Or was the freeing of trade in a high wage economy, as Victorian liberals believed, and most neoclassical economists and economic historians maintain, not only inherent in classical economic thought but ultimately constituted a moral imperative for raising the standard of living for all humanity?
Site Visits to Museums and Historical Sites

In addition to three morning seminar meetings per week to analyze the selected reading, we will have nine daylong field trips to study our subject through museums and historical sites. In England, Haydon Luke will help arrange and lead our historical visits in London. He is a former secondary school Head Master and now a museum and education consultant. He worked with me on previous seminars and participants found him knowledgeable and helpful. His guide to historical sites for the previous seminar is at On the first field trip day, we will see the Docklands via the new light railway and walk through the 19th century Thames tunnel to Greenwich to visit the National Maritime Museum, whose galleries contain interesting exhibits on Britain’s maritime history. We will also visit Christopher Wren’s Greenwich Hospital and its magnificent Painted Hall and Chapel. We will walk up to the Royal Observatory, founded in 1675 as an institution for navigational research. It is a prime example of the empirical scientific spirit that helped make northwest Europe the center of a world-economy. Finally, we will stop at the Docklands Museum, housed in a restored early nineteenth century West India warehouse, which tells the story of London’s port with an emphasis on the lives of the people who labored on its docks, ships, workshops and offices. During the second day of site-visits we will take a walking tour of the City of London to introduce us to important buildings that were used by merchants, bankers, clerics, writers and craftsmen of the mercantilist and industrial period, including a stop at the original Bank of England and its Museum. We will also visit the Victoria and Albert Museum. Here we will concentrate on its British Galleries that provide a chronological history of the visual and decorative arts and illustrate the growing demand and consumption of goods from domestic and international sources.

In The Netherlands our site visits will benefit from the assistance of Reno Raaijmakers, who holds a MA in History from the University of Amsterdam and operates his own company, City Walks, which provides historical and architectural tours in Holland. See his site visit guide for the previous seminar at: During the first week in the Netherlands, we will visit the National Archives in The Hague and the Mauritshuis with its magnificent collection of Dutch paintings from the Golden Age. We will make a weekend visit (July 12-14) to the historic cities of Flanders, which laid the foundation of the economic success of the Low Countries. In Antwerp we will visit the Grote Markt in its historic center, its cathedral and the Rubens House, which will remind us that Catholic Flanders was, and remains, one of Europe’s most successful economies. In Ghent we will walk its well-preserved historic center built on profits from its textile industry. Finally we will visit Bruges, one of Europe’s best-preserved northern late medieval and Renaissance cities, which was an important textile producer and a Hansa city that served as an early link between the Baltic and the Mediterranean markets.

Our two visits to Amsterdam will feature a walking tour of the old center with its 17th and 18th century merchant houses, churches, synagogues, charitable institutions, warehouses, canals and early docks. We will visit the recently renovated National Maritime Museum, housed in an historical warehouse with a replica of an 18th century East India ship moored at its dock; the Amsterdam Historical Museum, which interprets the rise of Amsterdam to world prominence; and the Royal Palace. The latter, an imposing classical building with magnificent murals and statues, was built as Amsterdam’s City Hall and demonstrates the wealth and power of the merchant ruling class that governed the most important city of the Dutch Golden Age. On another day we will travel to North Holland. We will stop at the Zaanse Schans, a museum village that includes a half-dozen industrial windmills, which during the 17th century was at the heart of Europe’s biggest and most efficient shipbuilding industry. Passing through several polders, which during the early modern period constituted the largest investment in land reclamation in Europe, we will travel to the Zuiderzee ports of Hoorn and Enkhuizen. We will walk their well-preserved historic centers and visit the West Frisian Museum in Hoorn and the Zuiderzee Museum in Enkhuizen. The latter is housed in an East India Company warehouse and tells the story of the northern ports, their trade with the East Indies, and the drainage of Holland’s polders. We will also take historical walking tours of Leiden and Haarlem. Leiden is known for its prestigious university and for its early modern textile industry. We will take a walking tour of its historic center, while the exhibits in De Lakenhal (the cloth hall) will help us understand the importance of manufacturing in the Republic. Its magnificent art collection emphasizes the Leiden School of painters, whose most famous student was Rembrandt. On our walking tour of Haarlem, we will visit its magnificent St. Bavo Cathedral and examine the superb collection of Dutch paintings at the Frans Hals Museum, which is housed in a characteristic 17th century almshouses for old men.

