The Different Types of Translation: Comparing Dynamic and Formal Equivalence

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The Different Types of Translation: Comparing Dynamic and Formal Equivalence.

The equivalence principle in translation states that a translation must be equivalent, in terms of meaning, to the text it is translating. There are two types of equivalence: dynamic and formal. This paper investigates the translation of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe on the basis of dynamic and formal equivalence. Dynamic equivalence seeks to produce a translation that is equivalent in terms of effect—producing the same response in the target audience as the original text. By contrast, formal equivalence strives for a translation that is linguistically accurate, though it may not be equivalent in terms of effect. Both types of equivalence are important. There are two main ways to approach translation: dynamic and formal equivalence. Dynamic equivalence takes into account the context and culture of the original text, while formal equivalence strives to maintain the form and structure of the text. Both approaches have their pros and cons, with no one perfect solution. In the end, it is up to the translator to choose the approach that they feel will produce the best translation. Moreover, dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence are two different approaches to translation. The former gives the priority to meaning so it is preserved while the form can be changed. So, the reader of the target language text has a similar experience as the reader of the original text had to the original text. The latter, on the other hand, is subject to the goal of the former, i.e., the dynamic equivalence has priority to the formal equivalence.

Translating Implicit Expressions in Words and Word Groups
Implicit expressions are challenging for translators especially when they translate from Arabic into English. This paper aims to examine the transfers of implicit expressions of words or word groups in Ahmed Khaled Tawfik’s Utopia. The researcher adopts a technique set by Karl-Otto Apel’s view. He supports that all the features of the source text should be primarily analysed when translating literary textual works. Apel focuses on understanding a text as the first dimension of the translation process. Apel calls the second dimension the production process. Apel frames his views on transferring the literary texts as follows: translating implicit expressions and the transfer of implicit expressions depends on the translation process. This transfer depends on the interlocutors’ knowledge of the source language. Therefore, Apel holds, there is no need of processing the implicit expressions that characterize the source text in the translations of literary texts. Instead, the aspect of the transfer, with the focus on how to translate the implicit expressions, will be formulated. Apel then states that the second dimension of translations is production. I will apply the points raised by Apel throughout this paper. The writer of the novel in question adopts many expressions in a surreal style which reflects the subconscious mind of the author. Implicitly, the Psychoanalytic theory meets with translation in one text. Therefore, the writer is concerned about the content more than the form. Finally, this paper chooses several expressions from the target language text. Thus, the translation should reproduce an artistic text.
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