My Background and Interests

The interpretation of European mercantilism and industrialization has been central to my teaching and research. Born in The Netherlands, my family emigrated to the United States when I was a young teenager. As an undergraduate I studied history and economics with a particular interest in the relationship between the developed and less developed world. In graduate school I concentrated on modern European history with a special interest in British intellectual history and the history of economic thought. I have taught a wide variety of courses and seminars on British and Modern European history with an emphasis on social and economic, cultural and intellectual history. While I mostly teach undergraduates, I especially enjoy working with teachers in our Master of Arts in Teaching program, which I directed for many years. As a scholar, I have concentrated on the relationship between economic ideas, economic history, politics and society in modern Europe. In this connection I have held several research fellowships, produced scholarly articles, presented scholarly papers, and a book, English Historical Economics, 1870-1926: The Rise of Economic History and Neomercantilism (Cambridge University Press: 1987). Central to my work has been the debate about the role of empire and mercantilist policies in the development of Europe’s international trade during the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries and the links between Europe’s ties to the rest of the world and its economic success that we know as the Industrial Revolution. In my teaching career, I have found that a thorough and sympathetic discussion of such topics offers an excellent opportunity to reflect on some of the central concerns shared by humanists and social scientists.

Seminar Organization and Optional Academic Credit

Our seminar will be organized to foster a comfortable and collegial intellectual atmosphere that will emphasize the raising of broad and significant questions. The five-week seminar will meet three times per week from 9:00 AM to noon, with a break for coffee. Except during the first and second week, there will be no scheduled events on Fridays. During the weekend of July 12-14 we will visit Flanders, but you will be free to explore historical sites on your own on the other weekends. The seminar is not a lecture course. Meetings will be devoted to a wide-ranging discussion of the issues raised by the readings and site visits. My role will be to organize the seminar, to encourage discussion, to listen, to comment, and to help you with your seminar meeting preparations. I will also be available to meet with individuals or small groups on seminar meeting days. Participants will be organized into five cooperative learning groups. Each group will take turns leading the discussion on the texts to be discussed, suggest key questions, provide context and material on related topics and engage the seminar in a variety of learning strategies. While the focus of the seminar will be on the required reading, there will be ample collateral reading available for reference at the Historical Research Institute library, at the University of Leiden, and at large research libraries in London and Amsterdam.

As an historian and teacher I have found that the process of writing is crucial to learning. Each participant will be asked to keep a journal in which to record daily reactions to the reading and discussions. A few participants will be asked to share these reactions during each meeting. Each participant will write a reflective essay on a seminar topic of their choice, or work on a longer paper or project. Essays might deal with the participant's reaction to a particular text studied, the relationship between texts and material sites, the wider issues raised by our discussion, or a particular research interest. Essays will be discussed within each cooperative learning group and its main conclusions will be presented to the seminar as a whole. I will read and comment on all essays. After returning the essays to participants, for revision if they so wish, I will post it on the seminar’s web site. Essays from previous seminars, as well as many teaching resources, are at and

Should you wish to use your participation in this NEH summer seminar for in-service credit, I will be happy to send a letter to your school explaining the work you did in the seminar. If you wish to earn graduate credit, you can register for three graduate credits in History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth at a cost of about $650.

Accommodations, Facilities, Costs and Stipends

The National Endowment for the Humanities provides a $3900 stipend per person to help participants pay for living and travel expenses for this five-week seminar. The cost of accommodations in London and The Netherlands, as described below, will be about $2,000 at early October 2012 exchange rates and will be deducted from your $3900 stipend. Admissions and travel to the seminar’s museum visits in London and the Netherlands will be paid from the NEH grant. Your personal travel, including food (except for several seminar dinners), transportation to Europe and travel between London and the Netherlands, will be your responsibility. You will receive a check in June for the balance of your stipend, about $1,900 at current exchange rates, to help defray a portion of your travel expenses.

For the first week of the seminar, from Sunday afternoon June 30 to Monday morning July 8, we will be in London. For the next four weeks, from Monday afternoon July 8 to Friday morning August 2, we will be in the Netherlands. Since participants will be coming from throughout the US, and may have additional travel plans, you will make your own travel arrangements, including those between London and the Netherlands. I will provide detailed directions to participants.

Our accommodations in London will be at London University College’s Schafer House,,

located on Drummond Street, a few blocks from Regents Park at the northwestern edge of Bloomsbury in central London. Accommodations will be in single study-bedrooms that include Internet access and a washbasin. Three to five bedrooms are arranged in a suite. Each suite also includes a bathroom, kitchen and dining area. The Hall has laundry facilities. Schafer House does not provide meals. However, these can be prepared in the kitchens (there are supermarkets and specialty shops nearby) or bought inexpensively at nearby University College cafeterias or at all price ranges in area pubs and restaurants. Schafer House is a few minutes walk from the Warren Street and Euston Underground stops and a ten-minute walk from the British Library, near St. Pancras and King’s Cross railway stations. Our London seminar meetings will be at the University of London’s Institute for Historical Research,, a 20-minute walk from Schafer House. Participants will be short-term members of the Institute and will be able to use all the facilities of this superb History reference library.

In the Netherlands our accommodations will be in the recently renovated Webster University Living and Learning Center located in the heart of historic Leiden, Our accommodations will be in single occupancy efficiency units with private bathroom facilities and an Ethernet Internet cable connection. The conference center’s modest size—a total of 50 study-bed rooms—will help us build a close seminar community. In addition to basic cooking facilities in each room, including a small refrigerator and cook top, there are cooking and laundry facilities as well as a computer lab and lounges in the building. Leiden University’s large research library, to which you will have reading access and contains a great deal of material available on our subject in English, is located nearby. The Living and Learning Center is a ten-minute walk from Leiden’s central Railway station and there are supermarkets, many restaurants, and shopping areas in the immediate vicinity. The Center also has secure storage for bicycles, which can be rented nearby (Holland is famous for its bicycle friendly transportation system).

Beyond the facilities described, participants will have access to the many museums, historical sites, and cultural and recreational facilities in the London area and The Netherlands. Leiden itself has eleven museums, including the Lakenhal, which features an extensive early modern art collection; the Boerhaave science museum, with its superb collection of historical scientific instruments and an early modern operating theater; and national museums of archeology, natural history, and ethnography. It also has a small American Pilgrim Museum. Leiden is on a main line train route. Amsterdam and its museums are less than a half hour away and all the historic cities in The Netherlands can be reached by rail in two hours or less. Holland is now connected to the European High Speed Rail network, which can bring you to many major cities in Europe for a weekend visit. In England good rail connections will allow participants to reach many historical sites on day or weekend visit. Participants will find, I believe, that the real problem will not be how to fill their weekends but how to choose from the wealth of resources available.
Applications and Deadlines

Detailed application forms and instructions are at Should you decide to apply to this seminar, your completed application should be postmarked no later than March 4, 2013, and should be addressed to me as follows:

Gerard M. Koot

History Department, NEH Seminar

University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

285 Old Westport Road

North Dartmouth, MA 02747
Perhaps the most important part of the seminar application is the essay that must be submitted as part of the application. This essay should include relevant personal and academic information; your reasons for applying to the seminar; your interest, both academic and personal, in the subject of the seminar; your qualifications to do the work of the seminar and make a contribution to it; and the relation of the seminar to your teaching and other career objectives.

For paper copies of this prospectus and application materials, please write Ms Sue Foley or call 508 999-8301. If you have further questions, do not hesitate to get in touch with me. My e-mail address is You can also call me at (508 994-3145). I look forward to your application and am confident that an interesting and varied group of participants will spend five stimulating and pleasant weeks in England and the Netherlands this summer learning a good deal from each other, discussing the important topic of the making of a European led world-economy, and enjoying some of the pleasures of a summer in Western Europe.

Sincerely Yours,

Gerard Koot

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